# LaTeX Cookbook

4.7 (15 reviews total)
By Stefan Kottwitz
• $19.99 Was 37.99 eBook •$46.99 Print + eBook
• $12.99 eBook + Subscription What do you get with a Packt Subscription? • Instant access to this title and 7,500+ eBooks & Videos • Constantly updated with 100+ new titles each month • Breadth and depth in over 1,000+ technologies About this book LaTeX is both a word processor and a markup language. It's pretty simple really, which is why its unsurprising that its so popular within the research community - whether you're a scientist or statistician, with LaTeX, you'll find it easy to present and communicate your work - it gives you full control of the documents you create, no matter how complex they might be. With a huge range of customizable templates and supporting packages available, there's plenty to explore - so you can make LaTeX work for you. LaTeX Cookbook shows you how to get the most from LaTeX - so you can focus on what's important. Inside, you'll find everything from different templates and document types, samples for fine-tuning text design, guidance through embedding images, as well as drawing tables in LaTeX. With essential components to the modern research document included, such as creating a bibliography, glossary, and index, you can be confident that your document is clean and clear. You will also learn how to create graphics within LaTeX, and find vital tips to help you build diagrams with minimum fuss. If that isn't enough, the book also shows you how to use new engines XeTeX and LuaTeX which give LaTeX further functionality so you can handle any complexity with ease and elegance. If you're worried about presenting or communicating ideas and research for maximum impact, look no further than this book - it's sure to increase your productivity. Publication date: October 2015 Publisher Packt Pages 378 ISBN 9781784395148 ## Chapter 1. The Variety of Document Types Documents can vary in size, format, sectioning, and design in general. You can use LaTeX for any document type. In this chapter, you will find recipes for different kinds of documents. We will specifically cover the following topics: • Writing a short text • Writing a thesis • Designing a book • Creating a presentation • Designing a curriculum vitae • Writing a letter • Producing a leaflet • Creating a large poster ## Introduction LaTeX has been around for many years. Over time, developers and authors have contributed a lot of extensions to the LaTeX code base. These extensions include the following: • Document class: This is a style file which is the frame of your document. It usually comes with meaningful default settings that can be changed via options when loading it. Its macros can be customized by the \renewcommand command. It often provides commands for authors to modify settings. • Package: This is a style file with a specific purpose that can be loaded in addition to the document class. Packages can be combined. Most of the time, we load many packages using the \usepackage command. • Bundle: This is a set of closely related packages or classes. In our first recipe, Writing a short text, you will get to know some bundles. • Template: This is a document filled with dummy text, which you can use it as a starting point, and just fill in your own headings, texts, formulas, and images. We will take a look at a template in our second recipe, Writing a thesis. These add-ons are incredibly valuable! They are one of the reasons for the enduring success of LaTeX. We all agree that learning LaTeX can be hard with its steep learning curve. However, if you don't reinvent the wheel, and start with a good template or class and a quality set of packages, you can quickly achieve great results. The purpose of this book is to assist you in this regard. ### Getting ready To be able to work with LaTeX, you need install the following on your computer: • TeX and LaTeX software, which are together called TeX distribution • A LaTeX editor, although you can use any text editor • A PDF viewer to view the final output If you already have these installed, great! In that case, you can skip the next paragraphs and immediately proceed to the first recipe. A PDF reader is probably already installed on your computer, such as the Foxit Reader, the Adobe Reader or the Preview app on the Mac. Furthermore, most editors come with an integrated PDF previewer. So, let's take a look at the TeX software and editors. #### TeX and LaTeX distributions There are collections of TeX and LaTeX software that are ready to use and easy to install. Their websites provide information on installing and updating them. You may choose the download site for your system: • TeX Live: At http://tug.org/texlive/, you can find download information and installation instructions for the cross-platform TeX distribution that runs on Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, and other Unix systems. It is supported by the TeX Users Group (TUG). • MacTeX: This is based on TeX Live and has been significantly customized for Mac OS X. The basic information is available at http://www.tug.org/mactex/. • MiKTeX: The download and documentation of that Windows-specific distribution can be found at http://www.miktex.org/. • proTeXt: This is for Windows only, and it is derived from MiKTeX, but proTeXt is more user-friendly during installation. Its home page can be found at http://www.tug.org/protext/. I recommend that you choose MacTeX if you have a Mac; otherwise, I recommend using TeX Live, since the support by the TUG is especially good. Describing the setup is beyond the scope of this book. For TeX Live, you can find a step-by-step explanation with screenshots in the LaTeX Beginner's Guide by Packt Publishing. Generally, when you visit Internet addresses of the TeX distributions listed above, you can find detailed setup instructions. Finally, on Linux, such as Ubuntu, Debian, Red Hat, Fedora, and SUSE versions, there's usually a TeX Live-based software package available via the operating system repositories. While it's usually not as up-to-date as an installation done via the TeX Live website or a TeX Live DVD, it's very easy to install using the Linux package manager, which you use to install any software usually. #### LaTeX editors There are many LaTeX editors, from small and quick to very feature-rich editors. The TeX distributions already provide the fine editor TeXworks, which I use. It can be set up together with TeX or with a package manager on Linux, and it can be downloaded from http://www.tug.org/texworks/. I have a collection of the links to LaTeX editors and additional software on my blog, http://texblog.net/latex-link-archive/distribution-editor-viewer/, where you may look for alternative editors, which run on your operating system. Additionally, there are pure online LaTeX editors, which run in a web browser, so you can use them even on tablets and smartphones. The most noticeable LaTeX editors are as follows: • https://www.overleaf.com, with real-time collaborative editing and a rich text modes which renders headings, equations and further formatting directly in the editor • https://www.sharelatex.com, also with real-time collaboration and revision history for tracking changes If you need any help in setting up and using LaTeX or any other editor, you can visit a LaTeX web forum. In Chapter 12, Getting Support on the Internet, you can find links to these forums and see and how to use them. You can also find me on those forums. If you would like to get help in learning LaTeX, you may take a look at LaTeX Beginner's Guide at https://www.packtpub.com/hardware-and-creative/latex-beginners-guide. Once you have done the installation, you can launch the editor and start with a LaTeX recipe. ## Writing a short text While LaTeX is great for big documents, it's just as useful for smaller ones, and you get all the features to work with. Writing down homework or producing a seminar handout, for example, doesn't need book-like chapters, and the layout would not be very spacious. So we will choose a document class that suits the task at hand best. There are class bundles that cover commonly used document types. Every LaTeX installation contains the base bundle with standard classes. There are class files for articles, books, reports, letters, and more. It is stable stuff; it has not really been changed for many years. If you don't care about the latest style, this can be sufficient. It would even run on a ten-year-old LaTeX installation. In this recipe, we will use a class of the KOMA-Script bundle. This is a set of classes that were originally designed with the aim of replacing the standard classes and providing more features. In contrast to the rather static base bundle, KOMA-Script has been extensively developed during recent years. It became feature-rich and got an excellent user interface. Parts of its functionality are provided in packages that can be used together with other classes as well. You can identify KOMA-Script classes and packages by the prefix scr. This prefix stands for script, which was the initial name of this bundle. ### How to do it... We will start with a complete small document, already using various features. This can be your template, into which you can add your own text later on. While we go through the document step by step, you may open the complete code directly with your editor, so you don't need to type it. It is contained in the code bundle available at the book's page https://www.packtpub.com and at the book's page http://latex-cookbook.net. Perform the following steps to create a small document: 1. Start with a document class. We will use the KOMA-Script class scrartcl, with A4 paper size, a base font size of 12 pt, and interparagraph spacing instead of the default paragraph indentation: \documentclass[paper=a4,oneside,fontsize=12pt, parskip=full]{scrartcl} 2. Begin the document: \begin{document} 3. Let LaTeX print a table of contents using this command: \tableofcontents 4. Start a section without numbering: \addsec{Introduction} 5. Add some text: This document will be our starting point for simple documents. It is suitable for a single page or up to a couple of dozen pages. The text will be divided into sections. 6. Start an automatically numbered section with text: \section{The first section} This first text will contain 7. Add a bulleted list using an itemize environment. Each list item starts with \item. Using \ref{label}, we will refer to labels, which we will create later: \begin{itemize} \item a table of contents, \item a bulleted list, \item headings and some text and math in section, \item referencing such as to section \ref{sec:maths} and equation (\ref{eq:integral}). \end{itemize} 8. Continue with text and start another numbered section: We can use this document as a template for filling in our own content. \section{Some maths} 9. Set a label so that we can refer to this point whenever we want to refer to this section: \label{sec:maths} 10. Continue with the text. We will start using some mathematical expressions in the text. We mark this by enclosing them in parentheses with a prefixing backslash, that is, $$…$$. When we write a scientific or technical document, we usually include math formulas. To get a brief glimpse of the look of maths, we will look at an integral approximation of a function $$f(x)$$ as a sum with weights $$w_i$$: 11. Write a mathematical equation using the equation environment. Again, place a label by using the following commands: $$\label{eq:integral} \int_a^b f(x)\,\mathrm{d}x \approx (b-a) \sum_{i=0}^n w_i f(x_i)$$ 12. End the document: \end{document} 13. Compile the document. The first page of the output will look like this: ### How it works... In the first line, we loaded the document class scrartcl. In square brackets, we set options for specifying an A4 paper size with one-sided printing and a font size of 12 pt. Finally, we chose to have a full line between paragraphs in the output so that we can easily distinguish paragraphs. ### Note The default setting is no space between paragraphs and a small indentation at the beginning of each paragraph. Uncheck the parskip option to see it. We chose a paragraph skip because many people are used to it when working with e-mails, while indentation costs line space, which is a precious resource on small electronic devices. Without further ado, we began the text with a table of contents. While numbered sections are started by the \section command, we can start unnumbered sections by using the starred version \section*. However, we used the KOMA-Script command \addsec for the first unnumbered section. That's because, in contrast with \section*, the \addsec command generates an entry in the table of contents. An empty line tells LaTeX to make a paragraph break. As bulleted lists are a good way to clearly present points, we used an itemize environment for this. All environments start with the \begin command and are ended with the \end command. ### Tip If you would like to have a numbered list, use the enumerate environment. An equation environment has been used to display a formula that is automatically numbered. We used the \label command to set an invisible anchor mark so we could refer to it using its label name by the \ref command and get the equation number in the output. ### Tip Choosing label identifiers: It is a good practice to use prefixes to identify kinds of labels, such as eq:name for equations, fig:name for figures, tab:name for tables, and so on. Avoid special characters in names, such as accented alphabets. Small formulas within text lines have been enclosed in $$...$$, which provides inline math mode. Dollar symbols, $ ... \$, can be used instead of $$...$$, which makes typing easier. However, the use of parentheses makes it easier to understand where the math mode starts and where it ends, which may be beneficial when many math expressions are scattered throughout the text.

