Free eBook - The Kubernetes Workshop

4.7 (3 reviews total)
By Zachary Arnold , Sahil Dua , Wei Huang and 3 more
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  1. 1. Introduction to Kubernetes and Containers
About this book
Thanks to its extensive support for managing hundreds of containers that run cloud-native applications, Kubernetes is the most popular open source container orchestration platform that makes cluster management easy. This workshop adopts a practical approach to get you acquainted with the Kubernetes environment and its applications. Starting with an introduction to the fundamentals of Kubernetes, you’ll install and set up your Kubernetes environment. You’ll understand how to write YAML files and deploy your first simple web application container using Pod. You’ll then assign human-friendly names to Pods, explore various Kubernetes entities and functions, and discover when to use them. As you work through the chapters, this Kubernetes book will show you how you can make full-scale use of Kubernetes by applying a variety of techniques for designing components and deploying clusters. You’ll also get to grips with security policies for limiting access to certain functions inside the cluster. Toward the end of the book, you’ll get a rundown of Kubernetes advanced features for building your own controller and upgrading to a Kubernetes cluster without downtime. By the end of this workshop, you’ll be able to manage containers and run cloud-based applications efficiently using Kubernetes.
Publication date:
September 2020


2. An Overview of Kubernetes


In this chapter, we will have our first hands-on introduction to Kubernetes. This chapter will give you a brief overview of the different components of Kubernetes and how they work together. We will also try our hand at working with some fundamental Kubernetes components.

By the end of this chapter, you will have a single-node Minikube environment set up where you can run many of the exercises and activities in this book. You will be able to understand the high-level architecture of Kubernetes and identify the roles of the different components. You will also learn the basics required to migrate containerized applications to a Kubernetes environment.



We ended the previous chapter by providing a brief and abstract introduction to Kubernetes, as well as some of its advantages. In this chapter, we will provide you with a much more concrete high-level understanding of how Kubernetes works. First, we will walk you through how to install Minikube, which is a handy tool that creates a single-node cluster and provides a convenient learning environment for Kubernetes. Then, we will take a 10,000-foot overview of all the components, including their responsibilities and how they interact with each other. After that, we will migrate the Docker application that we built in the previous chapter to Kubernetes and illustrate how it can enjoy the benefits afforded by Kubernetes, such as creating multiple replicas, and version updates. Finally, we will explain how the application responds to external and internal traffic.

Having an overview of Kubernetes is important before we dive deeper into the different aspects of it so that...


Setting up Kubernetes

Had you asked the question, "How do you easily install Kubernetes?" three years ago, it would have been hard to give a compelling answer. Embarrassing, but true. Kubernetes is a sophisticated system, and getting it installed and managing it well isn't an easy task.

However, as the Kubernetes community has expanded and matured, more and more user-friendly tools have emerged. As of today, based on your requirements, there are a lot of options to choose from:

  • If you are using physical (bare-metal) servers or virtual machines (VMs), Kubeadm is a good fit.
  • If you're running on cloud environments, Kops and Kubespray can ease Kubernetes installation, as well as integration with the cloud providers. In fact, we will teach you how to deploy Kubernetes on AWS using Kops in Chapter 11, Build Your Own HA Cluster, and we will take another look at the various options we can use to set up Kubernetes.
  • If you want to drop the burden of managing...

Kubernetes Components Overview

By completing the previous exercise, you have a single-node Kubernetes cluster up and running. Before playing your first concert, let's hold on a second and pull the curtains aside to take a look backstage to see how Kubernetes is architected behind the scenes, and then check how Minikube glues its various components together inside its VM.

Kubernetes has several core components that make the wheels of the machine turn. They are as follows:

  • API server
  • etcd
  • Controller manager
  • Scheduler
  • Kubelet

These components are critical for the functioning of a Kubernetes cluster.

Besides these core components, you would deploy your applications in containers, which are bundled together as pods. We will learn more about pods in Chapter 5, Pods. These pods, and several other resources, are defined by something called API objects.

An API object describes how a certain resource should be honored in Kubernetes. We usually define...


Kubernetes Architecture

In the previous section, we gained a first impression of the core Kubernetes components: etcd, the API server, the scheduler, the controller manager, and the kubelet. These components, plus other add-ons, comprise the Kubernetes architecture, which can be seen in the following diagram:

Figure 2.8: Kubernetes architecture

At this point, we won't look at each component in too much detail. However, at a high-level view, it's critical to understand how the components communicate with each other and why they're designed in that way.

The first thing to understand is which components the API server can interact with. From the preceding diagram, we can easily tell that the API server can talk to almost every other component (except the container runtime, which is handled by the kubelet) and that it also serves to interact with end-users directly. This design makes the API server act as the "heart" of Kubernetes. Additionally...


Migrating Containerized Application to Kubernetes

In the previous chapter, we built a simple HTTP server called k8s-for-beginners, and it runs as a Docker container. It works perfectly for a sample application. However, what if you have to manage thousands of containers, and coordinate and schedule them properly? How can you upgrade a service without downtime? How do you keep a service healthy upon unexpected failure? These problems exceed the abilities of a system that simply uses containers alone. What we need is a platform that can orchestrate, as well as manage, our containers.

We have told you that Kubernetes is the solution that we need. Next, we will walk you through a series of exercises regarding how to orchestrate and run containers in Kubernetes using a Kubernetes native approach.

