Learn Java 12 Programming

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By Nick Samoylov
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  1. Getting Started with Java 12

About this book

Java is one of the preferred languages among developers, used in everything right from smartphones, and game consoles to even supercomputers, and its new features simply add to the richness of the language. This book on Java programming begins by helping you learn how to install the Java Development Kit. You will then focus on understanding object-oriented programming (OOP), with exclusive insights into concepts like abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, which will help you when programming for real-world apps. Next, you’ll cover fundamental programming structures of Java such as data structures and algorithms that will serve as the building blocks for your apps. You will also delve into core programming topics that will assist you with error handling, debugging, and testing your apps. As you progress, you’ll move on to advanced topics such as Java libraries, database management, and network programming, which will hone your skills in building professional-grade apps.

Further on, you’ll understand how to create a graphic user interface using JavaFX and learn to build scalable apps by taking advantage of reactive and functional programming.

By the end of this book, you’ll not only be well versed with Java 10, 11, and 12, but also gain a perspective into the future of this language and software development in general.

Publication date:
April 2019


Getting Started with Java 12

This chapter is about how to start learning Java 12 and Java in general. We will begin with the basics, first explaining what Java is and its main terms, followed by how to install the necessary tools to write and run (execute) a program. In this respect, Java 12 is not much different to the previous Java versions, so this chapter's content is applies to the older versions too.

We will describe and demonstrate all the necessary steps for building and configuring a Java programming environment. This is the bare minimum that you have to have on the computer in order to start programming. We also describe the basic Java language constructs and illustrate them with examples that can be executed immediately.

The best way to learn a programming language, or any language for that matter, is to use it, and this chapter guides the reader on how they can do this with Java. The topics covered in this chapter include the following:

  • How to install and run Java
  • How to install and run an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
  • Java primitive types and operators
  • String types and literals
  • Identifiers and variables
  • Java statements

How to install and run Java

When somebody says "Java," they may mean quite different things:

  • Java programming language: A high-level programming language that allows an intent (a program) to be expressed in a human-readable format that can be translated in the binary code executable by a computer
  • Java compiler: A program that can read a text written in the Java programming language and translate it into a bytecode that can be interpreted by Java Virtual Machine (JVMin the binary code executable by a computer
  • Java Virtual Machine (JVM): A program that reads a compiled Java program and interprets it into the binary code that is executable by a computer
  • Java Development Kit (JDK): The collection of programs (tools and utilities), including Java compiler, JVM, and supporting libraries, which allow the compilation and execution of a program written in the Java language

The following section walks the reader through the installation of the JDK of Java 12 and the basic related terms and commands. 

What is JDK and why do we need it?

As we have mentioned already, JDK includes a Java compiler and JVM. The task of the compiler is to read a .java file that contains the text of the program written in Java (called source code) and transform (compile) it into a bytecode stored in a .class file. The JVM can then read the .class file, interpret the bytecode in a binary code, and send it to the operating system for execution. Both the compiler and JVM have to be invoked explicitly from the command line. 

To support the .java file compilation and its bytecode execution, JDK installation also includes standard Java libraries called Java Class Library (JCL). If the program uses a third-party library, it has to be present during compilation and execution. It has to be referred from the same command line that invokes the compiler and later when the bytecode is executed by JVM. JCL, on the other hand, does not need to be referred to explicitly. It is assumed that the standard Java libraries reside in the default location of the JDK installation, so the compiler and JVM know where to find them. 

If you do not need to compile a Java program and would like to run only the already compiled .class files, you can download and install Java Runtime Environment (JRE). For example, it consists of a subset of the JDK and does not include a compiler.

Sometimes, JDK is referred to as a Software Development Kit (SDK), which is a general name for a collection of software tools and supporting libraries that allow the creation of an executable version of a source code written using a certain programming language. So, JDK is an SDK for Java. This means it is possible to call JDK an SDK.

You may also hear the terms Java platform and Java edition in relation to a JDK. A typical platform is an operating system that allows a software program to be developed and executed. Since JDK provides its own operating environment, it is called a platform too. An edition is a variation of a Java platform (JDK) assembled for a specific purpose. There are five Java platform editions, as listed here:

  • Java Platform Standard Edition (Java SE): This includes JVM, JCL, and other tools and utilities.
  • Java Platform Enterprise Edition (Java EE): This includes Java SE, servers (computer programs that provide services to the applications), JCL, other libraries, code samples, and tutorials, and other documentation for developing and deploying large-scale, multi-tiered, and secure network applications.
  • Java Platform Micro Edition (Java ME): This is a subset of Java SE with some specialized libraries for developing and deploying Java applications for embedded and mobile devices, such as phones, personal digital assistants, TV set-top boxes, printers, and sensors. A variation of Java ME (with its own JVM implementation) is called Android SDK. It was developed by Google for Android programming.
  • Java Card: This is the smallest of the Java editions and is intended for developing and deploying Java applications onto small embedded devices such as smart cards. It has two editions: Java Card Classic Edition, for smart cards, based on ISO7816 and ISO14443 communication, and Java Card Connected Edition, which supports a web application model and TCP/IP as basic protocol and runs on high-end secure microcontrollers.

So, to install Java means to install JDK, which also means to install Java platform on one of the listed editions. In this book, we are going to talk about and use only Java SE.

Installing Java SE

All the recently released JDKs are listed on the official Oracle page: www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/overview/index.html (we will call it an Installation Home Page for the further references).

Here are the steps that need to be followed to install Java SE:

  1. Find the link to the Java SE version you are looking for (Java SE 12 in this case) and click on it.
  2. You will be presented with the various links, one of which is Installation Instructions. Alternatively, you could get to this page by clicking the Downloads tab.
  3. Click the DOWNLOAD link under the title Oracle JDK.
  4. A new screen will give you the option to accept or decline a License Agreement using a radio button and a list of links to various JDK installers.
  5. Read the License Agreement and make your decision. If you do not accept it, you cannot download the JDK. If you accept the License Agreement, you can select the JDK installer from the available list.
  6. You need to choose the installer that fits your operating system and the format (extension) you are familiar with.
  7. If in doubt, go back to the Installation Home Page, select the Downloads tab, and click the Installation Instructions link.
  8. Follow the steps that correspond to your operating system.
  9. The JDK is installed successfully when the java -version command on your computer displays the correct Java version, as demonstrated in the following screenshot, for example:

Commands, tools, and utilities

If you follow the installation instructions, you may have noticed a link (Installed Directory Structure of JDK) given under the Table of Contents. It brings you to a page that describes the location of the installed JDK on your computer and the content of each directory of the JDK root directory. The bin directory contains all the executables that constitute the Java commands, tools, and utilities. If the directory bin is not added to the PATH environment variable automatically, consider doing it manually so that you can launch a Java executable from any directory.

In the previous section, we have already demonstrated the Java command, java -version. A list of the other Java executables available (commands, tools, and utilities) can be found in the Java SE documentation (https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/index.html) by clicking the Java Platform Standard Edition Technical Documentation site link, and then the Tools Reference link on the next page. You can learn more about each executable tool by clicking its link.

You can also run each of the listed executables on your computer using one of the following options: -?, -h, --help, or -help. It will display a brief description of the executable and all its options.

The most important Java commands are the following:

  • javac: This reads a .java file, compiles it, and creates one or more corresponding .class files, depending on how many Java classes are defined in the .java file.
  • java: This executes a .class file.

These are the commands that make programming possible. Each Java programmer must have a good understanding of their structure and capabilities. But if you are new to Java programming and use an IDE (see the How to install and run an IDE section), you do not need to master these commands immediately. A good IDE hides them from you by compiling a .java file automatically every time you make a change to it. It also provides a graphical element that runs the program every time you click it.