For further information on math typesetting, refer to Chapter 10, Advanced Mathematics, specifically to the recipe Finetuning a formula.

The part of the document before the \begin{document} command is called the preamble. It contains global settings. By adding a few lines to our document preamble, we can improve our document and modify the general appearance. Chapter 2, Tuning the Text, starts with additions that are beneficial for small documents as well. They enable the direct input of accented characters and unicode symbols, and they improve justification and hyphenation.

In Chapter 3, Adjusting Fonts, you can find recipes for changing the fonts of either the whole document or of certain elements.

For further customization tasks, such as modifying page layout, and adding a title page, refer to the recipe Designing a book in the current chapter. We will take a look at such settings on the occasion of a book example.

## Writing a thesis

When you plan to write a large document like a thesis, you have two choices: either choose a ready-made template, or set up your own document environment. If you have got limited time and need to start off with your thesis fast, a template can come to the rescue.

Beware of outdated and questionable templates found somewhere on the Internet. Look first at the date and at user opinions, such as on web forums. The age of a template is not a problem by itself, as LaTeX can run it the same way when it's been written. However, as LaTeX has developed, better solutions have come up over time. Legacy code may not benefit from it.

Some universities provide their own templates. That may be ok, because requirements would be met for sure; just check if it can be improved; for example, by replacing an obsolete package with its recommended successors.

A very good source for checking the quality of a template is the guide to obsolete commands and packages in LaTeX2e, which is also called l2tabu. You can open the English version by typing the texdoc l2tabuen command in Command Prompt, or by visiting http://texdoc.net/pkg/l2tabuen.

To be clear, the LaTeX base is stable and solid, but there are changes in community-contributed packages.

In the previous recipe, Writing a short text, we took the bottom-up approach and built a document from scratch, adding what we desired. Now we will go top-down; let's use and understand a complete template, removing what we don't need.

As we need to choose a template now, let's take a real gem. The ClassicThesis package by Prof. André Miede is a thesis template of very good quality. The design follows the classic guide to writing, The Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst, we will see some particular points later in this recipe. Its implementation is thoughtful and modern. Originally written in 2006, it's maintained today as well, and shipped with TeX distributions.

Even if you would not use this specific template later, it shows how we can organize a large document.

Though the ClassicThesis package may already be installed in your TeX system, named classicthesis.sty, the whole template is an archive of files that should go into your working directory.

Download the ClassicThesis archive from CTAN by visiting http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/classicthesis/.

Instead of fetching single files, choose to download it as a .zip file. Unzip it to where you keep your personal documents, in its own directory. This directory will be your thesis directory.

This package provides a ready-made structured filesystem of the main document, style file, settings file, and document parts such as the abstract and foreword, and also chapters in dedicated files. You can edit all files and fill in your own text.

The ClassicThesis.tex file is the main document. Its filler text is the template's manual; this allows us to compile the template immediately for looking at the output design. By compiling, you can also verify that your TeX installation can handle additional packages if you need to install any.

### How to do it...

After unzipping, your directory will have the following structure:

1. Rename or copy the file ClassicThesis.tex; choose your own name, such as MyThesis.tex, but keep it in the same directory.

2. Open the main document, that is, MyThesis.tex, and look around to get a feeling of the document structure. Compile it for testing at least twice to get the correct referencing so you would know that this starting point works.

3. You can review and edit the settings in the main file, MyThesis.tex, and in the configuration file, classicthesis-config.tex. Over the course of the following pages, we will examine their content.

4. Open the existing .tex files, such as Abstract.tex and Chapter01.tex, with your editor. Remove the filler text and type in your own text. Add further chapter files as needed, and include them in the main file, MyThesis.tex, using the \include command. The structure is given; the technical part of the editing is like cloning files and copying lines, all you need to focus on is the actual thesis content now.

Don't worry if the font or margins don't please you yet. You can change the layout at any time. Let's take a closer look now, and then you will know how.

### How it works...

We will take a look at the functional lines of the main file, MyThesis.tex.

The document preamble is as follows:

\documentclass[ twoside,openright,titlepage,
footinclude=true,cleardoublepage=empty,
BCOR=5mm,paper=a4,fontsize=11pt,
ngerman,american,%
]{scrreprt}
\input{classicthesis-config}

The template is built on the KOMA-Script class, scrreprt. KOMA-Script as a LaTeX bundle is described in this chapter's first recipe, Writing a short text.

You can change the preset options to those you need, such as the font size or binding correction BCOR. There are many class options for adjusting the layout; you can read about them in the KOMA-Script manual. Type texdoc scrguien in Command prompt, or visit http://texdoc.net/pkg/scrguien. We will discuss some of them in depth in our next recipe, Designing a book.

Loading of packages and all the remaining settings is done in a single file, classicthesis-config.tex. We will look at it later in this recipe.

The document body starts with the following commands:

\begin{document}
\frenchspacing
\raggedbottom
\selectlanguage{american}
\pagenumbering{roman}
\pagestyle{plain}

The \frenchspacing line means that there's a single space following the punctuation after a sentence. Before the twentieth century, people stuffed extra space between sentences. LaTeX does this by default, or you can enter the \nonfrenchspacing line. The language is set to American English. Actually, you would need the \selectlanguage line only if you need to switch between languages for correct hyphenation.

We start with Roman page numbers. The plain page style means that we have no page headers for now, while page numbers are centered in the page footer.

