It turns out that besides being able to render graphics for video games, **graphics processing units** (**GPUs**) also provide a readily accessible means for the general consumer to do *massively parallel**computing*â€”an average person can now buy a $2,000 modern GPU card from a local electronics store, plug it into their PC at home, and then use it almost immediately for computational power that would only have been available in the supercomputing labs of top corporations and universities only 5 or 10 years ago. This open accessibility of GPUs has become apparent in many ways in recent years, which can be revealed by a brief observation of the newsâ€”cryptocurrency miners use GPUs to generate digital money such as Bitcoins, geneticists and biologists use GPUs for DNA analysis and research, physicists and mathematicians use GPUs for large-scale simulations, AI researchers can now program GPUs to write plays and compose music, while major internet companies, such as Google and Facebook, use *farms*Â of servers with GPUs for large-scale machine learning tasksâ€¦ the list goes on and on.

This book is primarily aimed at bringing you up to speed with GPU programming, so that you too may begin using their power as soon as possible, no matter what your end goal is. We aim to cover the core essentials of how to program a GPU, rather than provide intricate technical details and schematics of how a GPU works. Toward the end of the book, we will provide further resources so that you may specialize further, and apply your new knowledge of GPUs. (Further details as to particular required technical knowledge and hardware follow this section.)

In this book, we will be working with **CUDA**, a framework for **general-purpose GPU** (**GPGPU**) programming from NVIDIA, which was first released back in 2007. While CUDA is proprietary for NVIDIA GPUs, it is a mature and stable platform that is relatively easy to use, provides an unmatched set of first-party accelerated mathematical and AI-related libraries, and comes with the minimal hassle when it comes to installation and integration. Moreover, there are readily available and standardized Python libraries, such as PyCUDA and Scikit-CUDA, which make GPGPU programming all the more readily accessible to aspiring GPU programmers. For these reasons, we are opting to go with CUDA for this book.

### Note

CUDA is *always* pronounced *coo-duh*, and never as the acronym *C-U-D-A*! CUDA originally stood for *Compute Unified Device Architecture*, but Nvidia has dropped the acronym and now uses CUDA as a proper name written in all-caps.

We will now start our journey into GPU programming with an overview ofÂ **Amdahl's Law**. Amdahl's Law is a simple but effective method to estimate potential speed gains we can get by offloading a program or algorithm onto a GPU; this will help us determine whether it's worth our effort to rewrite our code to make use of the GPU. We will then go over a brief review of how to profile our Python code with the *cProfileÂ *module, to help us find the bottlenecks in our code.

The learning outcomes for this chapter are as follows:

- Understand Amdahl's Law
- Apply Amdahl's Law in the context of your code
- Using the
*cProfile*module for basic profiling of Python code

An installation of Anaconda Python 2.7 is suggested for this chapter:

https://www.anaconda.com/download/

This chapter's code is also available on GitHub:

https://github.com/PacktPublishing/Hands-On-GPU-Programming-with-Python-and-CUDA

### Note

For more information about the pre-requisites, check the preface of this book; for the software and hardware requirements, check the README section inÂ https://github.com/PacktPublishing/Hands-On-GPU-Programming-with-Python-and-CUDA.

Before we can dive in and unlock the potential of GPUs, we first have to realize where their computational power lies in comparison to a modern Intel/AMD central processing unit (CPU)â€”the power does not lie in the fact that it has a higher clock speed than a CPU, nor in the complexity or particular design of the individual cores. An individual GPU core is actually quite simplistic, and at a disadvantage when compared to a modern individual CPU core, which use many fancy engineering tricks, such as branch prediction to reduce the **latency** of computations. **Latency**Â refers to the beginning-to-end duration of performing a single computation.

The power of the GPU derives from the fact that there are many, many more cores than in a CPU, which means a huge step forward in **throughput**.Â **Throughput**Â here refers to the number of computations that can be performed simultaneously. Let's use an analogy to get a better understanding of what this means. A GPU is like a very wide city road that is designed to handle many slower-moving cars at once (high throughput, high latency), whereas a CPU is like a narrow highway that can only admit a few cars at once, but can get each individual car to its destination much quicker (low throughput, low latency).

We can get an idea of the increase in throughput by seeing how many cores these new GPUs have. To give you an idea, the average Intel or AMD CPU has only two to eight coresâ€”while an entry-level, consumer-grade NVIDIA GTX 1050 GPU has *640 cores*, and a new top-of-the-line NVIDIA RTX 2080 Ti has *4,352 cores*! We can exploit this massive throughput, provided we know how properly toÂ **parallelize** any program or algorithm we wish to speed up. By **parallelize**, we mean to rewrite a program or algorithm so that we can split up our workload to run in parallel on multiple processors simultaneously. Let's think about an analogy from real-life.