Another very useful Java tool is jcmd. This facilitates communication with, and diagnosis of, any of the currently running Java processes (JVM) and has many options. But in its simplest form, without any option, it lists all the currently running Java processes and their Process IDs (PIDs). You can use it to see whether you have run-away Java processes. If you have, you can then kill such a process using the PID provided.


How to install and run an IDE

What used to be just a specialized editor that allowed checking the syntax of the written program the same way a Word editor checks the syntax of an English sentence gradually evolved into an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). This bears its main function in the name. It integrates all the tools necessary for writing, compiling, and then executing a program under one Graphical User Interface (GUI). Using the power of Java Compiler, the IDE identifies syntax errors immediately and then helps to improve code quality by providing context-dependent help and suggestions. 

Selecting an IDE

There are several IDEs available for a Java programmer, such as NetBeans, Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, BlueJ, DrJava, JDeveloper, JCreator, jEdit, JSource, jCRASP, and jEdit, to name a few. The most popular ones are NetBeans, Eclipse, and IntelliJ IDEA.

NetBeans development started in 1996 as a Java IDE student project at Charles University in Prague. In 1999, the project and the company created around the project were acquired by Sun Microsystems. After Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems, NetBeans became open source, and many Java developers have since contributed to the project. It was bundled with JDK 8 and became an official IDE for Java development. In 2016, Oracle donated it to the Apache Software Foundation.

There is a NetBeans IDE for Windows, Linux, Mac, and Oracle Solaris. It supports multiple programming languages and can be extended with plugins. As of the time of writing, NetBeans is bundled only with JDK 8, but NetBeans 8.2 can work with JDK 9 too and uses features introduced with JDK 9, such as Jigsaw, for example. On netbeans.apache.org, you can read more about NetBeans IDE and download the latest version, which is 11.0 as of the time of this writing.

Eclipse is the most widely used Java IDE. The list of plugins that add new features to the IDE is constantly growing, so it is not possible to enumerate all the IDE's capabilities. The Eclipse IDE project has been developed since 2001 as open source software. A non-profit, member-supported corporation Eclipse foundation was created in 2004 with the goal of providing the infrastructure (version control systems, code review systems, build servers, the download sites, and so on) and a structured process. None of the thirty something employees of the Foundation is working on any of 150 Eclipse-supported projects.

The sheer number and variety of the Eclipse IDE plugins create a certain challenge for a beginner because you have to find your way around different implementations of the same, or similar features, that can, on occasion, be incompatible and may require deep investigation, as well as a clear understanding of all the dependencies. Nevertheless, Eclipse IDE is very popular and has solid community support. You can read about the Eclipse IDE and download the latest release from www.eclipse.org/ide.

The IntelliJ IDEA has two versions: a paid one and a free community edition. The paid version is consistently ranked as the best Java IDE, but the community edition is listed among the three leading Java IDEs too. The JetBrains software company that develops the IDE has offices in Prague, Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Munich, Boston, and Novosibirsk. The IDE is known for its deep Intelligence that is "giving relevant suggestions in every context: instant and clever code completion, on-the-fly code analysis, and reliable refactoring tools," as stated by the authors while describing the product on their website (www.jetbrains.com/idea). In the Installing and configuring IntelliJ IDEA section, we will walk you through the installation and configuration of IntelliJ IDEA community edition.

Installing and configuring IntelliJ IDEA

These are the steps you need to follow in order to download and install IntelliJ IDEA:

  1. Download an installer of IntelliJ community edition from www.jetbrains.com/idea/download.
  2. Launch the installer and accept all the default values.
  3. Select .java on the Installation Options screen. We assume you have installed JDK already, so you do not check the Download and install JRE option.
  4. The last installation screen has a checkbox, Run IntelliJ IDEA, that you can check to start the IDE automatically. Alternatively, you can leave the checkbox unchecked and launch the IDE manually once the installation is complete.
  5. When the IDE starts the first time, it asks whether you would like to Import IntelliJ IDEA settings. Check the Do not import settings checkbox if you have not used the IntelliJ IDEA before and would like to reuse the settings.
  6. The following screen or two asks whether you accept the JetBrains Privacy Policy and whether you would like to pay for the license or prefer to continue to use the free community edition or free trial (this depends on the particular download you get).
  1. Answer the questions whichever way you prefer, and if you accept the privacy policy, the Customize IntelliJ IDEA screen asks you to choose a theme, white (IntelliJ) or dark (Darcula).
  2. When offered the buttons Skip All and Set Defaults and Next: Default plugins, select Next: Default plugins, as it will give you the option to configure the IDE beforehand.
  3. When presented with the Tune IDEA to your tasks screen, select the Customize... link for the following three, one at a time:
    • Build Tools: Select Maven and click the Save Changes and Go Back button.
    • Version Controls: Select the version control system you prefer (optional) and click Save Changes and Go Back.
    • Test Tools: Select JUnit or any other test framework you prefer (optional) and click Save Changes and Go Back.
  1. If you decide to change the set values, you can do this later by selecting from the topmost menu, File, Settings, on Windows, or Preferences on Linux and macOS.

Creating a project

Before you start writing your program, you need to create a project. There are several ways to create a project in IntelliJ IDEA, which is the same for any IDE, as follows:

  1. Create New Project: This creates a new project from scratch.
  2. Import Project: This facilitates reading of the existing source code from the filesystem.
  3. Open: This facilitates reading of the existing project from the filesystem.
  4. Check out from Version ControlThis facilitates reading of the existing project from the version control system.

In this book, we will walk you through the first option only—using the sequence of guided steps provided by the IDE. The other two options are much simpler and do not require additional explanations. Once you have learned how to create a new project from scratch, the other ways to bring up a project in the IDE will be very easy for you.

Start by clicking the Create New Project link and proceed further as follows:

  1. Select a value for Project SDK (Java Version 12, if you have installed JDK 12 already) and click Next.
  2. Do not check Create project from template (if checked, the IDE generates a canned program, Hello world, and similar, which we do not need) and click Next.
  3. Select the desired project location in the Project location field (this is where your new code will reside).
  4. Enter anything you like in the Project name field (for example, the project for the code in this book is called learnjava) and click the Finish button.
  5. You will see the following project structure: 

  1. Right-click on the project name (learnjava) and select Add Framework Support from the drop-down menu. On the following pop-up window, select Maven:

  1. Maven is a project configuration tool. Its primary function is to manage project dependencies. We will talk about it shortly. For now, we will use its other responsibility, to define and hold the project code identity using three properties:
    • groupId: To identify a group of projects within an organization or an open source community
    • artifactId: To identify a particular project within the group
    • version: To identify the version of the project

The main goal is to make the identity of a project unique among all the projects of the world. To help avoid a groupId clash, the convention requires that you start building it from the organization domain name in reverse. For example, if a company has the domain name company.com, the group IDs of its projects should start with com.company. That is why, for the code in this book, we use the groupId value com.packt.learnjava.

Let's set it. Click OK on the Add Framework Support pop-up window and you will see a newly generated pom.xml file as follows:

At the same time, in the lower-right corner of the screen, another small window will pop up:

Click the Enable Auto-Import link. This will make writing code easier: all the new classes you will start using will be imported automatically. We will talk about class importing in due time. 

Now, let's enter groupId, artifactId, and version values:

Now, if somebody would like to use the code of your project in their application, they would refer to it by the three values shown and Maven (if they use it) will bring it in (if you upload your project in the publicly shared Maven repository, of course). Read more about Maven at https://maven.apache.org/guides.

Another function of the groupId value is to define the root directory of the folders tree that holds your project code. Let's open the src folder; you will see the following directory structure beneath it:

The java folder under main will hold the application code, while the java folder under test will hold the test code.