Then, we look at the front matter, which is the part of the document where the formal parts before the actual content go:

\include{FrontBackmatter/DirtyTitlepage}
\include{FrontBackmatter/Titlepage}
\include{FrontBackmatter/Titleback}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Dedication}
%\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Foreword}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Abstract}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Publication}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Acknowledgments}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Contents}

Each commonly-required part of the front matter has its own file. Just edit the file as you need it, comment out by inserting a % symbol at the beginning of a line, or remove what you don't need. The \cleardoublepage line ends a page, but also ensures that the next page starts on the right-hand side. This can mean inserting an empty page if necessary; that is, a double page break. This will not happen if you change the twoside option to oneside, so you can keep the \cleardoublepage line, which will act like a \clearpage command when the oneside option is set.

Finally, we got the main matter:

\pagenumbering{arabic}
%\setcounter{page}{90}
% use \cleardoublepage here to avoid problems with pdfbookmark
\cleardoublepage
\part{Some Kind of Manual}
\include{Chapters/Chapter01}
\cleardoublepage
\ctparttext{You can put some informational part preamble text here...}
\part{The Showcase}
\include{Chapters/Chapter02}
\include{Chapters/Chapter03}

In the main matter, we use Arabic page numbers. The \pagenumbering line resets the page number to 0.

The thesis is divided into parts. Each one is split into chapters. You can omit the \part lines if you want your highest sectioning level to be the chapter level.

In the Chapters subdirectory, each chapter has its own .tex file; so, you can easily handle a large amount of text. Furthermore, you can use the \includeonly command to compile just the selected chapters for speeding up writing.

Finally, the main document ends with the back matter:

\appendix
\cleardoublepage
\part{Appendix}
\include{Chapters/Chapter0A}
%********************************************************************
% Other Stuff in the Back
%*******************************************************
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Bibliography}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Colophon}
\cleardoublepage\include{FrontBackmatter/Declaration}
\end{document}

The command \appendix resets the sectioning counters and changes them to alphabetic numbering, that is, the following chapters will be numbered A, B, and so on. Like in the front matter, the parts of the appendix are divided into several files.

Let's take a look at the configuration file. Open the classicthesis-config.tex file. The whole thing would take too much space in the book, so let's just take a look at some sample lines:

\newcommand{\myTitle}{A Classic Thesis Style\xspace}
\newcommand{\myName}{Andr\'e Miede\xspace}
\newcommand{\myUni}{Put data here\xspace}
\newcommand{\myTime}{August 2012\xspace}

Here, you can fill in your own data. Besides being printed on the title page, this data will be used as metadata for the generated PDF document. There are more supported macros here, such as \mySubtitle, \myProf, and many more. The \xspace takes care of proper spacing after such a macro; that is, it inserts a space when there's no punctuation mark following it.

### There's more...

As mentioned, this template contains design decisions inspired by the book The Elements of Typographical Style by Robert Bringhurst. The most notable design decisions are as follows:

• It doesn't use bold fonts, but rather uses small caps or italics elegantly to emphasize what's important.

• The text body is not very wide and this allows it to be read comfortably without needing the eyes to jump too far from the end of the line to the beginning of the next line. So, we have wide margins, which can be used for notes.

• The table of contents is not stretched to get right-aligned page numbers. To quote the author, "Is your reader interested in the page number or does she/he want to sum the numbers up?". That's why the page number follows the title.

Explore the classicthesis-config.tex file further to make modifications. Like in the previous recipe, we apply document-wide changes within the preamble, and here, we do it in this file.

We will now take a look at the selected lines of that configuration file.

#### Changing the input encoding

You might have noticed that special characters, such as accented characters, don't work directly in the input. Scroll to this line:

\PassOptionsToPackage{latin9}{inputenc}
\usepackage{inputenc}

This is another way of setting the input encoding. Refer to the recipe Inputting accented characters in Chapter 2, Tuning the Text, to understand the topic of encoding. Here, you should change the latin9 option to utf8 if you wish to use an UTF-8-capable system and editor. The latin9 option is typically used by older editors on Windows. There are other encodings. If you would need another one, use texdoc inputenc, or visit http://texdoc.net/pkg/inputenc to take a look at the available options.

The design is not set in stone, you may adjust it all. If you would like to see the page numbers in the table of contents right aligned, set a single option. Look at the very beginning of the classicthesis-config.tex file:

\PassOptionsToPackage{eulerchapternumbers,listings,drafting,%
subfig,beramono,eulermath,parts}{classicthesis}

Here, you can find the options for the actual classicthesis package. Simply add the dottedtoc option to this comma separated list. These options, among others, are documented in the template's manual. You can open it by typing texdoc classicthesis in Command Prompt, or at http://texdoc.net/pkg/classicthesis. (editor: please apply inline code formatting correctly, and URL formatting)

#### Changing the margins

To fulfill requirements of page margins or to implement your own layout ideas, you can specify exact page dimensions by loading the geometry package. Consider the following example:

\usepackage[inner=1.5cm,outer=3cm,top=2cm,bottom=2cm,
bindingoffset=5mm]{geometry}

Here, you can also provide a value for the space that you leave for the binding and all margins you like. It's good practice to have a visible inner margin set to half the value of the outer margin, because margins will be added in the middle. For single-sided printing, with the oneside option, use left=... and right=... for the defining the margins instead of inner and outer.

Place such a line at the end of the classicthesis-config.tex file so that it will override the original settings.

#### Modifying the layout of captions

In the classicthesis-config.tex file, you can change the appearance of captions of figures and tables:

\usepackage{caption}
\captionsetup{format=hang,font=small}

The template loads the caption package. It provides a lot of features for fine-tuning captions. For now, the caption texts are indented so they will hang under the first line, and they will have a smaller font size than the normal text. By adding simple options, you can further adjust the appearance; for example, by adding the labelfont=it line, you can get italicized caption labels. Refer to the caption manual to learn more. As usual, you can open it via texdoc caption or at http://texdoc.net/pkg/caption.

### Note

While the caption package is a general solution working with most classes, including KOMA-Script, the KOMA-Script now offers extended integrated caption features.

#### Centering displayed equations

Another option is responsible for the alignment of displayed equations:

\PassOptionsToPackage{fleqn}{amsmath}
\usepackage{amsmath}

With these ClassicThesis lines displayed equations will be left aligned. The fleqn option allows switching to this alignment. If you would like to restore the default behavior, which is centering the equations, remove that first line that passes the option, or comment it out by a % symbol. But keep the second line, though, which loads the amsmath option, as this is the de-facto standard package for typesetting mathematics in LaTeX.

You can find further thesis templates at http://www.latextemplates.com.

In the following chapters, you can find a lot of recipes for content elements in your thesis. For a beautiful thesis, elegant tables are of great value, so you may also want to take a look at the Advanced table design recipe in Chapter 5, Beautiful Designs.

## Designing a book

A book can be a pretty large document, so we can take a similar approach to the one we took in the preceding recipe. Refer to that recipe to see how to split your document into handy files and how to organize the directory structure.

Commonly, books are printed two sided. They are divided into chapters, which start on right-hand side pages, and they have pretty spacy headings and often a page header showing the current chapter title. Readability and good typography are important, so you will hardly find books with an A4 paper size, double-line spacing, and similar specs, which some institutes expect of a thesis. This is why we have dedicated book classes with meaningful default settings and features.

### How to do it...

As explained in the Writing a short text recipe, our choice will be a KOMA-Script class; only, this time it has the name scrbook.

Perform these steps to start off a book:

1. Start with the scrbook class and suitable options for paper and font size:

\documentclass[fontsize=11pt,paper=a5,
pagesize=auto]{scrbook}
2. Specify the input encoding, which will depend on your editor settings:

\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
3. Choose a font encoding. T1 is good for European, English, or American texts:

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
4. If you want a nondefault font, load it. Here, we chose Latin Modern:

\usepackage{lmodern}
5. We will load the blindtext package to get English dummy texts. It also requires you to load babel with the English setting:

\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage{blindtext}
6. Load the microtype package for better text justification:

\usepackage{microtype}
7. Using this command, you can switch off the additional space after sentence punctuation:

\frenchspacing
8. Begin the document:

\begin{document}
9. Provide a title, a subtitle, an author name, and a date. You can also set an empty value if you don't want to have something in the title field:

\title{The Book}
\subtitle{Some more to know}
\author{The Author}
\date{}
10. Let LaTeX print the title page:

\maketitle

\tableofcontents
12. We will divide this book in to parts, so start with the first part:

\part{First portion}
13. Start a chapter with a heading. It's good to have text before adding another heading, so let's insert some:

\chapter{The beginning}
Some introductional text comes here.
14. As we did in our first recipe, add a section and text, and another part with a chapter and section. Using the \Blindtext command, you can generate a long dummy text, and using \blindtext, you can generate shorter dummy texts. The \appendix command switches the font to alphabetic numbering:

\section{A first section}
Dummy text will follow.
\blindtext
\section{Another section}
\Blindtext
\appendix
\part{Appendix}
\section{Section within the appendix}
\blindtext
15. End the document:

\end{document}
16. Let your editor compile the text to PDF. You will get a 13-page-long book document with A5 paper size, a title page, part pages, chapter, section headings, and filler text.

