Software Architect's Handbook

4.8 (28 reviews total)
By Joseph Ingeno
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  1. The Meaning of Software Architecture

About this book

The Software Architect's Handbook is a comprehensive guide to help developers, architects, and senior programmers advance their career in the software architecture domain. This book takes you through all the important concepts, right from design principles to different considerations at various stages of your career in software architecture.

The book begins by covering the fundamentals, benefits, and purpose of software architecture. You will discover how software architecture relates to an organization, followed by identifying its significant quality attributes. Once you have covered the basics, you will explore design patterns, best practices, and paradigms for efficient software development.

The book discusses which factors you need to consider for performance and security enhancements. You will learn to write documentation for your architectures and make appropriate decisions when considering DevOps. In addition to this, you will explore how to design legacy applications before understanding how to create software architectures that evolve as the market, business requirements, frameworks, tools, and best practices change over time.

By the end of this book, you will not only have studied software architecture concepts but also built the soft skills necessary to grow in this field.

Publication date:
August 2018
Publisher
Packt
Pages
594
ISBN
9781788624060

 

Chapter 1. The Meaning of Software Architecture

A comprehensive look at software architecture must first begin with its definition. This chapter provides reasons as to why software architecture plays an important role in a software project, and the benefits of having a good architectural design.

It is also important to understand the stakeholders and team members who are affected by the software architecture of a system. The chapter will go into detail about the software architect's role, what software architects are supposed to know, and whether the role is right for you.

In this chapter, we will cover the following topics:

  • What is software architecture?
  • Why is software architecture important?
  • Who are the consumers of software architectures?
  • What is the software architect role?
 

What is software architecture?


What exactly is software architecture? You probably have your own ideas about what it is, based on your knowledge and experiences. Certainly, there are plenty of definitions out there. If you do an online search or ask various friends and colleagues, you will get varying answers. The definition is somewhat subjective and influenced by the viewpoints and perceptions of the individual who is providing the definition. However, there are some core concepts that are essential to software architecture, and before we delve into deeper topics, establishing a common understanding of what software architecture entails is imperative.

Using the word architecture for software originated from similarities with the construction industry. When the term was first used, the Waterfall software development methodology was common and it dictated that large, up-front designs needed to be completed before any code was written. Similar to the architecture of a building, which necessitates a lot of planning before construction takes place, so it was with software as well.

In modern software design, the relationship between the construction and software industries is no longer as close. Software methodologies now focus on developing software applications that are highly adaptable and can be changed easily over time, resulting in less of a need for rigid, upfront planning. However, software architecture still consists of early design decisions that can be difficult to change later.

ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 standard definition

There is a standard definition for software architecture, which resulted from a joint effort between the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 systems and software engineering's  architecture description is an international standard that defines software architecture as:

"Fundamental concepts or properties of a system in its environment embodied in its elements, relationships, and in the principles of its design and evolution."

The standard makes the following main points:

  • A software architecture is a fundamental part of a software system
  • A software system is situated in an environment, and its software architecture takes into consideration the environment in which it must operate
  • An architecture description documents the architecture and communicates to stakeholders how the architecture meets the system's needs
  • Architecture views are created from the architecture description, and each view covers one or more architecture concerns of the stakeholders

What makes up a software architecture?

In the book, Software Architecture in Practice, 2nd Edition, a definition of software architecture is given as:

"The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements, and the relationships among them."

A software system contains structures, and this definition notes that a software system is made up of one or more of them. It is the combination of these that forms the overall software architecture. A large software project may have multiple teams working on it, each responsible for a particular structure.

Software architecture is an abstraction

Software architecture is an abstraction of a software system. The structures of a software system consist of its elements. Software architecture concerns itself with defining and detailing the structures, their elements, and the relationships of those elements with each other.

Software architecture focuses on the public aspects of the elements, and how they interact with each other. For elements, this may take the form of their public interfaces. It does not deal with the private implementation details of the elements. While the behavior of the elements does not have to be exhaustively documented, care should be taken in understanding how elements have to be designed and written so that they can properly interact with each other.

Software architecture is about the important stuff

Computer scientist Ralph Johnson, who co-authored Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, once said:

"Architecture is about the important stuff. Whatever that is."

Software projects vary, and the amount of design effort, time, focus, and documentation devoted to particular aspects of a software architecture differ. Ultimately, software architecture consists of important design decisions that shape the system. It is made up of the structures and components that are significant to the quality, longevity, and usefulness of the system.