Pod Specification

A straightforward thought is that we wish to see what the equivalent API call or command to run a container in Kubernetes is. As explained in Chapter 1, Introduction...


Delivering Kubernetes-Native Applications

In the previous sections, we migrated a Docker-based application to Kubernetes and successfully accessed it from inside the Minikube VM, as well as externally. Now, let's see what other benefits Kubernetes can provide if we design our application from the ground up so that it can be deployed using Kubernetes.

Along with the increasing usage of your application, it may be common to run several replicas of certain pods to serve a business functionality. In this case, grouping different containers in a pod alone is not sufficient. We need to go ahead and create groups of pods that are working together. Kubernetes provides several abstractions for groups of pods, such as Deployments, DaemonSets, Jobs, CronJobs, and so on. Just like the Service object, these objects can also be created by using a spec that's been defined in a YAML file.

To start understanding the benefits of Kubernetes, let's use a Deployment to demonstrate...


Pod Life Cycle and Kubernetes Components

The previous sections in this chapter briefly described the Kubernetes components and how they work internally with each other. On the other hand, we also demonstrated how to use some Kubernetes API objects (Pods, Services, and Deployments) to compose your applications.

But how is a Kubernetes API object managed by different Kubernetes components? Let's consider a pod as an example. Its life cycle can be illustrated as follows:

Figure 2.20: The process behind the creation of a pod

This entire process can be broken down as follows:

  1. A user starts to deploy an application by sending a Deployment YAML manifest to the Kubernetes API server. The API server verifies the request and checks whether it's valid. If it is, it persists the Deployment API object to its backend datastore (etcd).


    For any step that evolves by modifying API objects, interactions have to happen between etcd and the API server, so...



In this chapter, we used Minikube to provision a single-node Kubernetes cluster and gave a high-level overview of Kubernetes' core components, as well as its key design rationale. After that, we migrated an existing Docker container to Kubernetes and explored some basic Kubernetes API objects, such as pods, Services, and Deployments. Lastly, we intentionally broke a Kubernetes cluster and restored it one component at a time, which allowed us to understand how the different Kubernetes components work together to get a pod up and running on a node.

Throughout this chapter, we have used kubectl to manage our cluster. We provided a quick introduction to this tool, but in the following chapter, we will take a closer look at this powerful tool and explore the various ways in which we can use it.

About the Authors
  • Zachary Arnold

    Zachary Arnold works as a software engineer at Ygrene Energy Fund. Zach has an experience of over 10 years in modern web development. He is an active contributor to the Open Source Kubernetes project in both SIG-Release and SIG-Docs currently focusing on security. He has been running clusters in production since Kubernetes 1.7 and has spoken at the previous 4 KubeCons. His passion areas in the project center on building highly stable Kubernetes cluster components and running workloads securely inside of Kubernetes.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Sahil Dua

    Sahil Dua is a software engineer. He started using Kubernetes to run machine learning workloads. Currently, he is running various types of applications on Kubernetes. He shared his learnings as a keynote session at KubeCon Europe 2018. He is a passionate open source contributor and has contributed to some famous projects such as Git, pandas, hound, go-GitHub, and so on. He has been an open source community leader for over 2 years at DuckDuckGo.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Wei Huang

    Wei Huang: Wei works as a senior software engineer in IBM. He has over 10 years' experiences around database, data warehouse tooling, cloud, container, monitoring and devops. He started to use Kubernetes since 1.3, including extending Kubernetes LoadBalancer using CRD, networking, scheduling and monitoring. Now he is a core maintainer of Kubernetes SIG-Scheduling.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Faisal Masood

    Faisal Masood is a cloud transformation architect at AWS. Faisal's focus is to assist customers in refining and executing strategic business goals. Faisal main interests are evolutionary architectures, software development, ML lifecycle, CD and IaC. Faisal has over two decades of experience in software architecture and development.

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  • Mélony Qin

    Mélony Y. QIN, also known as CloudMelon, is the founder of CloudMelon Vis, a tech media and educational platform for technopreneurs in the cloud-native and serverless space, and a former product manager at Microsoft. With a passion for cloud-native technologies, OSS, DevOps, Kubernetes, serverless, data, and AI, Mélony has authored multiple books, including the Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) Exam Guide, the Kubernetes Workshop, and Microsoft Azure Infrastructure, all published by Packt Publishing. Mélony is a member of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and the Project Management Institute (PMI), leveraging her extensive experience with diverse cloud technologies to drive innovation in the cloud-native, serverless, and generative AI space. She runs the CloudMelonVis YouTube channel and Cloud-Native Innovators newsletter, read by professionals from top tech companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Dell, and Carrefour.

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  • Mohammed Abu Taleb

    Mohammed Abu-Taleb works as a Technical Advisor at Microsoft. Working at Microsoft CSS team for troubleshooting complex issues and cases for premier customers that are using Azure Kubernetes Services (AKS). Prior that, Mohammed was a SME (subject matter expert) for the azure managed monitoring service (Azure Monitor) focusing on designing, deploying, and troubleshooting monitoring strategies for containers.

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Latest Reviews (3 reviews total)
Bu alış veriş için genel müşteri deneyimi dışında söyleyeceğim ek bilgi yok. Hala harikasınız.
livre bien et tres lisible
It's a good ebook, clear and with a lot of examples and descriptions. I'll buy other ebooks of this author.
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