Take a look at the following sample page:

Note the headings in sans serif font. This is an intentional default setting in KOMA-Script classes, which makes the headings lighter than the standard LaTeX big, bold, and serif headings. You may know the standard look.

17. Now, you can fill in your own text, add chapters and sections, and possibly add features, which will be described later in this recipe.

### How it works...

At first, we loaded the class scrbook, which was specifically made for writing books. So, it is ready for two-sided printing with meaningful margins and good proportions of headings and text.

Besides the class's default settings, we chose a font size of 11 pt and A5 paper size, which is handy for a book. The pagesize=auto option is important here as it ensures that the A5 printing area will be taken over to the PDF page size.

Then, we did the following things, which will be explained in more detail at the beginning of Chapter 2, Tuning the Text:

• We declared the input character encoding and chose UTF-8, Unicode

• We set the font encoding to T1 by loading the fontenc package

• We chose the high-quality T1 supporting font set Latin Modern by loading the lmodern package

• We loaded the babel package with support for English

• We used the microtype package to get finer typography

The last package we loaded is the blindtext. You don't need it in your final document; here, it will serve us to provide filler text. Using such dummy text, we can get a better idea of the final result before writing the actual content.

Finally, we switched to the so-called French spacing, which means that after ending a sentence, we will get a normal interword space, not a wider space.

### There's more...

You can change the layout of the book in many ways. Choose your settings at the beginning, or even better—start writing your content without any hesitation—once you have a decent amount of text, you can better see the effects of layout changes. You can do this at any time. Let's take a look at some design ideas.

#### Changing the page layout

When the book is bound after printing, the binding can cost space, that is, there may be less of the inner margin visible. You can specify a binding correction to compensate and to preserve layout proportions. So, if you would see 5 mm less of the inner margin after binding, add BCOR=5mm as class the option at the beginning. A similarly produced book may give you an idea of a good value.

The actual text area has the same ratios as the page itself. This is automatically done by a dividing construction, described in the KOMA-Script manual. It's really worth reading. You can open it by typing the texdoc scrguien command in Command Prompt, or online at http://texdoc.net/pkg/scrguien. The abbreviation, scrguien, comes from scr for the original package name Script, gui for guide, and en for English, and, obviously, from the ancient limit of eight characters per file name in older filesystems.

Besides the page and text area ratios, the result shows a bottom margin twice as high as the top margin, and an outer margin with double the width of the inner margin. Imagine an opened book, where the inner margins together appear with the same space as an outer margin. Sometimes, people make the mistake of thinking that the inner margin should be much bigger because of the binding, but that's done by raising the BCOR, as shown previously.

If you would like to get a bigger text area, which means narrower margins, you can still keep the ratios as described. Just raise the division factor of the aforementioned internal construction and check whether or not it would suit you. For example, set the class option as DIV=10; higher values are possible. That's a safe and easy way to preserve sane layout proportions.

To sum up, our example with 5 mm binding loss and pretty narrow margins can start like this:

\documentclass[fontsize=11pt,paper=a5,pagesize=auto,
BCOR=5mm,DIV=12]{scrbook}

Alternatively, you can freely choose text and margin dimensions, when requirements of the publisher or institute need to be met. This can be done by loading the classic geometry package with the desired measurements, like we saw in the Writing a thesis recipe:

\usepackage[inner=1.5cm,outer=3cm,top=2cm,bottom=4cm,
bindingoffset=5mm]{geometry}

#### Designing a title page

You can create your own title page, to present some more information in any style you desire. Let's take a look at an example that shows some handy commands for it.

Remove the \maketitle command. You can do the same thing with the commands \title, \subtitle, \author, and \date. Instead, put the titlepage environment right after the \begin{document} block:

\begin{titlepage}
\vspace*{1cm}
{\huge\raggedright The Book\par}
\noindent\hrulefill\par
{\LARGE\raggedleft The Author\par}
\vfill
{\Large\raggedleft Institute\par}
\end{titlepage}

The titlepage environment creates a page without a page number on it. We started with some vertical space using the \vspace* command. The \vspace command adds vertical space, which can be of a positive or negative value. Here, note the star at the end; * \vspace also works at the very beginning of a page, where a simple \vspace would be ignored. This default behavior prevents undesired vertical space at the top of a page, which originally may have been intended as space between texts.

We enclosed each line in curly braces. This is also called grouping, and it is used to keep the effect of changes, such as the font size, local within the braces. In each line, we do the following:

• Switch to a certain font size

• Choose left or right alignment

• Write out the text

• End with a paragraph break

The \par command is equivalent to an empty line in the input. Sometimes, people use it to keep the code compact, as we did here. We need to end the paragraph before the font size changes because that size defines the space between lines. Hence, we ended the paragraph before we closed the brace group. It's good to keep this in mind for when texts are longer.

Our only nontext design element is a modest horizontal line made by the \hrulefill line. The preceding \noindent line just prevents an undesired paragraph indentation, so the line really starts at the very left.

The \vfill line inserts stretching vertical space, so we get the last line pushed down to the title page bottom.

We took this occasion to show some commands for positioning text on a page. You can experiment with the \vspace and \vfill commands and their horizontal companions \hspace and \hfill. Just avoid using such commands to fix local placement issues in the actual document, when it would be better to adjust a class or package setting document wide. Use these only in the final stage to make tweaks if any are required.

### Tip

The titlepages package provides 40 example title pages in various designs with full LaTeX source code. You can choose one, use it, and customize it.

The title page, which we produced previously, is actually an inner page. That's why it follows the normal page layout with the same inner and outer margin as the body text.

The cover is different, for example, it should have symmetric margins, and it can be designed according to your preference or individual choice. To get that deviating layout, it is recommended that you use a separate document for it. Another reason is that it will usually be printed on a different type of paper or cardboard.

So, you can start with an article-like class like the one we used in our first recipe, Writing a short text. Use options such as twoside=false or the equivalent oneside option to get symmetric margins. Then, you can proceed to positioning your text like we did with the title page.

#### Changing the document class

A very well designed book class is memoir. It is pretty complete in itself, so you don't need to load many packages as it already integrates a lot of features of other packages, providing similar interfaces. The memoir class has a monolithic, easy-to-use approach, but it needs to take care of package conflicts. It is not as flexible as choosing the package set by yourself. KOMA-Script, in contrast, provides its features mostly in packages that can also be used together with other classes. You can change to memoir this way:

1. Start off with the memoir class by changing the first line to the following:

\documentclass[11pt,a5paper]{memoir}
2. Remove the unsupported \subtitle command.

3. To have the title on its own page, surround the \maketitle line with a titlingpage environment:

\begin{titlingpage}
\maketitle
\end{titlingpage}
4. Compile, and compare.

The memoir class provides an extensive manual that can help you to customize your document. It's split in two parts. Type the texdoc memman command in Command Prompt to read the actual manual, and the texdoc memdesign command to read the part on book design, which is a great resource independent of the class. Alternatively, you can find these manuals at http://texdoc.net/pkg/memman and http://texdoc.net/pkg/memdesign respectively.

Another great start with a special beauty is the tufte-latex class. It comes with a sample-book.tex file, which you can also download from http://ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/tufte-latex. You can open this book file, which contains some dummy content, and fill in your own text. One of its outstanding features is a wide margin for extensive use of side notes and small figures in the margin.

A book may contain other elements, such as an index, a glossary, and a bibliography. Refer to Chapter 7, Contents, Indexes, and Bibliographies, which contains such recipes.

## Creating a presentation

At a conference or at a seminar, speakers often use a projector or a screen for presenting written information in addition to what they are addressing. Such a presentation document requires a specific kind of layout and features.