Software architecture consists of some of the earliest decisions that are made for a software system and some of the hardest to change. In modern software development, the architecture should anticipate change, and be designed in such a way as to maximize the potential of adapting and evolving to this change. We will be discussing evolutionary architecture in Chapter 16, Evolutionary Architecture.

 

Why is software architecture important?


Why should we care about software architecture anyway? Sometimes a developer just wants to jump right in and start coding.

Software architecture is the foundation of a software system. Like other types of engineering, the foundation has a profound effect on the quality of what is built on top of it. As such, it holds a great deal of importance in terms of the successful development, and eventual maintenance, of the system.

Software architecture is a series of decisions. Some of the earliest decisions come from designing the architecture, and these carry a high degree of importance because they affect the decisions that come after it.

Another reason software architecture is important is because all software systems have an architecture. Even if it comprised just one structure with one element, there is an architecture. There are software systems that don't have a formal design and others that don't formally document the architecture, but even these systems still have an architecture.

The greater the size and complexity of a software system, the more you will need a well thought-out architecture in order to succeed. Software architecture provides a number of benefits when done properly, which greatly increase the chances that the software system will succeed.

A proper foundation laid down by a software system's architecture yields a number of benefits. Let's take a deeper look at those benefits.

Defining a solution to meet requirements

Software strives to meet all functional, non-functional, technical, and operational requirements. Working closely with stakeholders, such as domain experts, business analysts, product owners, and end users, allows requirements to be identified and understood. A software architecture defines a solution that will meet those requirements.

Software architecture is the foundation for software, so software systems that lack a solid architecture make it more difficult to meet all of the requirements. Poor architectures will lead to implementations that fail to meet the measurable goals of quality attributes, and they are typically difficult to maintain, deploy, and manage.

Enabling and inhibiting quality attributes 

Software architecture either enables quality attributes or inhibits them. Quality attributes are measurable and testable properties of a system. Some examples of quality attributes include maintainability, interoperability, security, and performance.

They are non-functional requirements of a software system as opposed to its features, which are functional requirements. Quality attributes and how they satisfy the stakeholders of the system are critical, and software architecture plays a large role in ensuring that quality attributes are satisfied. The design of a software architecture can be made to focus on certain quality attributes at the cost of others. Quality attributes may be in conflict with each other. A software architecture, when designed properly, sets out to achieve agreed-upon and validated requirements related to quality attributes.

Giving you the ability to predict software system qualities

When you look at a software architecture and its documentation, you can predict the software system's qualities. Making architecture decisions based on quality attributes makes it easier to fulfill those requirements. You want to start thinking about quality attributes as early as possible in the software development process as it is much more difficult (and costly) to make changes to fulfill them later. By thinking about them up front, and using modeling and analysis techniques, we can ensure that the software architecture can meet its non-functional requirements.

If you are not able to predict if a software system will fulfill quality attributes until it is implemented and tested, then costly and time-consuming rework may be necessary. A software architecture allows you to predict a software system's qualities and avoid costly rework.

Easing communication among stakeholders

Software architecture and its documentation allow you to communicate the software architecture and explain it to others. It can form the basis for discussions related to aspects of the project, such as costs and duration. We will discuss this topic further when we go into detail about software architecture in an organization.

A software architecture is abstract enough that many stakeholders, with little or no guidance, should be able to reason about the software system. Although different stakeholders will have different concerns and priorities in terms of what they want to know about the architecture, providing a common language and architecture design artifacts allows them to understand the software system. It is particularly useful for large, complex systems that would otherwise be too difficult to fully understand. As requirements and other early decisions are made for the software system, a formal software architecture plays an important role and facilitates negotiations and discussions.

Managing change

Changes to a software system are inevitable. The catalyst for change can come from the market, new requirements, changes to business processes, technology advances, and bug fixes, among other things.

Some view software architecture as inhibiting agility and would prefer to just let it emerge without up-front design. However, a good software architecture helps with both implementing and managing changes. Changes fall into one of the following categories:

  • Limited to a single element
  • Involve a combination of elements, but do not require any architectural changes
  • Require an architectural change

Software architecture allows you to manage and understand what it would take to make a particular change. Furthermore, a good architecture reduces complexity so that most of the changes that need to be made can be limited to a single element or just a few elements, without having to make architectural changes.

Providing a reusable model

An established architecture might be used again within an organization for other products in a product line, particularly if the products have similar requirements. We'll discuss an organization's product lines, reuse of architecture, and the benefits in the next chapter. For now, simply recognize that, once a software architecture is completed, documented, understood, and used in a successful implementation, it can be reused.

When code is reused, resources, such as time and money, are saved. More importantly, the quality of software that takes advantage of reuse is increased because the code has already been tested and proven. The increase in quality alone translates to savings in resources.