Suppose that you are building a house and that you already have all of the designs and materials in place. You hire a single laborer, and you estimate it will take 100 hours to construct the house. Let's suppose that this particular house can be built in such a way that the work can be perfectly divided between every additional laborer you hireâ€”that is to say, it will take 50 hours for two laborers, 25 hours for four laborers, and 10 hours for ten laborers to construct the houseâ€”the number of hours to construct your house will be 100 divided by the number of laborers you hire. This is an example of a **parallelizable task**.

We notice that this task is twice as fast to complete for two laborers, and ten times as fast for ten laborers to complete together (that is, in *parallel)* as opposed to one laborer building the house alone (that is,Â in *serial)*â€”that is, if *N* is the number of laborers, then it will be *N* times as fast. In this case, *N* is known as the **speedup** of parallelizing our task over the serial version of our task.

Before we begin to program a parallel version of a given algorithm, we often start by coming up with an estimate of the *potential**speedup* that parallelization would bring to our task. This can help us determine whether it is worth expending resources and time writing a parallelization of our program or not. Because real life is more complicated than the example we gave here, it's pretty obvious that we won't be able to parallelize every program perfectly, all of the timeâ€”most of the time, only a part of our program will be nicely parallelizable, while the rest will have to run in serial.

We will now derive **Amdahl's Law**, which is a simple arithmetic formula that is used to estimate potential speed gain that may arise from parallelizing some portion of code from a serial program onto multiple processors. We will do this by continuing with our prior analogy of building a house.

Last time, we only considered the actual physical construction of the house as the entire time duration, but now, we will also consider the time it takes to design the house into the time duration for building the house. Suppose that only one person in the world has the ability to design your houseâ€”youâ€”and it takes you 100 hours to design the plans for your house. There is no possibility that any other person on the planet can compare to your architectural brilliance, so there is no possibility that this part of the task can be split up at all between other architectsâ€”that is, so it will take 100 hours to design your house, regardless of what resources you have or how many people you can hire. So, if you have only one laborer to build your house, the entire time it will take to build your home will be 200 hoursâ€”100 hours for you to design it, and 100 hours for a single laborer to build it. If we hire two laborers, this will take 150 hoursâ€”the time to design the house will remain at 100 hours, while the construction will take 50 hours. It's clear that the total number of hours to construct the house will be 100 + 100 / *N*, where *N* is the number of laborers we hire.

Now, let's step back and think about how much time building the house takes if we hire one laborerâ€”we ultimately use this to determine speedup as we hire additional laborers; that is, how many times faster the process becomes. If we hire a single laborer, we see that it takes the same amount of time to both design and construct the houseâ€”100 hours. So, we can say that that the portion of time spent on the design is .5 (50%), and the portion of the time it takes to construct the house is .5 (50%)â€”of course, both of these portions add up to 1, that is 100%. We want to make comparisons to this as we add laborersâ€”if we have two laborers, the portion of time for the construction is halved, so in comparison to the original serial version of our task, this will take .5 + .5/2 = .75 (75%) of the time of the original task, and .75 x 200 hours is 150 hours, so we can see that this works. Moreover, we can see that if we have *N* laborers, we can calculate the percentage of time our *parallelized*Â construction with *N* laborers will take which the formula .5 + .5 / N.

Now, let's determine the *speedup* we are gaining by adding additional laborers. Since it takes 75% of the time to build a house if we have two laborers, we can take the reciprocal of .75 to determine the speedup of our parallelizationâ€”that is, the speedup will be 1 / .75, which is around 1.33Â times faster than if we only have one laborer. In this case, we see that the speedup will be 1 / (.5 + .5 / *N*) if we have *N* laborers.

We know that .5 / N will shrink very close to 0 as we add more and more laborers, so we can see there is always an upper bound on the speedup you can get when you parallelize this taskâ€”that is, 1 / (.5 + 0) = 2. We can divide the original serial time with the estimated maximum speedup to determine an absolute minimum amount of time this task will takeâ€”200 / 2 = 100 hours.

The principle we have just applied to determine speedups in parallel programmingÂ is known as **Amdahl's Law**. It only requires knowledge of the parallelizable proportion of execution time for code in our original serial program, which is referred to as *p*, and the number of processor cores *N* that we have available.

