Neural network users need to have a fair understanding of neural network concepts, algorithms, and the underlying mathematics. Good mathematical intuition and understanding of many techniques is necessary for a solid grasp of the inner functioning of the algorithms and for getting good results. The amount of maths required and the level of maths needed to understand these techniques is multidimensional and also depends on interest. In this chapter, you will learn neural networks by understanding the maths used to solve complex computational problems. This chapter covers the basics of linear algebra, calculus, and optimization for neural networks.

The main purpose of this chapter is to set up the fundamentals of mathematics for the upcoming chapters.

Following topics will be covered in the chapter:

- Understanding linear algebra
- Understanding Calculus
- Optimization

Linear algebra is a key branch of mathematics. An understanding of linear algebra is crucial for **deep learning**, that is, neural networks. Throughout this chapter, we will go through the key and fundamental linear algebra prerequisites.Â Linear Algebra deals with linear systems of equations. Instead of working with scalars, we start working with matrices and vectors. Using linear algebra, we can describe complicated operations in deep learning.

Before we jump into the field of mathematics and its properties, it's essential for us to set up the development environment as it will provide us settings to execute the concepts we learn, meaning installing the compiler, dependencies, and **IDE** (**Integrated Development Environment**) to run our code base.

It is best to use an IDE like Pycharm to edit Python code as it provides development tools and built-in coding assistance. Code inspection makes coding and debugging faster and simpler, ensuring that you focus on the end goal of learning maths for neural networks.

The following steps show you how to set up local Python environment in Pycharm:

- Go to
and verify that the TensorFlow library is installed. If not, follow the instructions at https://www.tensorflow.org/install/ to install TensorFlow:`Preferences`

- Keep the default options of TensorFlow and click on
.`OK`

- Finally, right-click on the source file and click on
:`Run 'matrices'`

In the following section, we will describe the fundamental structures of linear algebra.

Scalars, vectors, and matrices are the fundamental objects of mathematics. Basic definitions are listed as follows:

- Scalar is represented by a single number or numerical value called
**magnitude**. - Vector is an array of numbers assembled in order. A unique index identifies each number. Vector represents a point in space, with each element giving the coordinate along a different axis.
- Matrices is a two-dimensional array of numbers where each number is identified using two indices (
*i*,*j*).

An array of numbers with a variable number of axes is known as a **tensor**. For example, for three axes, it is identified using three indices (*i*, *j*, *k*).Â

The following image summaries a tensor, it describes a second-order tensor object. In a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, tensor components will form the matrix:

Â Â Â Â

### Note

Image reference is taken from tensor wikiÂ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensor

The following topics will describe the various operations of linear algebra.

The `Norm`

function is used to get the size of the vector; the norm of a vector *x* measures the distance from the origin to the point *x*. It is also known as the

norm, where *p=2* is known as the **Euclidean norm**.

The following example shows you how to calculate the

norm of a given vector:

import tensorflow as tf vector = tf.constant([[4,5,6]], dtype=tf.float32) eucNorm = tf.norm(vector, ord="euclidean") with tf.Session() as sess: print(sess.run(eucNorm))

The output of the listing is 8.77496.

A matrix is a two-dimensional array of numbers where each element is identified by two indices instead of just one. If a real matrix *X* has a height of *m* and a width of *n*, then we say that *X âˆˆ Rm Ã— n*. Here, *R* is a set of real numbers.

The following example shows how different matrices are converted to tensor objects:

# convert matrices to tensor objects import numpy as np import tensorflow as tf # create a 2x2 matrix in various forms matrix1 = [[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 40]] matrix2 = np.array([[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 40]], dtype=np.float32) matrix3 = tf.constant([[1.0, 2.0], [3.0, 40]]) print(type(matrix1)) print(type(matrix2)) print(type(matrix3)) tensorForM1 = tf.convert_to_tensor(matrix1, dtype=tf.float32) tensorForM2 = tf.convert_to_tensor(matrix2, dtype=tf.float32) tensorForM3 = tf.convert_to_tensor(matrix3, dtype=tf.float32) print(type(tensorForM1)) print(type(tensorForM2)) print(type(tensorForM3))

The output of the listing is shown in the following code:

<class 'list'> <class 'numpy.ndarray'> <class 'tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor'> <class 'tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor'> <class 'tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor'> <class 'tensorflow.python.framework.ops.Tensor'>

Matrix multiplication of matrices *A* and *B* is a third matrix, *C*:

*C = AB*

The element-wise product of matrices is called a **Hadamard** product and is denoted as *A.B*.