When a software architecture is reused, it is not just code that is reused. All of the early decisions that shaped the original architecture are leveraged as well. The thought and effort that went into the requirements necessary for the architecture, particularly non-functional requirements, may be applicable to other products. The effort that went into making those decisions does not necessarily have to be repeated. The experience gained from the original architectural design can be leveraged for other software systems.

When a software architecture is reused, it is the architecture itself, and not just the software product, that becomes an asset to the organization.

Imposing implementation constraints

A software architecture introduces constraints on implementation and restricts design choices. This reduces the complexity of a software system and prevents developers from making incorrect decisions.

If the implementation of an element conforms to the designed architecture, then it is abiding by the design decisions made by the architecture. Software architecture, when done properly, enables developers to accomplish their objectives and prevents them from implementing things incorrectly.

Improving cost and effort estimates

Project managers ask questions such as: When is it going to be done? How long is it going to take? How much is it going to cost? They need this type of information to properly plan resources and monitor progress. One of the many duties of a software architect is to assist project management by providing this type of information and assisting with determining the necessary tasks and estimates for those tasks.

The design of the software architecture itself affects what types of task will be necessary for implementation. As a result, work-breakdown of tasks is dependent on the software architecture and the software architect can assist project management with the creation of the tasks.

Two major approaches to project management estimation are as follows:

  • Top-down approach: This starts with the final deliverables and goals and breaks them down into smaller packages of work
  • Bottom-up approach: This starts with specific tasks first, and groups them together into packages of work

For some projects, a project manager may take a more top-down approach, while developers who are going to be working on specific tasks may take a bottom-up perspective. With the experience and knowledge that most software architects possess, they can potentially assist with either approach. A combination of these approaches, where tasks are looked at from both viewpoints, can lead to the best estimates.

It can be helpful when project managers, the software architect, and the developers work together to provide estimates. The most accurate estimates can be obtained by mutual discussions between team members until a consensus is achieved. Sometimes during the consensus building, someone on the team will provide an insight that others had not previously considered, allowing everyone to rethink their position and possibly revise their estimates.

A software system with accurate requirements that are reflected in the software architecture can avoid costly rework that would be necessary if key requirements were missed. In addition, a well-thought-out architecture reduces complexity, allowing it to be easily reasoned about and understood. Reduced complexity can result in more accurate cost and effort estimates.

Serves as training for team members

The system's architecture and its documentation serve as training for the developers on the team. By learning the various structures and elements of the system, and how they are supposed to interact, they learn the proper way in which the functionality is to be implemented.

A software development team may experience change, such as having new team members join or existing ones leave. The introduction and orientation of new members to a team often takes time. A well-thought-out architecture can make it easier for developers to transition to the team.

The maintenance phase of a software system can be one of the longest and costliest phases of a software project. Like new team members introduced during development, it is common for different developers to work on the system over time, including those introduced to maintain it. Having a solid architecture available to teach and bring aboard new developers can provide an important advantage.

Software architecture is not a silver bullet

The Mythical Man-Month by Frederick P. Brooks is one of the seminal texts in software project management. It contains various essays on software engineering. Although this book was written some time ago, and some of the references are now outdated, it provides thought-provoking advice about software development that is timeless and still applicable today:

"There is no single development, in either technology or management technique, which by itself promises even one order-of-magnitude improvement within a decade in productivity, in reliability, in simplicity."

Fred Brooks 1986 essay, No Silver Bullet – Essence and Accident in Software Engineering, which is included in the twentieth anniversary edition of the book, begins with this quote. It essentially conveys the idea that there is no silver bullet in software development.

Software architecture, as well, is not a silver bullet. Although we have covered a number of reasons why software architecture is important, there is no specific architecture or combination of components that will serve as a silver bullet. It can't be thought of as a magical solution that will solve all problems. As we will learn in more detail later, software architectures are about compromises between different and sometimes conflicting requirements. Each architectural approach has pros and cons that must be weighed and evaluated. No one approach should be viewed as a silver bullet.

 

Who are the consumers of software architectures?


When we create a software architecture, who is it for? There are a variety of stakeholders in a software system, such as the end users of the system, business analysts, domain experts, quality assurance personnel, managers, those who may integrate with the system, and operations staff members. Each of these stakeholders is affected by the software architecture to some degree. While certain stakeholders will have access to, and be interested in, examining the software architecture and its documentation, others will not.