In our recipe, we will use the beamer class, which has been designed specifically for this purpose. It provides the following features:

• A typical landscape slide format, here 128 mm x 96 mm

• Structured frames with dynamic information; for example, about sectioning

• Support for overlays and transition effects

• Predesigned themes for easily choosing the look

• A smart interface for customizing

### How to do it...

We will start off with a sample presentation document, which we can extend. Follow the given steps:

1. Start with the beamer document class:

\documentclass{beamer}
2. Choose a theme. Here, we take the theme called Warsaw:

\usetheme{Warsaw}
3. Begin the document:

\begin{document}
4. Provide a title, subtitle, the names of the author and the institute, and a date:

\title{Talk on the Subject}
\author{Author Name}
\institute{University of X}
\date{June 24, 2015}
5. Make a slide using the frame environment. The first one will contain the title page:

\begin{frame}
\titlepage
\end{frame}
6. Make a frame for the table of contents, with the title Outline. Add the option pausesections, so the table of contents will be shown stepwise, section by section:

\begin{frame}{Outline}
\tableofcontents[pausesections]
\end{frame}
7. Start a section and a subsection within it:

\section{Introduction}
\subsection{A subsection}
8. All visible content goes into the frame environment, including lists, which are visually better than normal text in a presentation:

\begin{frame}{Very Informative Title}
\begin{itemize}
\item First thing to say.
\item There is more.
\item Another short point.
\end{itemize}
\end{frame}
9. This frame will show an emphasized block with the title:

\begin{frame}{Another Title With Uppercased Words}
Text
Some important information put into a block.
\end{frame}
10. Add another subsection with a frame with a titled block. Also, add a new section with a slide containing a list. We have highlighted some words by using the \alert command. Finally, end the document:

\subsection{Another subsection}
\begin{frame}{Informative Title}
\begin{exampleblock}{An example}
An example within a block.
\end{exampleblock}
Explanation follows.
\end{frame}
\section{Summary}
\begin{frame}{Summary}
\begin{itemize}
\end{itemize}
\vfill
\begin{block}{Outlook}
Further ideas here.
\end{block}
\end{frame}
\end{document}
11. Compile, and take a look at the slides we have produced:

12. Adjust the title, name of the author, and date.

13. Edit the text in the frames. Add your own frames with titles and text. Use the components you found here, such as bulleted lists and boxes.

### How it works...

We loaded the beamer class and chose the theme with the name Warsaw. You can easily replace it with another theme's name, compile it, and cycle through the themes until you find the best one for your occasion. By default, the following themes are installed:

• AnnArbor

• Antibes

• Bergen

• Berkeley

• Berlin

• Boadilla

• boxes

• CambridgeUS

• Copenhagen

• Darmstadt

• default

• Dresden

• EastLansing

• Frankfurt

• Goettingen

• Hannover

• Ilmenau

• JuanLesPins

• Luebeck

• Madrid

• Malmoe

• Marburg

• Montpellier

• PaloAlto

• Pittsburgh

• Rochester

• Singapore

• Szeged

• Warsaw

You can see these themes in the gallery at http://latex-beamer.net. We specified the title, subtitle, author, and date of the seminar, which is then printed by \titlepage. We used a frame environment, which we have to use for each slide.

The next frame contains the table of contents. We provided the frame title Outline as an argument to the frame in curly braces. For the \tableofcontents command, we added the pausesections option. As a result of doing this, section titles are printed one-by-one with a pause in between. This gives us the opportunity to explain what the audience will hear before they read further.

Here, we used the \section and \subsection commands just like in a normal LaTeX document. The heading is not directly printed. The sections and subsections are printed in the frame margin with the current position highlighted.

To get a bulleted list, we used an itemize environment just as we would in a normal LaTeX document. The environments enumerate for numbered lists and description for descriptive lists also work in the beamer frames.

To highlight information, we used the so-called block environments. Besides the standard block environment, we can use the exampleblock and alertblock commands to get a different style or color. The chosen theme determines the appearance of those blocks.

The \alert command is used to emphasize more distinctly, as seen in the last frame.

Now, you have the template and tools to create your presentation.

### Tip

Consider the following while designing a presentation:

• Keep time constraints in mind; a frame per minute is a good rule of thumb.

• Use few sections, logically split in subsections; it is better to avoid subsubsections.

• Use self-explanatory titles for sectioning and frames.

• Bulleted lists help to keep things simple.

• Consider avoiding numbering references; one rarely cares about a reference to theorem 2.6 during a talk.

• Don't disrupt the reading flow with footnotes.

• Graphics, such as diagrams, help the audience with visualization.

• Slides should support your talk, not the other way round. Did you already bear with a presentation where the speaker just read aloud the text from the slides and used fancy transition effects? You can do it better.

### There's more...

The beamer package has unique capabilities and an extraordinary design. We will explore it in the following pages.

#### Using short titles and names

Besides the title page, the title of the presentation and the author's name are additionally printed at the bottom of each frame. The exact position depends upon the chosen theme.

However, for long titles or names, the space might be insufficient. You can provide short versions to be used in such places, for example, by specifying the following commands:

\title[Short title]{Long Informative Title}
\author[Shortened name]{Author's Complete Name}
\date[2015/06/24]{Conference on X at Y, June 24, 2015}

The same is possible for the \institute and \subtitle commands, if you would use these commands in your presentation.

You can provide short names for sections and subsections in exactly the same way, so they would better fit into their field within the frame margin; just use the optional argument in square brackets. The \part and \subsubsection commands work similarly, they can get a short name in square brackets as well.

#### Uncovering information piecewise

Showing a complete slide at once may be a bit distracting. People may read ahead instead of listening to you. You can take them by the hand by displaying the content step by step.

The simplest way is to insert a \pause command. It can go between anything such as text, graphics, and blocks. It also works between two \item commands in a bulleted list; however, consider pausing between whole lists instead of items. Simply use it like we will do in the following line of code:

Text\pause more text\pause\includegraphics{filename}

Such a frame is then layered; that is, divided into overlays. They are internally numbered. If you would like to show something at a certain overlay, you can tell the beamer package when to uncover it:

\uncover<3->{Surprise!}

This shows your text on slide 3 of the current frame; and it will stay on the following slides in that frame. Omit the dash for restricting it to only slide 3. You can also list multiple slides, such as <3,5>, give ranges such as <3-5>, and mix the two, as in <3,5->.

This syntax works with overlay-specification-aware commands. Among them, there are \item, \includegraphics, and even \renewcommand, so you can use them with an overlay specification such as the following:

\includegraphics<3->{filename}

Overlays should not be too fancy. A presentation needs a linear structure; complicated overlays may be handy for showing and hiding annotation to an object, while you explain that.

Refer to the beamer manual for more information on using overlays. You can open that manual via texdoc beamer in Command Prompt, or online at http://texdoc.net/pkg/beamer.

#### Splitting frames in columns

You can arrange text and images in multiple columns on a frame. This is especially handy for images with explanatory text. Let's take a look at a sample:

\begin{frame}
Some text which can use whole frame width
\begin{columns}[t]
\begin{column}{0.45\textwidth}
Sample text in\\
two lines
\end{column}
\begin{column}[T]{0.45\textwidth}
\includegraphics[width=3cm]{filename}
\end{column}
\end{columns}
\end{frame}

We started the multicolumn area using the column environment. You can specify alignment options t, b, or c for top, bottom, or centered alignment of the column. Centered is the default. While t aligns at the baseline of the first line, which is common in LaTeX, there's a handy additional option, T, which aligns at the very top.

Each column is created by the column environment. The column width is given as an argument. It understands the same positioning options, so you can override what you set in the surrounding columns environment. We added the [T] option here, because an image has its baseline at its bottom, and we want to change it to the very top.

#### Showing an outline for each section

You can tell the beamer package to give an outline at the beginning of each section by specifying the following code:

\AtBeginSection{
\begin{frame}{Outline}
\tableofcontents[currentsection]
\end{frame}}

You can also use the \AtBeginSection command to insert different lines of code. If something should happen in case of a starred \section* too, you can insert the corresponding code within an optional argument in square brackets after \AtBeginSection.