Let's create our first program using the following steps:

  1. Right-click on java, select New, and then click Package:

  1. In the New Package window provided, type com.packt.learnjava.ch01_start as follows:

  1. Click OK and you should see in the left panel a set of new folders, the last of them being com.packt.learnjava.ch01_start:

  1. Right-click on it, select New, and then click Java Class:

  1. In the input window provided, type PrimitiveTypes:

  1. Click OK and you will see the first Java class, PrimitiveTypes, created in the com.packt.learnjava.ch01_start package:

The package reflects the Java class location in the filesystem. We will talk about it in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Now, in order to run a program, we create a main() method. If present, this method can be executed and serve as an entry point into the application. It has a certain format, as follows:

This has to have the following attributes:

  • public: Freely accessible from outside the package
  • static: Should be able to be called without creating an object of the class it belongs to

It should also be the following:

  • Return void (nothing).
  • Accept a String array as an input or varargs as we have done. We will talk about varargs in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). For now, suffice to say that String[] args and String... args define essentially the same input format. 

We explained how to run the main class using a command line in the Executing examples from the command line section. You can read more about Java command-line arguments in the official Oracle documentation: https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/essential/environment/cmdLineArgs.html. It is also possible to run the examples from IntelliJ IDEA.

Notice the two green triangles to the left in the following screenshot. By clicking any of them, you can execute the main() method. For example, let's display Hello, world!.

In order to do this, type the following line inside the main() method:

System.out.println("Hello, world!");

Then, click one of the green triangles:

You should get the following output in the terminal area as follows:

From now on, every time we are going to discuss code examples, we will run them the same way, by using the main() method. While doing this, we will not capture a screenshot but put the result in comments, because such a style is easier to follow. For example, the following code displays how the previous code demonstration would look in this style:

System.out.println("Hello, world!");     //prints: Hello, world!

It is possible to add a comment (any text) to the right of the code line separated by the double slash //. The compiler does not read this text and just keeps it as it is. The presence of a comment does not affect performance and is used to explain the programmer's intent to humans.

Importing a project

We are going to demonstrate project importing using the source code for this book. We assume that you have Maven installed (https://maven.apache.org/install.html) on your computer and that you have Git (https://gist.github.com/derhuerst/1b15ff4652a867391f03) installed too, and can use it. We also assume that you have installed JDK 12, as was described in the Installation of Java SE section.

To import the project with the code examples for this book, follow these steps: 

  1. Go to the source repository (https://github.com/PacktPublishing/Learn-Java-12-Programming) and click the Clone or download link, as shown in the following screenshot:

  1. Click the Clone or download link and then copy the provided URL:

  1. Select a directory on your computer where you would like the source code to be placed and then run the following Git command:

  1. A new Learn-Java-12-Programming folder is created, as shown in the following screenshot:

Alternatively, instead of cloning, you can download the source as a .zip file using the link Download ZIP shown on the preceding screenshot. Unarchive the downloaded source in a directory on your computer where you would like the source code to be placed, and then rename the newly created folder by removing the suffix "-master" from its name, making sure that the folder's name is Learn-Java-12-Programming.

  1. The new Learn-Java-12-Programming folder contains the Maven project with all the source code from this book. Now run the IntelliJ IDEA and click File in the topmost menu, then New and Project from Existing Sources...:

  1. Select the Learn-Java-12-Programming folder created in step 4 and click the Open button:

  1. Accept the default settings and click the Next button on each of the following screens until you reach a screen that shows a list of the JDKs installed and the Finish button:

  1. Select 12 and click Finish. You will see the project imported into your IntelliJ IDEA:

  1. Wait until the following small window shows up in the bottom-right corner:

You may not want to wait and continue with step 12. Just do steps 10 and 11 when the window pops up later. If you miss this window, you may click the Event Log link any time later, and you will be presented with the same options.

  1. Click on it; then click the Add as Maven Project link:

  1. Any time the following window shows up, click Enable Auto-Import:

You may not want to wait and continue with step 12. Just do step 11 when the window pops up later. If you miss this window, you may click the Event Log link any time later, and you will be presented with the same options.

  1. Select the Project structure symbol, which is the third from the right on the following screenshot:

  1. If you have the main and test modules listed, remove them by highlighting them and clicking the minus symbol (-) as shown on the following screen:

  1. Here’s how the final list of modules should look:

  1. Click OK in the bottom-right corner and get back to your project. Click Learn-Java-12-Programming in the left pane and continue going down in the source tree until you see the following list of classes:

  1. Click on the green arrow in the right pane and execute any class you want. The result you will be able to see in the Run window is similar to the following:

Executing examples from the command line

To execute the examples from the command line, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Learn-Java-12-Programming folder created in step 4 in the Importing a project section, where the pom.xml file is located, and run the mvn clean package command:

  1. Select the example you would like to run. For example, assuming you would like to run ControlFlow.java, run the following command:
java -cp target/learnjava-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar:target/libs/* \

You will see the following results:

  1. If you would like to run example files from the ch05_stringsIoStreams package, run the same command with a different package and class name:
java -cp target/learnjava-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar:target/libs/* \

If your computer has a Windows system, use the following command as one line:

java -cp target\learnjava-1.0-SNAPSHOT.jar;target\libs\* com.packt.learnjava.ch05_stringsIoStreams.Files

Note that a Windows command has a different slash and semicolon (;) as the classpath separator.

  1. The results will be as follows:

  1. This way you can run any class that has the main() method in it. The content of the main() method will be executed.

Java primitive types and operators

With all the main programming tools in place, we can start talking about Java as a language. The language syntax is defined by Java Language Specification, which you can find on https://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs. Don't hesitate to refer to it every time you need some clarification. It is not as daunting as many people assume. 

All the values in Java are divided into two categories: reference types and primitive types. We start with primitive types and operators as the natural entry point to any programming language. In this chapter, we will also discuss one reference type called String (see the String type and literals section). 

All primitive types can be divided into two groups: the boolean type and the numeric types.

Boolean type

There are only two boolean type values in Java: true and false. Such a value can only be assigned to a variable of a boolean type, for example:

boolean b = true;

A boolean variable is typically used in control flow statements, which we are going to discuss in the Java statements section. Here is one example:

boolean b = x > 2;
//do something

In the code, we assign to the b variable the result of the evaluation of the x > 2 expression. If the value of x is greater than 2, the b variable gets the assigned value, true. Then, the code inside the braces, {} , is executed.

Numeric types

Java numeric types form two groups: integral types (byte, char, short, int, and long) and floating-point types (float and double).

Integral types

Integral types consume the following amount of memory:

  • byte: 8 bit
  • char: 16 bit
  • short: 16 bit
  • int: 32 bit
  • long: 64 bit

The char type is an unsigned integer that can hold a value (called a code point) from 0 to 65,535 inclusive. It represents a Unicode character, which means there are 65,536 Unicode characters. Here are three records form the basic Latin list of Unicode characters:

Code point Unicode escape Printable symbol Description
33 \u0021 ! Exclamation mark
50 \u0032 2 Digit two
65 \u0041 A Latin capital letter "A"


The following code demonstrates the properties of the char type:

char x1 = '\u0032';
System.out.println(x1); //prints: 2

char x2 = '2';
System.out.println(x2); //prints: 2
x2 = 65;
System.out.println(x2); //prints: A

char y1 = '\u0041';
System.out.println(y1); //prints: A

char y2 = 'A';
System.out.println(y2); //prints: A
y2 = 50;
System.out.println(y2); //prints: 2

System.out.println(x1 + x2); //prints: 115
System.out.println(x1 + y1); //prints: 115

The last two lines from the code example explain why the char type is considered an integral type because the char values can be used in arithmetic operations. In such a case, each char value is represented by its code point.