Some of these stakeholders are indirect consumers of the architecture in that they care about the software, and because the software architecture is the foundation of the system, they become indirect consumers of the architecture. As a software architect, you are serving these types of consumers in addition to the direct consumers. For example, end users are perhaps one of the most important stakeholders and should be a major focus. The software architecture must allow the implementation to satisfy the requirements of the end users.

When we discuss the consumers of a software architecture, we can't omit the developers who work on that software. As a software architect, you need to be thinking about your developers, whose work is directly affected by the software architecture. They are the ones who will be working on the software on a daily basis.

 

What is the software architect role?


Now that we know what software architecture is, the importance and benefits of it, and have an understanding that there are a variety of stakeholders who are affected by it, let's examine the software architect role. What makes someone a software architect? What does it mean to be a software architect?

Certainly, software systems can be developed without a software architect. You may have worked on a project in which no one was playing the software architect role. In some of those cases, the project may have succeeded despite that, or it may have failed because of it.

When no one is specifically given the software architect title, someone on the team may end up making architectural decisions. Such an individual is sometimes called an accidental architect. They haven't been given the title of software architect, but they are performing some of the same duties and making the same types of decision. Occasionally, when there is no software architect, the architectural design results from a collaboration between multiple developers.

The smaller and less complex the software system is, the more you may be able to succeed without a software architect. However, if a project is large in size and/or complexity, you are more likely to need someone to play the formal role of software architect.

Software architects are technical leaders

Software architects are technical leaders of a software project and should be committed to the project no matter what challenges arise. They provide technical guidance to management, customers, and developers. As such, they are often a liaison between technical and non-technical resources.

 

Although software architects have many responsibilities, foremost among them is being responsible for the technical aspects of software systems. While the software architect collaborates with others, as the technical leader the software architect is ultimately responsible for the software architecture, its design, and the architecture documentation for a software system.

Software architects perform a number of duties

Software architects are required to undertake different types of duties, not all of which are technical. Software architects combine their experience, knowledge, and skills, both technical and non-technical, to fulfill such duties. Software architects will be expected to have a firm grasp of designing software architectures, architecture patterns, and best practices.

Software architects should have the ability to foresee possible issues and design architectures to overcome them. They should be able to mitigate risks and evaluate solutions such that they can select the proper one to resolve a particular problem. While some of the skills and duties of a software architect are similar to what a senior developer might do, it is a very different role. Software architects shoulder a greater amount of responsibility, and there is a larger expectation of what a software architect brings to a project.

Senior developers have a great depth of knowledge regarding the technologies that they use on a project. They are highly proficient in the languages, tools, frameworks, and databases that are used in their software systems. While software architects are expected to have this depth of knowledge as well, they must also possess a wide breadth of knowledge. They need to be familiar with technologies that are not currently being used in the organization so that they can make informed decisions about the design of the architecture.

Ideally, software architects have the breadth of knowledge to be aware of multiple solutions to a problem and understand the trade-offs between them. It can be just as important for a software architect to understand why a particular solution will not work as it is to understand why one will.

Ivory tower software architects

If you find yourself in the role of a software architect, you are going to want to avoid being an ivory tower architect. A software architect who is in an ivory tower refers to one who, either by how they approach their position or because of how an organization works, is isolated from others.

If a software architect is working from an ivory tower, they may be creating an architecture based on a perfect-world environment that really doesn't reflect real scenarios. In addition, they may not be working closely with the developers who will be creating implementations based on the architecture.

The more that a software architect works on their own, isolated from stakeholders and other developers, the more likely they are to be out of touch with the needs of those individuals. As a result, they may be designing software architectures that do not meet the varying needs and requirements of a diverse group of stakeholders.

Software architects should take a more hands-on approach. A software architect's duties should already include involvement in a number of phases in a software life cycle, but being hands-on helps avoid being out of touch. For example, a software architect may do some of the coding with the team in order to stay more involved. Leading by example, such as using your own code to serve as references for others, is one way to take a hands-on approach while also keeping your skills sharpened.

An involved approach will help you keep abreast of what issues and difficulties developers may be facing, and what the architecture may be lacking. Leading from the trenches can be much more effective than leading from an ivory tower, and you are more likely to gain the trust and respect of your teammates. If a software architect is out of touch or misinformed, even if the perception is inaccurate, their effectiveness as a leader will be diminished.

An ivory tower architect might be someone who is viewed as commanding from above. A software architect should use their experience and knowledge to teach others, and not preach. Take opportunities to make your teammates better by teaching, but also look forward to learning from others. Teammates can and will provide valuable and insightful feedback regarding your designs.

An organization should not have processes and/or an organizational hierarchy in place that separate the architect from stakeholders. They should not be separated from the technical implementation because doing so will take the architect away from the technology and skills that made them a good candidate for being a software architect in the first place.