By default, every slide shows small navigation symbols; here, at the bottom of a frame. If you don't need them, you can save that space and reduce the distraction by specifying the following line of code:

\setbeamertemplate{navigation symbols}{}

#### Changing the font

The default font set with the beamer package is Computer Modern. You can change it to other fonts as discussed in Chapter 3, Adjusting Fonts.

The default font is sans serif. Even the math formulas are sans serif. With a low projector resolution, or at some distance, this can be more readable than with a serif font.

However, if you would like to change to a serif font, you can load the corresponding font theme in the preamble:

\usefonttheme{serif}

Another available font theme is professionalfonts, which actually doesn't change fonts, but simply uses the set you specify separately. Furthermore, there are structurebold, structureitalicserif, and structuresmallcapsserif, which change the font in the structure, that is, in headlines, footlines, and sidebars, to such a shape combination.

#### Changing the color

The quickest way to change colors is by loading a theme with a thoughtful selection of colors for the various structure elements. Use a single command as follows:

\usecolortheme{dolphin}

There are outer color themes, providing a color set for headlines, footlines, and sidebars. The author of the beamer package gave them sea animal names: dolphin, whale, and seahorse. Then, there are inner color themes for elements, such as color blocks, with names of flowers: lily, orchid, and rose. Combine inner and outer color themes as you like.

Finally, there are complete themes covering all structure aspects: albatross, beaver, beetle, crane, dove, fly, monarca, seagull, spruce, and wolverine. They are named after flying animals, except wolverine, beaver and spruce, which are external additions.

A lot of names, you may go through them using the \usecolortheme command to find the color set you like the most.

With some labor, you can create your very own theme. The extensive beamer manual will guide you. However, you may save a lot of time; beamer is very popular among academic users, who already use LaTeX for their papers, so you can find a lot of themes prepared for universities and institutes, but also designed by various beamer users.

You can find an overview of beamer themes at http://latex-beamer.net.

Explore the gallery there, download the theme you like, add your logo, and tweak it. Instructions for using the themes that are available on the website.

#### Providing a handout

You can give your audience a printed version of the slides. Just create a version of your document with the handout option, so no overlays will be used:

\documentclass[handout]{beamer}

Slides are commonly small, so it's good to print several slides on a single page:

\usepackage{pgfpages}
\pgfpagesuselayout{4 on 1}[a4paper,
border shrink=5mm,landscape]

This prints four slides on an A4 page in landscape. You can get bigger prints, two slides on each page, in portrait mode, by specifying the following line of code:

\pgfpagesuselayout{2 on 1}[a4paper,border shrink=5mm]

We used the pgfpages option, a utility package that comes with the pgf package.

For the best quality with included graphics, refer to Chapter 4, Working with Images. In Chapter 9, Creating Graphics, you can find recipes for quickly creating diagrams and charts, which are good tools for visualizing data in a presentation.

## Designing a curriculum vitae

Tabular layouts are very common today for the Curriculum Vitae (CV). When applying for a job, inform yourself about the typical requirements of the content of a CV. You can then create a simple document with tables, consistently and clearly readable.

If it needs to be made quickly or if you would like to base it upon a proven modern layout, you can use a template. In this recipe, we will use the moderncv class and its template to quickly produce a CV.

If it's not already installed on your computer, download and install moderncv from CTAN (http://ctan.org/tex-archive/macros/latex/contrib/moderncv).

If your TeX installation provides a package manager, use it for the installation.

There's a directory of examples, containing templates which you can use. Either locate it in the documentation branch of your TeX directory tree, or visit the preceding CTAN link for downloading.

### How to do it...

We will start using a sample file provided by the moderncv package. Perform these steps:

1. Copy the file template.tex, into your document directory and rename it. Choose any name you like. I named it as MyCV.tex.

2. Open that document, that is, MyCV.tex, and look around to understand the template. Luckily, it is full of comments on how to use it. Compile it to ensure that this document works.

3. Review and edit the class and package options in MyThesis.tex.

4. Remove the filler text and type in your own data. At the beginning, your document may look like this:

\documentclass[11pt,a4paper,sans]{moderncv}
\moderncvstyle{classic}
\moderncvcolor{blue}
\usepackage[scale=0.75]{geometry}
\name{John}{Doe}
\title{CV title}
\phone[mobile]{+1~(234)~567~890}
\phone[fixed]{+2~(345)~678~901}
\email{john@doe.org}
\homepage{www.johndoe.com}
\photo[64pt][0.4pt]{ctanlion.pdf}
\begin{document}
\makecvtitle
\section{Education}
{Description}
{Description}
\section{Experience}
\subsection{Vocational}
\cventry{year--year}{Job title}{Employer}{City}{}%
{General description\newline{}Detailed achievements:%
\begin{itemize}%
\item Achievement 1;
\item Achievement 2, with sub-achievements:
\begin{itemize}%
\item Sub-achievement (a)
\item Sub-achievement (b)
\end{itemize}
\item Achievement 3.
\end{itemize}}
\cventry{year--year}{Job title}{Employer}{City}{}
{Description line 1\newline{}Description line 2}
\subsection{Miscellaneous}
\cventry{year--year}{Job title}{Employer}{City}{}{Description}
\section{Languages}
\cvitemwithcomment{Language 1}{Skill level}{Comment}
\cvitemwithcomment{Language 2}{Skill level}{Comment}
\end{document}
5. Compile and take a look at the following result:

### How it works...

We loaded the moderncv package. We used 11 pt as the base font size; 10 pt and 12 pt are also supported. We selected A4 paper; other paper size options are a5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper, and executivepaper. You can also add the landscape option. We chose a sans serif font, which is fine for such lists; alternatively, you could write Roman alphabets for a serif font.

We selected the classic style. Other available styles are casual, oldstyle, and banking.

Our color style is blue. Other color options are orange, green, red, purple, gray, and black.

We loaded the geometry package with a scaling factor for reducing the margins.

Using macros such as the \name and \address, we entered our personal data.

The \photo command includes our photo; the size options are the height to which it is scaled and the thickness of the frame around the photo. In this recipe, we used the CTAN lion drawn by Duane Bibby for the photo.

The document body is divided into sections and subsections, just with a special design.

Then, the \cventry command makes a typical resume entry for job or education. Use it as follows:

\cventry[spacing]{years}{job title}
{employer}{localization}{detail}{job description}

Otherwise, you can use the following:

\cventry[spacing]{years}{degree}
{institution}{localization}{grade}{comment}

You can leave the last four arguments empty if you don't need them.

A simpler line is created using \cvitem, as follows:

\cvitem[optional spacing length{header}{text}

The \cvitemwithcomment command works in a similar way, just with another argument that is printed at the right.

If you are looking for deeper information beyond this quick start guide, some more commands and options are explained in the very well-documented template.tex file, as well as in the class file moderncv.cls itself.

The template file contains a letter template that you can use for an application. Another approach is explained in the next recipe.

## Writing a letter

Letters have a specific structure. Commonly, they have an addressee field at a fixed position, which should be visible in the envelope window. It also should show a back address, of yourself as the sender. An opening text and a closing phrase are usual elements, and you may add fold marks and enclosures.

### How to do it...

We will use a KOMA-Script class, which has been specifically designed for letters, named scrlttr2. Take a look at the following steps:

1. Use the scrlttr2 class, activate the address field and fold marks using the options as follows, and align the sender's address to the right:

\documentclass[addrfield=true,foldmarks=true,
fromalign=right]{scrlttr2}
2. Provide your name and your address using the \setkomavar command:

\setkomavar{fromname}{Thomas Smith}
\setkomavar{fromaddress}{123 Blvd \\ City, CC 12345}
3. Write a date, either \today for today, or any date as text:

\date{\today}
4. Begin the document:

\begin{document}
5. Open a letter environment, with the recipient's address as an argument:

\begin{letter}{Agency \\ 5th Avenue \\
Capital City, CC 12345}

\opening{Dear Sir or Madam,}
the actual content of the letter follows.
7. End with closing words:

\closing{Yours sincerely}
8. End the letter environment and the document:

\end{letter}
\end{document}
9. Compile the document. Here is the upper part of the output:

That was pretty easy! You got a fully fledged formal letter with addressing information, an envelope window support, date of writing, phrases, signature, and even fold marks.

Now you can enter the real addresses and the actual letter text.