The range of values of other integral types is as follows:

  • byte: from -128 to 127 inclusive
  • short: from -32,768 to 32,767 inclusive
  • int: from -2.147.483.648 to 2.147.483.647 inclusive
  • long: from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 inclusive

You can always retrieve the maximum and minimum value of each primitive type from a corresponding Java constant as follows:

System.out.println(Byte.MIN_VALUE);      //prints: -128
System.out.println(Byte.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 127
System.out.println(Short.MIN_VALUE); //prints: -32768
System.out.println(Short.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 32767
System.out.println(Integer.MIN_VALUE); //prints: -2147483648
System.out.println(Integer.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 2147483647
System.out.println(Long.MIN_VALUE); //prints: -9223372036854775808
System.out.println(Long.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 9223372036854775807
System.out.println((int)Character.MIN_VALUE); //prints: 0
System.out.println((int)Character.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 65535

The construct (int) in the last two lines, is an example of cast operator usage. It forces the conversion of a value from one type to another in cases where such a conversion is not always guaranteed to be successful. As you can see from our examples, some types allow bigger values than other types. But the programmer may know that the value of a certain variable can never exceed the maximum value of the target type, and the cast operator is the way a programmer can force their opinion on the compiler. Otherwise, without a cast operator, a compiler would raise an error and would not allow the assignment. However, a programmer may be mistaken and the value may become bigger. In such a case, a runtime error will be raised during the execution time.

There are types that, in principle, cannot be cast to other types though, or not to all types at least. For example, a boolean type value cannot be cast to an integral type value.

Floating-point types

There are two types in this group of primitive types—float and double:

  • float: 32 bit
  • doubele: 64 bit

Their positive maximum and minimum possible values are as follows:

System.out.println(Float.MIN_VALUE);  //prints: 1.4E-45
System.out.println(Float.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 3.4028235E38
System.out.println(Double.MIN_VALUE); //prints: 4.9E-324
System.out.println(Double.MAX_VALUE); //prints: 1.7976931348623157E308

The maximum and minimum negative values are the same as those just shown, only with a minus sign (-) in front of them. So, effectively, the values Float.MIN_VALUE and Double.MIN_VALUE are not the minimal values, but the precision of the corresponding type. A zero value can be either 0.0 or -0.0 for each of the floating-point types. 

The special feature of the floating-point type is the presence of a dot (.), which separates integer and fractional parts of the number. By default, in Java, a number with a dot is assumed to be a double type. For example, the following is assumed to be a double value:


This means that the following assignment causes a compilation error:

float f = 42.3;

To indicate that you would like it to be treated as a float type, you need to add either f or F. For example, the following assignments do not cause an error:

float f = 42.3f;
float d = 42.3F;

double a = 42.3f;
double b = 42.3F;

x = (float)42.3d;
float y = (float)42.3D;

As you may have noticed from the example, d and D indicate a double type. But we were able to cast them to the float type because we are confident that 42.3 is well inside the range of possible float type values.

Default values of primitive types

In some cases, a variable has to be assigned a value even when a programmer did not want to do that. We will talk about such cases in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). The default primitive type value in such cases is as follows:

  • The byte, short, int, and long types have the default value 0.
  • The char type has the default value \u0000with the code point 0. 
  • The float and double types have the default value 0.0.
  • The boolean type has the default value false.

Literals of primitive types

The representation of a value is called a literal. The boolean type has two literals: true and false. Literals of the byte, short, int, and long integral types have the int type by default:

byte b = 42;
short s = 42;
int i = 42;
long l = 42;

In addition, to indicate a literal of a long type, you can append the letter l or L to the end:

long l1 = 42l;
long l2 = 42L;

The letter l can be easily confused with the number 1, so using L (instead of l) for this purpose is a good practice.

So far, we have expressed integral literals in a decimal number system. Meanwhile, the literals of the byte, short, int, and long types can also be expressed in the binary (base 2, digits 0-1), octal (base 8, digits 0-7), and hexadecimal (base 16, digits 0-9 and a-f) number systems. A binary literal starts with 0b (or 0B), followed by the value expressed in a binary system. For example, the decimal 42 is expressed as 101010 = 2^0*0 + 2^1*1 + 2^2*0 + 2^3 *1  + 2^4 *0  + 2^5 *1 (we start from the right 0). An octal literal starts with 0, followed by the value expressed in an octal system, so 42 is expressed as 52 = 8^0*2+ 8^1*5. The hexadecimal literal starts with 0x (or with 0X), followed by a value expressed in a hexadecimal system. So, the 42 is expressed as 2a = 16^0*a + 16^1*2 because, in the hexadecimal system, the symbols a to f (or A to F) map to the decimal values 10 to 15. Here is the demonstration code:

int i = 42;
System.out.println(Integer.toString(i, 2)); // 101010
System.out.println(Integer.toBinaryString(i)); // 101010
System.out.println(0b101010); // 42

System.out.println(Integer.toString(i, 8)); // 52
System.out.println(Integer.toOctalString(i)); // 52
System.out.println(052); // 42

System.out.println(Integer.toString(i, 10)); // 42
System.out.println(Integer.toString(i)); // 42
System.out.println(42); // 42

System.out.println(Integer.toString(i, 16)); // 2a
System.out.println(Integer.toHexString(i)); // 2a
System.out.println(0x2a); // 42

As you can see, Java provides methods that convert decimal system values to the systems with different bases. All these expressions of numeric values are called literals.

One feature of numeric literals makes them human-friendly. If the number is large, it is possible to break it into triples separated by an underscore (_) sign. Observe the following, for example:

int i = 354_263_654;
System.out.println(i); //prints: 354263654

float f = 54_436.98f;
System.out.println(f); //prints: 54436.98

long l = 55_763_948L;
System.out.println(l); //prints: 55763948

The compiler ignores an embedded underscore sign.

The char type has two kinds of literals: a single character or an escape sequence. We have seen examples of char type literals when discussing the numeric types:

char x1 = '\u0032';
char x2 = '2';
char y1 = '\u0041';
char y2 = 'A';

As you can see, the character has to be enclosed in single quotes. 

An escape sequence starts with a backslash (\) followed by a letter or another character. Here is the full list of escape sequences:

  • \b: backspace BS, Unicode escape \u0008
  • \t: horizontal tab HT, Unicode escape \u0009
  • \n: line feed LF, Unicode escape \u000a
  • \f: form feed FF, Unicode escape \u000c
  • \r: carriage return CR, Unicode escape \u000d
  • \": double quote ", Unicode escape \u0022
  • \': single quote ', Unicode escape \u0027
  • \\: backslash \, Unicode escape \u005c

From the eight escape sequences, only the last three are represented by a symbol. They are used when this symbol cannot be otherwise displayed. Observe the following, for example:

System.out.println("\"");   //prints: "
System.out.println('\''); //prints: '
System.out.println('\\'); //prints: \

The rest are used more as control codes that direct the output device to do something:

System.out.println("The back\bspace");     //prints: The bacspace
System.out.println("The horizontal\ttab"); //prints: The horizontal tab
System.out.println("The line\nfeed"); //prints: The line
// feed
System.out.println("The form\ffeed"); //prints: The form feed
System.out.println("The carriage\rreturn");//prints: return

As you can see, \b deletes a previous symbol, \t inserts a tab space, \n breaks the line and begins the new one, \f forces the printer to eject the current page and to continue printing at the top of another, and /r starts the current line anew.

New compact number format

The java.text.NumberFormat class presents numbers in various formats. It also allows formats to be adjusted to those provided, including locales. We mention it here only because of a new feature added to this class in Java 12. It is called a compact or short number format.

It represents a number in the locale-specific, human-readable form. Observe the following, for example: 

NumberFormat fmt = NumberFormat.getCompactNumberInstance(Locale.US, 
System.out.println(fmt.format(42_000)); //prints: 42K
System.out.println(fmt.format(42_000_000)); //prints: 42M

NumberFormat fmtP = NumberFormat.getPercentInstance();
System.out.println(fmtP.format(0.42)); //prints: 42%

As you can see, to access this capability, you have to acquire a particular instance of the NumberFormat class, sometimes based on the locale and style provided.