### Note

The proportionÂ of execution time for code that is not parallelizable in this case is always *1 â€“ p*, so we only need to know *p.*

We can now calculate speedup with **Amdahl's Law** as follows:

Â

To sum it up, Amdahl's Law is a simple formula that allows us to roughly (*very roughly)* estimate potential speedup for a program that can be at least partially parallelized. This can provide a general idea as to whetherÂ it will be worthwhile to write a parallel version of a particular serial program, provided we know what proportion of the code we can parallelize (*p*), and how many cores we can run our parallelized code on (*N*).

We are now prepared to see a very standard example for parallel computing that we will revisit later in this textâ€”an algorithm to generate an image of the *Mandelbrot set*. Let's first define exactly what we mean.

For a given complex number, *c*, we define a recursive sequence for

, withÂ

Â and

Â for

.Â If |*z _{n}*| remains bounded by 2 as

*n*increases to infinity, then we will say that

*c*is a member of the Mandelbrot set.Â

Recall that we can visualize the complex numbers as residing on a two-dimensional Cartesian plane, with the *x*-axis representing the real components and the y-axis representing the imaginary components. We can therefore easily visualize the Mandelbrot set with a very appealing (and well-known) graph. Here, we will represent members of the Mandelbrot set with a lighter shade, and nonmembers with a darker shade on the complex Cartesian plane as follows:

Now, let's think about how we would go about generating this set in Python. We have to consider a few things firstâ€”since we obviously can't check whether every single complex number is in the Mandelbrot set, we have to choose a certain range to check over; we have to determine how many points in each range we will consider (*width, height*); and the maximum value of *n* that we will check |*z _{n}*| for (

`max_iters`

). We can now prepare to implement a function to generate a graph of the Mandelbrot setâ€”here, we do this by iterating over every single point in the graph in *serial*.

We will start by importing the NumPy library, which is a numerical library that we will be making ample use of throughout this text. Our implementation here is in theÂ `simple_mandelbrot`

function. We start by using NumPy'sÂ `linspace`

function to generate a lattice that will act as a discrete complex plane (the rest of the code that follows should be fairly straightforward):

```
import numpy as np
def simple_mandelbrot(width, height, real_low, real_high, imag_low, imag_high, max_iters):
real_vals = np.linspace(real_low, real_high, width)
imag_vals = np.linspace(imag_low, imag_high, height)
# we will represent members as 1, non-members as 0.
mandelbrot_graph = np.ones((height,width), dtype=np.float32)
for x in range(width):
for y in range(height):
c = np.complex64( real_vals[x] + imag_vals[y] * 1j )
z = np.complex64(0)
for i in range(max_iters):
z = z**2 + c
if(np.abs(z) > 2):
mandelbrot_graph[y,x] = 0
break
return mandelbrot_graph
```

Now, we want to add some code to dump the image of the Mandelbrot set to a PNG format file, so let's add the appropriate headers at the beginning:

from time import time import matplotlib # the following will prevent the figure from popping up matplotlib.use('Agg') from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

Now, let's add some code to generate the Mandelbrot set and dump it to a file, and use the time function to time both operations:

if __name__ == '__main__': t1 = time() mandel = simple_mandelbrot(512,512,-2,2,-2,2,256, 2) t2 = time() mandel_time = t2 - t1 t1 = time() fig = plt.figure(1) plt.imshow(mandel, extent=(-2, 2, -2, 2)) plt.savefig('mandelbrot.png', dpi=fig.dpi) t2 = time() dump_time = t2 - t1 print 'It took {} seconds to calculate the Mandelbrot graph.'.format(mandel_time) print 'It took {} seconds to dump the image.'.format(dump_time)

Now let's run this program (this is also available as theÂ `mandelbrot0.py`

Â file, in folder `1`

,Â within the GitHub repository):Â

It took about 14.62 seconds to generate the Mandelbrot set, and about 0.11 seconds to dump the image. As we have seen, we generate the Mandelbrot set point by point; there is no interdependence between the values of different points, and it is, therefore, an intrinsically parallelizable function. In contrast, the code to dump the image cannot be parallelized.

Now, let's analyze this in terms of Amdahl's Law. What sort of speedups can we get if we parallelize our code here? In total, both pieces of the program took about 14.73 seconds to run; since we can parallelize the Mandelbrot set generation, we can say that the portion of execution time for parallelizable code isÂ *p* = 14.62 / 14.73 = .99. This program is 99% parallelizable!