### How it works...

When loading the letter class scrlttr2, we activated the address field, switched on fold marks, and set the options for aligning the sender's address to the right.

The scrlttr2 class is quite different from other classes, so it has a special interface. Using the \setkomavar command, we set the content of class variables, similar to the \renewcommand command. Here, we set the name and address. The KOMA-Script manual explains all the available variables. As mentioned in the recipe Writing a book, you can open it by typing the texdoc scrguien command in Command Prompt, or online at http://texdoc.net/pkg/scrguien.

We used a letter environment for the actual content, including the opening and closing phrases. The address is a mandatory argument for that environment. You can have several letter environments in a single document.

### There's more...

For improving input and hyphenation, and for changing the font, take a look at the first recipe in Chapter 2, Tuning the Text.

Let's take a look at some letter specific options.

#### Separating paragraphs

Instead of indenting the beginnings of paragraphs, you can indicate a paragraph break with an empty line instead. For this, simply add the following option to the comma-separated list of class options at the beginning:

parskip=full

Use the parskip=half option for less space between paragraphs.

#### Changing the signature

If you would like to use a signature that is different from your specified name for the address, you can modify the corresponding variable content in the preamble:

\setkomavar{signature}{Thomas}

It would be indented. You can get it left-aligned by specifying the following code:

\renewcommand{\raggedsignature}{\raggedright}

The preceding code also belongs to the preamble.

If you wish to add enclosures to your letter, it's a common practice to mention them. You can do this by inserting an \encl command right before the \end{letter} command:

\encl{Curriculum vitae, certificates}

You can change the default encl: if you like by modifying the corresponding variable before calling the \encl option:

\setkomavar*{enclseparator}{Attached}

We used the starred version, \setkomavar*, which modifies the description of a variable instead of its content, which actually is :, that is, a colon followed by a space.

## Producing a leaflet

Flyers are a common way to promote an event or to inform about a product. In particular, a folded leaflet is very handy as a giveaway and to carry around, so let's see how to produce one.

### How to do it...

The intended layout is very different compared to the already shown document types. Fortunately, there's a document class for it with the name leaflet, which we will use now. Let's start filling it with some content. Let's take a look at the following steps:

1. Start with the leaflet document class. Choose a base font size of 10 pt, and set the option notumble, which keeps the back side printed in the same direction:

\documentclass[10pt,notumble]{leaflet}
2. Use an extended font encoding:

\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
3. If you want a nondefault font, load it, this time we chose the Linux Libertine font:

\usepackage{libertine}
4. Switch to sans serif as the default font family:

\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault}
5. For better text justification, load the microtype package:

\usepackage{microtype}
6. Load the graphicx package to include a picture:

\usepackage{graphicx}
7. Switch off the page numbering:

\pagenumbering{gobble}
8. Begin the document:

\begin{document}
9. Set the title, author's name, and date. Then, print the title:

\title{\textbf{\TeX\ Live Install Party}}
\date{\textbf{August 11, City Hall Cellar}}
\maketitle
10. Include a centered image. Here, we chose the CTAN lion:

\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{ctanlion.pdf}
\end{center}

We'd like to welcome you to our famous yearly \TeX\ install party! Bring your laptop and have free cold soft drinks while we assist you in installing the latest \TeX\ version on your computer.
We will provide
12. A bulleted list can be a good idea for a catchy text. Use an itemize environment for it, each list item starting with \item:

\begin{itemize}
\item media such as DVDs and USB sticks with
the latest \TeX\,
\item \TeX\ books for bying with a discount,
\item chat with \TeX\ experts.
\end{itemize}
13. End the page. Fill in more text on the next page of the leaflet, which will be printed on the back side of the paper, next to each other:

\clearpage
Fill in text for page 2 (on the back side)
\clearpage
Fill in text for page 3 (on the back side)
\clearpage
Fill in text for page 4 (on the back side)
\clearpage
14. Now, pages 5 and 6 of the leaflet come to the front side of the paper. Use the \section command to insert a heading:

\section{Schedule}
15. You can add a timetable using a tabular environment. Using the @{} option, we suppress spacing at the left and right:

\begin{tabular}{@{}rl@{}}
6 pm    & Welcome \\
7:30 pm & Live install presentation \\
8 pm    & Book authors available for talks and signing \\
9:30 pm & Bar closing
\end{tabular}
16. End the paragraph with an empty line, continue writing the text, and finally end the document:

From 6pm to 10pm: install support and free \TeX\ copies on DVD on our welcome desk.
\section{Accomodation}
Hotel, Meals, Travel information here
Information about our local \TeX\ user group
\clearpage
\section{Contact}
\end{document}
17. Compile and take a look at the first page:

The back side still contains just some dummy text, which helps to identify the position where the text finally lands on the page.

### How it works...

In the first line, we loaded the leaflet package with a font size of 10 pt. The notumble option suppresses the default behavior, that is, printing the back side upside down.

The next three lines contain our font settings. We used the Linux Libertine font and specified the T1 font encoding. You can read more about encodings in Chapter 2, Tuning the Text, specifically in the Improving justification and hyphenation recipe. Furthermore, we set the default font family to be sans serif. I prefer the clean look of sans serif on a flyer or a leaflet, which usually contains little text.

The remaining part of the preamble is as follows:

• We loaded the microtype package, which improves the justification capabilities with tiny font adjustments. This is especially useful in a situation with narrow columns, such as in this case.

• We loaded the graphicx package, so we are able to include images such as a logo or a geographic map.

• We hid the page numbers. The \gobble command is a TeX command that removes the following command or control sequence, so the page number will simply be absorbed.

Our document body shows usual sectioning commands and text. You can see that we added an explicit space after the TeX logo by inserting a backslash and a following space. That's because the space after a macro, such as the \TeX command, just indicates the end of the macro. It doesn't produce a space in print because punctuation may follow the macro.

To have an image in our template, we used the CTAN lion drawn by Duane Bibby; simply replace it with your own image, for example, a geographic map or logo.

The remaining text is straightforward and shows some useful layout details, as follows:

• Centering using the center environment:

\begin{center}
...
\end{center}
• Arranging points in a bulleted list using an itemize environment

• Setting up a tabular environment for text, which should be aligned in columns

In the \begin{tabular}{@{}rl@{}} line, the characters rl stand for two columns, where the first one is right aligned and the second one is left aligned. The expression @{code} inserts a piece of code instead of the space before or after the column, so @{} replaces it with nothing, that means, removes it. We got two columns without additional whitespaces on the left or right, saving our previous line space.

### There's more...

The leaflet class provides some options and commands for customization.

#### Fold marks and cut lines

By default, a small folding mark is printed on the back side. If you would like to omit it, add the nofoldmark option when loading the class:

\documentclass[10pt,notumble,nofoldmark]{leaflet}

You can draw a vertically dotted line with a scissors symbol using the \CutLine command in the preamble with a page number as an argument. The line will go between this one and the preceding page, which is as follows:

\CutLine{3}

This will print a dotted line with two scissors symbols on the back side, between pages 2 and 3, where a folding mark will be placed by default. The starred command version \CutLine* will not print the scissors.

Similar to standard classes, you can use page headers and footers. There are none by default here. Standard commands such as \setlength{\headheight}{…} and \pagestyle can be used. The leaflet provides an additional command to declare the margins:

\setmargins{top}{bottom}{left}{right}

You can add an image to the background of a certain page:

\AddToBackground{pagenumber}{\includegraphics{filename}}

Use the starred version \AddToBackground* to allow it to be printed in the background of the combined page.

Instead of the \includegraphics command, you can use other positioning commands, including our drawing code. Here, the Absolute positioning of text recipe in Chapter 2, Tuning the Text, will be useful.

#### Changing the sectioning font

The font size of section headers is already a bit smaller than that of standard classes. If you would like to change the size, shape, or color of the headings, you can redefine the \sectfont macro. For example, if we enable using color with the \usepackage{xcolor} command, we can write the following line of code:

\renewcommand{\sectfont}{\large\sffamily\bfseries\color{blue}}

This will give a large sans serif font in bold and with blue color.

For further information regarding fonts, refer to Chapter 3, Adjusting Fonts.