There are 44 operators in Java. These are listed in the following table:



+     -     *     /     %

Arithmetic unary and binary operators

++      --

Increment and decrement unary operators

==      !=

Equality operators

<      >      <=      >=

Relational operators

!     &     |

Logical operators

&&      ||      ?:

Conditional operators

=     +=     -=     *=     /=     %=

Assignment operators

&=    |=    ^=    <<=    >>=    >>>=

Assignment operators

&    |    ~    ^    <<    >>    >>>

Bitwise operators

->     ::

Arrow and method reference operators


Instance creation operator


Field access/method invocation operator 


Type comparison operator

(target type)

Cast operator


We will not describe the not-often-used assignment operators &=, |=^=, <<=, >>=, >>>= and bitwise operators. You can read about them in the Java specification (https://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs). Arrow -> and method reference :: operators will be described in Chapter 14, Functional Programming. The instance creation operator new, the field access/method invocation operator ., and the type comparison operator instanceof will be discussed in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). As for the cast operator, we have described it already in the Integral types section.

Arithmetic unary (+ and -) and binary operators (+, -, *, /, and %)

Most of the arithmetic operators and positive and negative signs (unary operators) are quite familiar to us. The modulus operator, %, divides the left-hand operand by the right-hand operand and returns the remainder, as follows:

int x = 5;
System.out.println(x % 2); //prints: 1

It is also worth mentioning that the division of two integer numbers in Java loses the fractional part because Java assumes the result should be an integer number two, as follows:

int x = 5;
System.out.println(x / 2); //prints: 2

If you need the fractional part of the result to be preserved, convert one of the operands into a floating-point type. Here are a few, among many ways, in which to do this:

int x = 5;
System.out.println(x / 2.); //prints: 2.5
System.out.println((1. * x) / 2); //prints: 2.5
System.out.println(((float)x) / 2); //prints: 2.5
System.out.println(((double) x) / 2); //prints: 2.5

Increment and decrement unary operators (++ and --)

The ++ operator increases the value of an integral type by 1, while the -- operator decreases it by 1. If placed before (prefix) the variable, it changes its value by 1 before the variable value is returned. But when placed after (postfix) the variable, it changes its value by 1 after the variable value is returned. Here are a few examples:

int i = 2;
System.out.println(++i); //prints: 3
System.out.println(i); //prints: 3
System.out.println(--i); //prints: 2
System.out.println(i); //prints: 2
System.out.println(i++); //prints: 2
System.out.println(i); //prints: 3
System.out.println(i--); //prints: 3
System.out.println(i); //prints: 2

Equality operators (== and !=)

The == operator means equals, while the != operator means not equals. They are used to compare values of the same type and return the boolean value true if the operand's values are equal, or false otherwise. Observe the following, for example:

int i1 = 1;
int i2 = 2;
System.out.println(i1 == i2); //prints: false
System.out.println(i1 != i2); //prints: true
System.out.println(i1 == (i2 - 1)); //prints: true
System.out.println(i1 != (i2 - 1)); //prints: false

Exercise caution, though, while comparing values of floating-point types, especially when you compare the results of calculations. Using relational operators (<, >, <=, and >=) in such cases is much more reliable, because calculations such as 1/3, for example, results in a never-ending fractional part 0.33333333... and ultimately depends on the precision implementation (a complex topic that is beyond the scope of this book).

Relational operators (<, >, <=, and >=)

Relational operators compare values and return a boolean value. Observe the following, for example:

int i1 = 1;
int i2 = 2;
System.out.println(i1 > i2); //prints: false
System.out.println(i1 >= i2); //prints: false
System.out.println(i1 >= (i2 - 1)); //prints: true
System.out.println(i1 < i2); //prints: true
System.out.println(i1 <= i2); //prints: true
System.out.println(i1 <= (i2 - 1)); //prints: true
float f = 1.2f;
System.out.println(i1 < f); //prints: true

Logical operators (!, &, and |)

The logical operators can be defined as follows:

  • The ! binary operator returns true if the operand is falseotherwise false.
  • The & binary operator returns true if both of the operands are true.
  • The | binary operator returns true if at least one of the operands is true.

Here is an example:

boolean b = true;
System.out.println(!b); //prints: false
System.out.println(!!b); //prints: true
boolean c = true;
System.out.println(c & b); //prints: true
System.out.println(c | b); //prints: true
boolean d = false;
System.out.println(c & d); //prints: false
System.out.println(c | d); //prints: true

Conditional operators (&&, ||, and ? :)

The && and || operators produce the same results as the & and | logical operators we have just demonstrated:

boolean b = true;
boolean c = true;
System.out.println(c && b); //prints: true
System.out.println(c || b); //prints: true
boolean d = false;
System.out.println(c && d); //prints: false
System.out.println(c || d); //prints: true

The difference is that the && and || operators do not always evaluate the second operand. For example, in the case of the && operator, if the first operand is false, the second operand is not evaluated because the result of the whole expression will be false anyway. Similarly, in the case of the || operator, if the first operand is true, the whole expression will be clearly evaluated to true without evaluating the second operand. We can demonstrate this in the following code:

int h = 1;
System.out.println(h > 3 & h++ < 3); //prints: false
System.out.println(h); //prints: 2
System.out.println(h > 3 && h++ < 3); //prints: false
System.out.println(h); //prints: 2

The ? : operator is called a ternary operator. It evaluates a condition (before the sign ?) and, if it results in true, assigns to a variable the value calculated by the first expression (between the ? and : signs); otherwise, it assigns the value calculated by the second expression (after the : sign):

int n = 1, m = 2;
float k = n > m ? (n * m + 3) : ((float)n / m);
System.out.println(k); //prints: 0.5

Assignment operators (=, +=, -=, *=, /=, and %=)

The = operator just assigns the specified value to a variable:

x = 3;

Other assignment operators calculate a new value before assigning it:

  • x += 42 assigns to x the result of the addition operation, x = x + 42.
  • x -= 42 assigns to x the result of the subtraction operation, x = x - 42.
  • x *= 42 assigns to x the result of the multiplication operation, x = x * 42.
  • x /= 42 assigns to x the result of the division operation, x = x / 42.
  • x %= 42 assigns the remainder of the division operation, x = x + x % 42.

Here is how these operators work:

float a = 1f;
a += 2;
System.out.println(a); //prints: 3.0
a -= 1;
System.out.println(a); //prints: 2.0
a *= 2;
System.out.println(a); //prints: 4.0
a /= 2;
System.out.println(a); //prints: 2.0
a %= 2;
System.out.println(a); //prints: 0.0

String types and literals

We have just described the primitive value types of the Java language. All the other value types in Java belong to a category of reference types. Each reference type is a more complex construct than just a value. It is described by a class, which serves as a template for creating an object, a memory area that contains the values and methods (the processing code) defined in the class. An object is created by the new operator. We will talk about classes and objects in more detail in Chapter 2Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

In this chapter, we will talk about one of the reference types called String. It is represented by the java.lang.String class, which belongs, as you can see, to the most foundational package of JDK, java.lang. The reason we introduce the String class that early is that it behaves in some respects very similar to primitive types, despite being a reference type.

A reference type is so called because, in the code, we do not deal with the values of this type directly. The value of a reference type is more complex than the primitive type value. It is called an object and requires more complex memory allocation, so a reference type variable contains a memory reference. It points (refers) to the memory area where the object resides, hence the name.

This nature of the reference type requires particular attention when a reference-type variable is passed into a method as a parameter. We will discuss this in more detail in Chapter 3, Java Fundamentals. For now, in relation to String, we will see how String, being a reference type, helps to optimize the memory usage by storing each String value only once.