What sort of speedup can we potentially get? Well, I'm currently working on a laptop with an entry-level GTX 1050 GPU with 640 cores; ourÂ *N* will thus be 640 when we use the formula. We calculate the speedup as follows:

That is definitely very good and would indicate to us that it is worth our effort to program our algorithm to use the GPU. Keep in mind that Amdahl's Law only gives a very rough estimate! There will be additional considerations that will come into play when we offload computations onto the GPU, such as the additional time it takes for the CPU to send and receive data to and from the GPU; or the fact that algorithms that are offloaded to the GPU are only partially parallelizable.

We saw in the previous example that we can individually time different functions and components with the standard `time`

Â function in Python. While this approach works fine for our small example program, this won't always be feasible for larger programs that call on many different functions, some of which may or may not be worth our effort to parallelize, or even optimize on the CPU. Our goal here is to find the bottlenecks and hotspots of a programâ€”even if we were feeling energetic and used `time`

around every function call we make, we might miss something, or there might be some system or library calls that we don't even consider that happen to be slowing things down. We should find candidate portions of the code to offload onto the GPU before we even think about rewriting the code to run on the GPU; we must always follow the wise words of the famous American computer scientist Donald Knuth: Premature optimization is the root of all evil.

We use what is known as aÂ **profiler** to find these hot spots and bottlenecks in our code. A **profiler** will conveniently allow us to see where our program is taking the most time, and allow us to optimize accordingly.

We will primarily be using the *cProfile* module to check our code. This module is a standard library function that is contained in every modern Python installation. We can run the profiler from the command line with `-m cProfile`

, and specify that we want to organize the results by the cumulative time spent on each function with `-s cumtime`

, and then redirect the output into a text file with the `>`

Â operator.

Let's try this now:

We can now look at the contents of the text file with our favorite text editor. Let's keep in mind that the output of the program will be included at the beginning of the file:

Now, since we didn't remove the references to `time`

Â in the original example, we see their output in the first two lines at the beginning. We can then see the total number of function calls made in this program, and the cumulative amount of time to run it.

Subsequently, we have a list of functions that are called in the program, ordered from the cumulatively most time-consuming functions to the least; the first line is the program itself, while the second line is, as expected, the `simple_mandelbrot`

function from our program. (Notice that the time here aligns with what we measured with the `time`

Â command). After this, we can see many libraries and system calls that relate to dumping the Mandelbrot graph to a file, all of which take comparatively less time. We use such output from *cProfile* to infer where our bottlenecks are within a given program.

The main advantage of using a GPU over a CPU is its increased throughput, which means that we can execute moreÂ *parallel*Â code simultaneously on GPU than on a CPU; a GPU cannot make recursive algorithms or nonparallelizable algorithms somewhat faster. We see that some tasks, such as the example of building a house, are only partially parallelizableâ€”in this example, we couldn't speed up the process of *designing* the house (which is intrinsically *serial* in this case), but we could speed up the process of the *construction,* by hiring more laborers (which is parallelizable in this case).

We used this analogy to derive Amdahl's Law, which is a formula that can give us a rough estimate of potential speedup for a program if we know the percentage of execution time for code that is parallelizable, and how many processors we will have to run this code. We then applied Amdahl's Law to analyze a small program that generates the Mandelbrot set and dumps it to an image file, and we determined that this would be a good candidate for parallelization onto a GPU. Finally, we ended with a brief overview of profiling code with the *cPython* module; this allows us to see where the bottlenecks in a program are, without explicitly timing function calls.

Now that we have a few of the fundamental concepts in place, and have a motivator to learn GPU programming, we will spend the next chapter setting up a Linux- or Windows 10-based GPU programming environment. We will then immediately dive into the world of GPU programming in the following chapter, where we will actually write a GPU-based version of the Mandelbrot program that we saw in this chapter.

Â

Â

- There are three
`for`

Â statements in this chapter's Mandelbrot example; however, we can only parallelize over the first two. Why can't we parallelize over all of the`for`

loops here? - What is something that Amdahl's Law doesn't account for when we apply it to offloading a serial CPU algorithm to a GPU?
- Suppose that you gain exclusive access to three new top-secret GPUs that are the same in all respects, except for core countsâ€”the first has 131,072 cores, the second has 262,144 cores, and the third has 524,288 cores.Â If you parallelize and offload the Mandelbrot example onto these GPUs (which generates a 512 x 512 pixel image), will there be a difference in computation time between the first and second GPU? How about between the second and third GPU?
- Can you think of any problems with designating certain algorithms or blocks of code as
*parallelizable*Â in the context of Amdahl's Law? - Why should we use profilers instead of just using Python's
`time`

Â function?