## Creating a large poster

We have seen informational or scientific posters at conferences or on the walls of universities or institutes. They mostly have certain characteristics in common:

• They have a large size, such as A2, A1, or even A0

• People may look at them from far away, but also from a very short distance

In consequence, we get some requirements for typesetting:

• The page layout dimensions should work with such a big size.

• We need a wide range of font sizes. We should be able to read while standing close, but we also need large, catchy headings.

• The poster should be partitioned into digestible blocks. Specifically, each block should not exceed the usual line width we know from body texts. Also, excessively wide lines will make it hard to focus and to skip back to the start of the next line. So, the lines in blocks should not be much wider than about 40 or 50 characters long.

• Blocks should have distinct headings.

• Graphical elements such as colors and lines can be used to divide the poster contents in parts.

• Images should be vector graphics or should have a high resolution.

In this recipe, we will create a poster of A0 size in landscape orientation. It will show some blocks containing the dummy text as a placeholder, math, and images. As sample images, we will take a flowchart from Chapter 9, Creating Graphics, and a plot from Chapter 10, Advanced Mathematics. There, you can find the source code. You can later replace the dummy text and other parts with your own content.

### How to do it...

We will use the tikzposter class. The document is structured in columns and blocks. Follow these steps:

1. Begin with the document class. A0 is the default paper size. We state landscape orientation as the option:

\documentclass[landscape]{tikzposter}
2. Choose a theme, which provides a set of colors and decorations. We choose the blue Wave theme:

\usetheme{Wave}
3. Load the lipsum package to generate the dummy text:

\usepackage{lipsum}
4. For dividing wider blocks in text columns, we load the multicol package. On account of the large paper, we set the column separation and the separation line width to high values:

\usepackage{multicol}
\setlength{\columnsep}{4cm}
\setlength{\columnseprule}{1mm}
5. Define macros for repeated tasks, if desired. In our case, it will be a macro for including an image with an optional caption:

\newcommand*{\image}[2][]{%
\begin{tikzfigure}[#1]
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{#2}
\end{tikzfigure}}
6. Start the document:

\begin{document}
7. Declare the author and title, and print it out:

\title{\LaTeX\ in Use}
\author{John Doe}
\maketitle
8. Begin a set of columns:

  \begin{columns}
9. Start a column with a width of 65 percent of the available text width:

  \column{.65}
10. Define a block with the title Workflow in the first argument; the second argument containing dummy text and an image:

  \block{Workflow}{
\lipsum[1]
\image[\LaTeX\ workflow]{flowchart}
}
11. Still in the first column, start a set of subcolumns:

  \begin{subcolumns}
12. The first subcolumn will take half of the available width, in this case, the width of the left column:

    \subcolumn{.5}
13. Create a block with a bulleted list and a mathematical equation to get a feeling of how it will look on a poster. We will also use a colored box and an inner block with a title for the equation:

    \block{Mathematics}{
Take a coffee, then:
\bigskip
\coloredbox{\begin{itemize}
\item State
\item Proof
\item Write in \LaTeX
\end{itemize}}
\bigskip
\innerblock{Integral approximation}{
$\int_a^b f(x) dx \approx (b-a) \sum_{i=0}^n w_i f(x_i)$
}
}
14. Add a note, which will have a callout shape, pointing to the formula:

    \note[targetoffsetx = 4.5cm, targetoffsety = -5cm,
angle = -30, connection]{Weight function}
15. Make another subcolumn, taking the other half of the available width. Insert a block filled with text and end the subcolumns environment:

    \subcolumn{.5}
\block{Text}{\lipsum[1]}
\end{subcolumns}
16. Now that we are back to our main column environment, make another column, print a block with an image and some text, and then end the columns environment:

  \column{.35}
\block{Plotting functions}{
\image{plot}
\lipsum[4]
}
\end{columns}
17. As we ended the columns, a block will use the whole available width. To keep the text readable, we will now use the multicol package. We divide the text itself into columns using a multicolumn environment with four columns:

\block{Conclusion and outlook}{
\begin{multicols}{4}
\lipsum[10-11]
\end{multicols}
}
18. End the document:

\end{document}
19. Compile the document, and take a look:

### How it works...

The tikzposter package supports large paper sizes, large fonts, and it takes care of block heights and spacing between columns. We, as users, just decided the relative column width.

Several class options are provided. You can add them to the \documentclass command like we did with the preceding landscape option. Let's take a look at the following:

• The paper size can be chosen with the a0paper, a1paper, or a2paper options. The a0paper option is the default.

• The available font sizes are 12pt, 14pt, 17pt, 20pt, and 25pt. The last one is the default.

• You can select the orientation by using the landscape or portrait command. The portrait option is the default.

• The standard option fleqn for flush left equations is supported.

• The standard option leqno for numbering the equation at the left-hand side is also supported.

You can adjust several lengths using different options. Give them as class options in the key=value form with a measurement unit such as mm or cm:

• margin: This is the distance between the edge of the poster area and the edge of the paper

• innermargin: This is the distance from the outermost edge of the blocks to the edge of the poster

• colspace: This is the horizontal distance between consecutive columns

• subcolspace: This is the horizontal distance between consecutive columns in a subcolumn environment

• blockverticalspace: This is the distance between the bottom of a block and the top of the next block

A sample call using the defaults will be as follows:

\documentclass[a0paper, portrait, 25pt, margin=0mm,
innermargin=15mm, colspace=15mm, subcolspace=8mm,
blockverticalspace=15mm]{tikzposter}

The tikzposter package makes use of the very capable graphics language TikZ. We will see more of TikZ in Chapter 9, Creating Graphics. For now, the main benefit is that tikzposter provides a lot of predefined styles and color schemes.

You can use a main layout style by using the \usetheme{name} command. When this book came out, there were nine themes available:

• Wave: This can be seen in our preceding recipe

• Default (left) and Basic (right): This is shown in the following image:

• Rays (left) and Simple (right), as shown in the following image:

• Envelope (left) and Board (right), as shown in the following image:

• Autumn (left) and Desert (right), as shown in the following image:

Furthermore, there are predefined styles for color, title, background, notes, blocks, and inner blocks, which can be chosen and composed. There's support for creating further styles.

The commands, which you have seen previously, can be used without support options straight away. However, they can be customized using several options.

The full reference is available by typing the texdoc tikzposter command in Command Prompt, and online at http://texdoc.net/pkg/tikzposter. You can find a style guide, a feature guide, and much more at https://bitbucket.org/surmann/tikzposter/downloads.

### There's more...

One of the first poster classes is a0poster. It actually supports the paper sizes A0, A1, A2, and A3. It provides font sizes from 12 pt up to 107 pt. Math formulas are printed in a suitable size. There's no specific support for graphics, color, or text placement. For this, you would need additional packages, such as TikZ.

In the recipe Creating a presentation, you saw the beamer package as a presentation class. The beamerposter package can be used together with it to produce presentations in poster size. It combines the beamer package with the a0poster code. So, you can produce large posters with a wide range of font sizes together with the beamer package's color and graphics capabilities, such as the beamer boxes with titles.

As mentioned previously, you can use the texdoc command or the Internet site http://texdoc.net to access the documentation of the aforementioned classes and packages.

Another solution is provided by the baposter template. It provides blocks with headings and positioning support. Furthermore, it offers a set of predefined styles. Its download and documentation are available at http://www.brian-amberg.de/uni/poster/.

• Stefan Kottwitz

Stefan Kottwitz studied mathematics in Jena and Hamburg. He worked as an IT administrator and communication officer onboard cruise ships for AIDA Cruises and for Hapag-Lloyd Cruises. Following 10 years of sailing around the world, he worked for the next few years specializing in network infrastructure and IT security. In 2014, he became a consultant for Lufthansa Systems. Currently, he works for Lufthansa Industry Solutions and designs and implements networks for new cruise ships.

In between contracts, he worked as a freelance programmer and typography designer. For many years, he has been providing LaTeX support on online forums. He maintains the web forums LaTeX-Community.org and goLaTeX.de, the TeX gallery site TeXample.net, the Q&A sites TeXwelt.de and TeXnique.fr, the TeXdoc.net service and the server for the UK TeX FAQ. He is a moderator of the TeX Stack Exchange site and on matheplanet.com.

He publishes ideas and news from the TeX world on his personal blog at TeXblog.net.

Before this book, he authored LaTeX Beginner's Guide, by Packt Publishing in 2011.

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