String literals

The String class represents character strings in Java programs. We have seen several such strings. We have seen Hello, world!, for example. That is a String literal.

Another example of a literal is null. Any reference class can refer to a null literal. It represents a reference value that does not point to any object. In the case of a String type, it appears as follows:

String s = null;

But a literal that consists of characters enclosed in double quotes ("abc""123", and "a42%$#", for example) can only be of a String type. In this respect, the String class, being a reference type, has something in common with primitive types. All String literals are stored in a dedicated section of memory called the string pool, and two literals equally spelled to represent the same value from the pool:

String s1 = "abc";
String s2 = "abc";
System.out.println(s1 == s2); //prints: true
System.out.println("abc" == s1); //prints: true

The JVM authors have chosen such an implementation to avoid duplication and improve memory usage. The previous code examples look very much like operations involving primitive types, don't they? But when a String object is created using a new operator, the memory for the new object is allocated outside the string pool, so references of two String objects, or any other objects for that matter, are always different:

String o1 = new String("abc");
String o2 = new String("abc");
System.out.println(o1 == o2); //prints: false
System.out.println("abc" == o1); //prints: false

If necessary, it is possible to move the string value created with the new operator to the string pool using the intern() method:

String o1 = new String("abc");
System.out.println("abc" == o1); //prints: false
System.out.println("abc" == o1.intern()); //prints: true

In the previous code, the intern() method attempted to move the newly created "abc" value into the string pool, but discovered that such a literal exists there already, so it reused the literal from the string pool. That is why the references in the last line in the preceding example are equal.

The good news is that you probably will not need to create String objects using the new operator, and most Java programmers never do it. But when a String object is passed into your code as an input and you have no control over its origin, comparison by reference only may cause an incorrect result (if the strings have the same spelling but were created by the new operator). That is why, when the equality of two strings by spelling (and case) is necessary, in order to compare two literals or String objects, the equals() method is a better choice:

String o1 = new String("abc");
String o2 = new String("abc");
System.out.println(o1.equals(o2)); //prints: true
System.out.println(o2.equals(o1)); //prints: true
System.out.println(o1.equals("abc")); //prints: true
System.out.println("abc".equals(o1)); //prints: true
System.out.println("abc".equals("abc")); //prints: true

We will talk about the equals() and other methods of the String class shortly.

Another feature that makes String literals and objects look like primitive values is that they can be added using the arithmetic operator, +:

String s1 = "abc";
String s2 = "abc";
String s = s1 + s2;
System.out.println(s); //prints: abcabc
System.out.println(s1 + "abc"); //prints: abcabc
System.out.println("abc" + "abc"); //prints: abcabc

String o1 = new String("abc");
String o2 = new String("abc");
String o = o1 + o2;
System.out.println(o); //prints: abcabc
System.out.println(o1 + "abc"); //prints: abcabc

No other arithmetic operator can be applied to a String literal or an object.

A new String literal, called a raw string literal, was introduced with Java 12. It facilitates the preservation of indents and multiple lines without adding white spaces in quotes. For example, here is how a programmer would add the indentation before Java 12 and use \n to break the line:

String html = "<html>\n" +
              "    <body>\n" +
              "             <p>Hello World.</p>\n" +
              "    </body>\n" +

And here is how the same result is achieved with Java 12:

String html = `<html>
<p>Hello World.</p>

As you can see, a raw string literal consists of one or more characters enclosed in a backtick (`) (\u0060), also called a backquote or an accent grave.

String immutability

Since all String literals can be shared, JVM authors make sure that, once stored, a String variable cannot be changed. It helps not only avoid the problem of concurrent modification of the same value from different places of the code, but also prevents unauthorized modification of a String value, which often represents a username or password.

The following code looks like a String value modification:

String str = "abc";
str = str + "def";
System.out.println(str); //prints: abcdef
str = str + new String("123");
System.out.println(str); //prints: abcdef123

But, behind the scenes, the original "abc" literal remains intact. Instead, a few new literals were created: "def", "abcdef", "123", and "abcdef123". To prove it, we have executed the following code:

String str1 = "abc";
String r1 = str1;
str1 = str1 + "def";
String r2 = str1;
System.out.println(r1 == r2); //prints: false
System.out.println(r1.equals(r2)); //prints: false

As you can see, the r1 and r2 variables refer to different memories, and the objects they refer to are spelled differently too.

We will talk more about strings in Chapter 5Strings, Input/Output, and Files.


Identifiers and variables

From our school days, we have an intuitive understanding of what a variable is. We think of it as a name that represents a value. We solve problems using such variables as x gallons of water or n miles of a distance, and similar. In Java, the name of a variable is called an identifier and can be constructed by certain rules. Using an identifier, a variable can be declared (defined) and initialized.


According to Java Language Specification (https://docs.oracle.com/javase/specs), an identifier (a variable name) can be a sequence of Unicode characters that represent letters, digits 0-9, a dollar sign ($), or an underscore (_).

Other limitations are as follows:

  • The first symbol of an identifier cannot be a digit.
  • An identifier cannot have the same spelling as a keyword (see Java keywords in Chapter 3, Java Fundamentals).
  • It cannot be spelled as the boolean literal true or false, and or as the literal null.
  • And, since Java 9, an identifier cannot be just an underscore (_).

Here are a few unusual but legal examples of identifiers:


Variable declaration (definition) and initialization

A variable has a name (an identifier) and a type. Typically, it refers to the memory where a value is stored, but may refer to nothing (null) or not refer to anything at all (then, it is not initialized). It can represent a class property, an array element, a method parameter, and a local variable. The last one is the most frequently used kind of variable. 

Before a variable can be used, it has to be declared and initialized. In some other programming languages, a variable can also be defined, so Java programmers sometimes use the word definition as a synonym of declaration, which is not exactly correct.

Here is the terminology review with examples:

int x;      //declartion of variable x
x = 1; //initialization of variable x
x = 2; //assignment of variable x

Initialization and assignment look the same. The difference is in their sequence: the first assignment is called an initialization. Without an initialization, a variable cannot be used.

Declaration and initialization can be combined in a single statement. Observe the following, for example:

float $ = 42.42f;
String _42 = "abc";
int αρετη = 42;
double String = 42.;

Java statements

A Java statement is a minimal construct that can be executed. It describes an action and ends with a semicolon (;). We have seen many statements already. For example, here are three statements:

float f = 23.42f;
String sf = String.valueOf(f);

The first line is a declaration statement combined with an assignment statement. The second line is also a declaration statement combined with an assignment statement and method invocation statement. The third line is just a method invocation statement.

Here is the list of Java statement types:

  • An empty statement that consists of only one symbol, ; (semicolon)
  • A class or interface declaration statement (we will talk about this in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP))
  • A local variable declaration statement: int x;
  • A synchronized statement: this is beyond the scope of this book
  • An expression statement
  • A control flow statement 

An expression statement can be one of the following:

  • A method invocation statement: someMethod();
  • An assignment statement: n = 23.42f;
  • An object creation statement: new String("abc");
  • A unary increment or decrement statement: ++x ; or --x; or x++; or x--;

We will talk more about expression statements in the Expression statements section.

A control flow statement can be one of the following:

  • A selection statement: if-else or switch-case
  • An iteration statement: for, or while, or do-while
  • An exception-handling statement: throw, or try-catch, or try-catch-finally 
  • A branching statement: break, or continue, or return 

We will talk more about control statements in the Control flow statements section.

Expression statements

An expression statement consists of one or more expressions. An expression typically includes one or more operators. It can be evaluated, which means it can produce a result of one of the following types:

  • A variable: x = 1, for example.
  • A value: 2*2, for example.
  • Nothing, when the expression is an invocation of a method that returns void. Such a method is said to produce only a side effect: void someMethod(), for example

Consider the following expression:

x = y++; 

The preceding expression assigns a value to an x variable and has a side effect of adding 1 to the value of the y variable.