What are software architects expected to know?

Software architects are expected to have skills and knowledge on a variety of topics. This book focuses on many of those topics. They include non-technical duties, such as:

  • Providing leadership
  • Assisting project management, including cost and effort estimation
  • Mentoring team members
  • Helping to select team members
  • Understanding the business domain
  • Participating in gathering and analyzing requirements
  • Communicating with a variety of technical and non-technical stakeholders
  • Having a vision for future products

Technical topics that software architects should be familiar with include:

  • Understanding non-functional requirements and quality attributes
  • Being able to effectively design software architectures
  • Understanding patterns and best practices for software development
  • Having a deep knowledge of software architecture patterns, their pros and cons, and knowing when to choose one over another
  • Knowing how to handle cross-cutting concerns
  • Ensuring performance and security requirements are met
  • Being able to document and review software architectures
  • Having an understanding of DevOps and the deployment process
  • Knowing how to integrate and work with legacy applications
  • Being able to design software architectures that adapt to change and evolve over time

Don't be overwhelmed

If you find yourself in the software architect role for the first time, or if you are joining a team that has been working on an existing software system for some time, it can be natural to feel overwhelmed by all that you do not know. It will take time to wrap your head around everything that you will eventually need to know.

As your experience grows, you'll feel more comfortable when you start on a new project. Just like anything, experience in different situations will make you more comfortable with taking on new challenges. You'll also understand that it will take some time to become acquainted with the business domain, people, processes, technology, details, and intricacies that come with each software system.

Is the software architect role right for you?

If you care about the software that you are working on and all of its stakeholders, including the software's end users and developers, then you care about the important design decisions that go into building the software. Ultimately, that means you care about its architecture. Concerning yourself with the most important decisions can be challenging, but it can be enjoyable and rewarding for that very reason.

Software architects need to communicate with a variety of stakeholders and sometimes serve as a bridge between management, technical staff, and non-technical staff. If this is not something you want to get involved with, being a software architect may not be the best fit for you.

Software architects are passionate about technology. They have a deep understanding of the technologies they are working with and keep those skills fresh by practicing their craft and being involved with projects. They must have a large breadth of knowledge and have a familiarity with technologies that they may not be currently using on a project. It is necessary to keep up with the fast pace of change in areas such as languages, tools, and frameworks. Being aware of a range of technologies will allow you to recommend the best solution to a particular problem.

Software architects should love to learn and play with new technologies because being a software architect requires continuous learning. As someone with a lot of wisdom to share, and who will be a leader on a team, you should enjoy mentoring and teaching others. Making those who work around you better at their jobs is a part of your job.

All software applications have a purpose. Good software architects make every effort to ensure that the software applications they work on serve their purpose as best that they can. If this is something you care about, the software architect role may be right for you.

 

Summary


Software architecture is the structure or structures of a system, their elements, and the relationships between those elements. It is an abstraction of a software system. Software architecture is important because all software systems have an architecture, and that architecture is the foundation for the software system.

Software architecture provides a number of benefits, such as enabling and inhibiting quality attributes, allowing you to predict software system qualities, easing communication with stakeholders, and allowing you to more easily make changes. It also provides a reusable model that could be used in multiple software products, imposes implementation constraints that reduce complexity and minimizes developer errors, improves cost/effort estimates, and serves as training for new team members.

Software architects are technical leaders who are ultimately responsible for technical decisions, the architecture, and its documentation. They perform a number of duties and are expected to have knowledge of a variety of topics, both technical and non-technical. Although the role can be challenging, if you care about the software that you are working on and all of its stakeholders, then the software architect role can be extremely rewarding.

In the next chapter, we'll explore software architecture in an organization. Most software architects operate within the context of an organization, so it is important to understand the dynamics of developing software within one. The chapter will detail topics such as the various software architect roles you will typically find in an organization, software development methodologies that are used, working with project and configuration management, navigating office politics, and creating software product lines that leverage architectural reuse.

About the Author

  • Joseph Ingeno

    Joseph Ingeno is a software architect who oversees a number of enterprise software applications. During his career, he has designed and developed software for a variety of different industries. He has extensive experience working on web, mobile, and desktop applications using different technologies and frameworks.

    Joseph graduated from the University of Miami a with Master of Science and a Bachelor of Business Administration degrees in Computer Information Systems, and followed that with a Master of Software Engineering degree from Brandeis University.

    He holds several certifications, including the Microsoft Certified Solutions Developer and the Professional Software Engineering Master Certification from the IEEE Computer Society.

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