Another example would be a method that prints a line:


The println() method returns nothing and has a side effect of printing something.
By its form, an expression can be one of the following:

  • A primary expression: a literal, a new object creation, a field or method access (invocation)
  • A unary operator expression: x++, for example
  • A binary operator expression: x*y, for example
  • A ternary operator expression: x > y ? true : false, for example
  • A lambda expression: x -> x + 1 (see Chapter 14, Functional Programming)

If an expression consists of other expressions, the parenthesis is often used to identify each of the expressions clearly. This way, it is easier to understand and to set the expressions precedence.

Control flow statements

When a Java program is executed, it is executed statement by statement. Some statements have to be executed conditionally, based on the result of an expression evaluation. Such statements are called control flow statements because, in computer science, a control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements are executed or evaluated.

A control flow statement can be one of the following:

  •  A selection statement: if-else or switch-case
  • An iteration statement: for, or while, or do-while
  • An exception-handling statement: throw, or try-catch, or try-catch-finally 
  • A branching statement: break, or continue, or return 

Selection statements

The selection statements are based on an expression evaluation and have four variations:

  • if (expression) {do something}
  • if (expression) {do something} else {do something else}
  • if (expression) {do something} else if {do something else} else {do something else}
  • switch case statement

Here are examples of if statements:

if(x > y){
//do something

if(x > y){
//do something
} else {
//do something else

if(x > y){
//do something
} else if (x == y){
//do something else
} else {
//do something different

A switch...case statement is a variation of the if...else statement:

case 5: //means: if(x = 5)
//do something
case 7:
//do something else
case 12:
//do something different
//do something completely different
//if x is not 5, 7, or 12

As you can see, the switch...case statement forks the execution flow based on the value of the variable. The break statement allows the switch...case statement to be executed. Otherwise, all the following cases would be executed.

In Java 12, a new feature is introduced in a preview mode; a switch...case statement in a less verbose form:

void switchDemo1(int x){
switch (x) {
case 1, 3 -> System.out.print("1 or 3");
case 4 -> System.out.print("4");
case 5, 6 -> System.out.print("5 or 6");
default -> System.out.print("Not 1,3,4,5,6");
System.out.println(": " + x);

As you can see, it uses an arrow, ->, and does not use a break statement. To take advantage of this feature, you have to add an --enable-preview option to the javac and java commands. If you run the examples from IDE, you need to add this option to the configuration. In IntelliJ IDEA, the option should be added to two configuration screens: for the compiler and for the runtime:

  1. Open the Preferences screen and put it as the Compilation option of the learnjava module, as shown in the following screenshot:

  1. Select Run on the topmost horizontal menu:

  1. Click Edit Configurations... and add the VM option to the ControlFlow application that will be used at runtime:

We have added the --enable-preview option, as we have just described, and executed the switchDemo1() method with different parameters:

switchDemo1(1);    //prints: 1 or 3: 1
switchDemo1(2); //prints: Not 1,3,4,5,6: 2
switchDemo1(5); //prints: 5 or 6: 5

You can see the results from the comments.

If several lines of code have to be executed in each case, you can just put braces, {} , around the block of code, as follows:

switch (x) {
case 1, 3 -> {
//do something
case 4 -> {
//do something else
case 5, 6 -> System.out.println("5 or 6");
default -> System.out.println("Not 1,3,4,5,6");

The Java 12 switch...case statement can even return a value. For example, here is the case when another variable has to be assigned based on the switch...case statement result:

void switchDemo2(int i){
boolean b = switch(i) {
case 0 -> false;
case 1 -> true;
default -> false;

If we execute the switchDemo2() method, the results are going to be as follows:

switchDemo2(0);    //prints: false
switchDemo2(1); //prints: true
switchDemo2(2); //prints: false

It looks like a nice improvement. If this feature will prove to be useful, it will be included in the future Java releases as a permanent feature.

Iteration statements

An iteration statement can be one of the following three forms:

  • while statement
  • do...while statement
  • for statement, also called a loop statement

A while statement appears as follows:

while (boolean expression){
//do something

Here is a specific example:

int n = 0;
while(n < 5){
System.out.print(n + " "); //prints: 0 1 2 3 4

In some examples, instead of the println() method, we use the print() method, which does not feed another line (does not add a line feed control at the end of its output). The print() method displays the output in one line.

The do...while statement has a very similar form:

do {
//do something
} while (boolean expression)

It differs from the while statement by always executing the block of statements at least once, before evaluating the expression:

int n = 0;
do {
System.out.print(n + " "); //prints: 0 1 2 3 4
} while(n < 5);

As you can see, it behaves the same way in the case when the expression is true at the first iteration. But if the expression evaluates to false, the results are different:

int n = 6;
while(n < 5){
System.out.print(n + " "); //prints:

n = 6;
do {
System.out.print(n + " "); //prints: 6
} while(n < 5);

The for statement syntax is as follows:

for(init statements; boolean expression; update statements) {
//do what has to be done here

Here is how the for statement works:

  • init statements initialize a variable.
  • boolean expression is evaluated using the current variable value: if true, the block of statements is executed, otherwise, the for statement exits.
  • update statements update, the variable, and the boolean expression is evaluated again with this new value: if true, the block of statements is executed, otherwise the for statement exits.
  • Unless exited, the final step is repeated.

As you can see, if you aren't careful, you can get into an infinite loop:

for (int x = 0; x > -1; x++){
System.out.print(x + " "); //prints: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ...

So, you have to make sure that the boolean expression guarantees eventual exit from the loop:

for (int x = 0; x < 3; x++){
System.out.print(x + " "); //prints: 0 1 2

The following example demonstrates multiple initialization and update statements:

for (int x = 0, y = 0; x < 3 && y < 3; ++x, ++y){
System.out.println(x + " " + y);

And here is the variation of the preceding for statements for demo purposes:

for (int x = getInitialValue(), i = x == -2 ? x + 2 : 0, j = 0;
i < 3 || j < 3 ; ++i, j = i) {
System.out.println(i + " " + j);

If the getInitialValue() method is implemented like int getInitialValue(){ return -2; }, then the preceding two for statements produce exactly the same results.

To iterate over an array of values, you can use an array index:

int[] arr = {24, 42, 0};
for (int i = 0; i < arr.length; i++){
System.out.print(arr[i] + " "); //prints: 24 42 0

Alternatively, you can use a more compact form of a for statement that produces the same result, as follows:

int[] arr = {24, 42, 0};
for (int a: arr){
System.out.print(a + " "); //prints: 24 42 0

This last form is especially useful with a collection as shown here:

List<String> list = List.of("24", "42", "0");
for (String s: list){
System.out.print(s + " "); //prints: 24 42 0

We will talk about collections in Chapter 6Data Structures, Generics, and Popular Utilities.

Exception-handling statements

In Java, there are classes called exceptions that represent the events that disrupt the normal execution flow. They typically have names that end with ExceptionNullPointerException, ClassCastException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, to name a few.

All the exception classes extend the java.lang.Exception class, which, in turn, extends the java.lang.Throwable class (we will explain what this means in Chapter 2, Java Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)). That's why all exception objects have a common behavior. They contain information about the cause of the exceptional condition and the location of its origination (line number of the source code).

Each exception object can be generated (thrown) either automatically by JVM or by the application code, using the keyword throw. If a block of code throws an exception, you can use a try-catch or try-catch-finally construct to capture the thrown exception object and redirect the execution flow to another branch of code. If the surrounding code does not catch the exception object, it propagates all the way out of the application into the JVM and forces it to exit (and abort the application execution). So, it is good practice to use try-catch or try-catch-finally in all the places where an exception can be raised and you do not want your application to abort execution.

Here is a typical example of exception handling:

try {
//x = someMethodReturningValue();
if(x > 10){
throw new RuntimeException("The x value is out of range: " + x);
//normal processing flow of x here
} catch (RuntimeException ex) {
//do what has to be done to address the problem

In the preceding code snippet, normal processing flow will be not executed in the case of x > 10. Instead, the do what has to be done block will be executed. But, in the case x <= 10the normal processing flow block will be run and the do what has to be done block will be ignored.

Sometimes, it is necessary to execute a block of code anyway, whether an exception was thrown/caught or not. Instead of repeating the same code block in two places, you can put it in a finally block, as follows:

try {
//x = someMethodReturningValue();
if(x > 10){
throw new RuntimeException("The x value is out of range: " + x);
//normal processing flow of x here
} catch (RuntimeException ex) {
//prints: The x value is out of range: ...
//do what has to be done to address the problem
} finally {
//the code placed here is always executed

We will talk about exception handling in more detail in Chapter 4, Exception Handling.

Branching statements

Branching statements allow breaking of the current execution flow and continuation of execution form the first line after the current block or from a certain (labeled) point of the control flow.

A branching statement can be one of the following:

  • break 
  • continue 
  • return 

We have seen how break was used in switch-case statements. Here is another example:

String found = null;
List<String> list = List.of("24", "42", "31", "2", "1");
for (String s: list){
System.out.print(s + " "); //prints: 24 42 31
found = s;
System.out.println("Found " + found); //prints: Found 31

If we need to find the first list element that contains "3", we can stop executing as soon as condition s.contains("3") is evaluated to true. The remainder list elements are ignored.

In a more complicated scenario, with nested for statements, it is possible to set a label (with a : column) that indicates which for statement has to be exited: 

String found = null;
List<List<String>> listOfLists = List.of(
List.of("24", "16", "1", "2", "1"),
List.of("43", "42", "31", "3", "3"),
List.of("24", "22", "31", "2", "1")
exit: for(List<String> l: listOfLists){
for (String s: l){
System.out.print(s + " "); //prints: 24 16 1 2 1 43
found = s;
break exit;
System.out.println("Found " + found); //prints: Found 43

We have chosen the label name exit, but we could call it any other name too.

The continue statement works similarly, as follows:

String found = null;
List<List<String>> listOfLists = List.of(
List.of("24", "16", "1", "2", "1"),
List.of("43", "42", "31", "3", "3"),
List.of("24", "22", "31", "2", "1")
String checked = "";
cont: for(List<String> l: listOfLists){
for (String s: l){
System.out.print(s + " "); //prints: 24 16 1 2 1 43 24 22 31
continue cont;
checked += s + " ";
System.out.println("Found " + found); //prints: Found 43
System.out.println("Checked " + checked);
//prints: Checked 24 16 1 2 1 24 22

It differs from break by telling which of the for statements to continue, and not to exit.
A return statement is used to return a result from a method:

String returnDemo(int i){
if(i < 10){
return "Not enough";
} else if (i == 10){
return "Exactly right";
} else {
return "More than enough";

As you can see, there can be several return statements in a method, each returning a different value under different circumstances. If the method returns nothing (void), the return statement is not required, although it is frequently used for better readability, as follows:

void returnDemo(int i){
if(i < 10){
System.out.println("Not enough");
} else if (i == 10){
System.out.println("Exactly right");
} else {
System.out.println("More than enough");

Statements are the building blocks of Java programming. They are like sentences in English, the complete expressions of intent that can be acted upon. They can be compiled and executed. Programming is expressing an action plan in statements.

With this, the explanation of the basics of Java is concluded.

Congratulations for getting through it!



This chapter introduced you to the exciting world of Java programming. We started with explaining the main terms, and then explained how to install the necessary tools, JDK and IDE, and how to configure and use them.

With a development environment in place, we provided the reader with the basics of Java as a programming language. We have described Java primitive types, the String type, and their literals. We have also defined what an identifier is, and what a variable is, and finished with a description of the main types of Java statements. All the points of the discussion were illustrated by the specific code examples.

In the next chapter, we are going to talk about the object-oriented aspects of Java. We will introduce the main concepts, explain what a class is, what an interface is, and the relationship between them. The terms overloading, overriding, and hiding will also be defined and demonstrated in code examples, as well as the usage of the final keyword.



  1. What does JDK stand for?
    1. Java Document Kronos
    2. June Development Karate
    3. Java Development Kit
    4. Java Developer Kit
  1. What does JCL stand for?
    1. Java Classical Library
    2. Java Class Library
    3. Junior Classical Liberty
    4. Java Class Libras
  1. What does Java SE stand for?
    1. Java Senior Edition
    2. Java Star Edition
    3. Java Structural Elections
    4. Java Standard Edition
  1. What does IDE stand for?
    1. Initial Development Edition
    2. Integrated Development Environment
    3. International Development Edition
    4. Integrated Development Edition
  1. What are Maven's functions?
    1. Project building
    2. Project configuration
    3. Project documentation
    4. Project cancellation
  1. What are Java primitive types?
    1. boolean
    2. numeric
    3. integer
    4. string
  1. What are Java primitive types?
    1. long
    2. bit
    3. short
    4. byte
  1. What is a literal?
    1. A letter-based string
    2. A number-based string
    3. A variable representation
    4. A value representation
  1. Which of the following are literals?
    1. \\
    2. 2_0
    3. 2__0f
    4. \f
  1. Which of the following are Java operators?
    1. %
    2. $
    3. &
    4. ->
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
int i = 0; System.out.println(i++);
    1. 0
    2. 1
    3. 2
    4. 3
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
boolean b1 = true;
boolean b2 = false;
System.out.println((b1 & b2) + " " + (b1 && b2));
    1. false true
    2. false false
    3. true false
    4. true true
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
int x = 10;
x %= 6;
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
  1. What is the result of the following code snippet?
System.out.println("abc" - "bc");
    1. a
    2. abc-bc
    3. Compilation error
    4. Execution error
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. 4
  1. What are the correct identifiers?
    1. int __ (two underscores)
    2. 2a
    3. a2
    4. $
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
for (int i=20, j=-1; i < 23 && j < 0; ++i, ++j){
System.out.println(i + " " + j + " ");
    1. 20 -1 21 0
    2. Endless loop
    3. 21 0
    4. 20 -1
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
int x = 10;
try {
if(x++ > 10){
throw new RuntimeException("The x value is out of the range: " + x);
System.out.println("The x value is within the range: " + x);
} catch (RuntimeException ex) {
    1. Compilation error
    2. The x value is out of the range: 11
    3. The x value is within the range: 11
    4. Execution time error
  1. What does the following code snippet print?
int result = 0;
List<List<Integer>> source = List.of(
List.of(1, 2, 3, 4, 6),
List.of(22, 23, 24, 25),
List.of(32, 33)
cont: for(List<Integer> l: source){
for (int i: l){
if(i > 7){
result = i;
continue cont;
System.out.println("result=" + result);
    1. result = 22
    2. result = 23
    3. result = 32
    4. result = 33
  1. Select all the following statements that are correct:
    1. A variable can be declared
    2. A variable can be assigned
    3. A variable can be defined
    4. A variable can be determined
  1. Select all the correct Java statement types from the following:
    1. An executable statement
    2. A selection statement
    3. A method end statement
    4. An increment statement

About the Author

  • Nick Samoylov

    Nick Samoylov graduated from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, has worked as a theoretical physicist, and learned to program as a tool for testing his mathematical models. Following the demise of the USSR, Nick created and successfully ran his own software company. In 1999, with his wife Luda and two daughters, he emigrated to the USA and has been living in Colorado ever since, working as a Java programmer. In his spare time, Nick likes to write and hike in the Rocky Mountains.

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