The dot product of two vectors *x* and *y* of the same dimensionality is the matrix product *x* transposing *y*. Matrix product *C = AB* is like computing *C _{i,j}* as the dot product between row

*i*of matrix

*A*and column

*j*of matrix

*B*:

The following example shows the Hadamard product and dot product using tensor objects:

importtensorflowastf mat1 = tf.constant([[4, 5, 6],[3,2,1]]) mat2 = tf.constant([[7, 8, 9],[10, 11, 12]])# hadamard product (element wise)mult = tf.multiply(mat1, mat2)# dot product (no. of rows = no. of columns)dotprod = tf.matmul(mat1, tf.transpose(mat2))withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(mult)) print(sess.run(dotprod))

The output of the listing is shown as follows:

[[28 40 54][30 22 12]] [[122 167][ 46 64]]

The trace operator *Tr(A)* of matrix *A* gives the sum of all of the diagonal entries of a matrix. The following example shows how to use a trace operator on tensor objects:

importtensorflowastf mat = tf.constant([ [0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8] ], dtype=tf.float32)# get trace ('sum of diagonal elements') of the matrixmat = tf.trace(mat)withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(mat))

The output of the listing is *12.0*.

Transposition of the matrix is the mirror image of the matrix across the main diagonal. A symmetric matrix is any matrix that is equal to its own transpose:

The following example shows how to use a transpose operator on tensor objects:

importtensorflowastf x = [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] x = tf.convert_to_tensor(x) xtrans = tf.transpose(x) y=([[[1,2,3],[6,5,4]],[[4,5,6],[3,6,3]]]) y = tf.convert_to_tensor(y) ytrans = tf.transpose(y, perm=[0, 2, 1])withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(xtrans)) print(sess.run(ytrans))

The output of the listing is shown as follows:

[[1 4] [2 5] [3 6]]

Matrices that are diagonal in nature consist mostly of zeros and have non-zero entries only along the main diagonal. Not all diagonal matrices need to be square.

Using the diagonal part operation, we can get the diagonal of a given matrix, and to create a matrix with a given diagonal, we use the `diag`

operation from `tensorflow`

. The following example shows how to use diagonal operators on tensor objects:

importtensorflowastf mat = tf.constant([ [0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8] ], dtype=tf.float32)# get diagonal of the matrixdiag_mat = tf.diag_part(mat)# create matrix with given diagonalmat = tf.diag([1,2,3,4])withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(diag_mat)) print(sess.run(mat))

The output of this is shown as follows:

[ 0. 4. 8.] [[1 0 0 0][0 2 0 0] [0 0 3 0] [0 0 0 4]]

An identity matrix is a matrix *I* that does not change any vector, like *V*, when multiplied by *I*.

The following example shows how to get the identity matrix for a given size:

importtensorflowastf identity = tf.eye(3, 3)withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(identity))

The output of this is shown as follows:

[[ 1. 0. 0.] [ 0. 1. 0.] [ 0. 0. 1.]]

The matrix inverse of *I* is denoted as

. Consider the following equation; to solve it using inverse and different values of *b*, there can be multiple solutions for *x*. Note the property:

The following example shows how to calculate the inverse of a matrix using the `matrix_inverse`

operation:

importtensorflowastf mat = tf.constant([[2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7], [8, 9, 10]], dtype=tf.float32) print(mat) inv_mat = tf.matrix_inverse(tf.transpose(mat))withtf.Session()assess: print(sess.run(inv_mat))

TensorFlow can solve a series of linear equations using the `solve`

operation. Let's first explain this without using the library and later use the `solve`

function.

A linear equation is represented as follows:

*ax + b = yy - ax = b*

*y - ax = b*

*y/b - a/b(x) = 1*

Our job is to find the values for *a* and *b* in the preceding equation, given our observed points. First, create the matrix points. The first column represents *x* values, while the second column represents *y* values.
Consider that *X* is the input matrix and *A* is the parameters that we need to learn; we set up a system like *AX=B*, therefore,

. The following example, with code, shows how to solve the linear equation:

*3x+2y = 15**4xâˆ’y = 10*

importtensorflowastf # equation 1 x1 = tf.constant(3, dtype=tf.float32) y1 = tf.constant(2, dtype=tf.float32) point1 = tf.stack([x1, y1]) # equation 2 x2 = tf.constant(4, dtype=tf.float32) y2 = tf.constant(-1, dtype=tf.float32) point2 = tf.stack([x2, y2]) # solve for AX=C X = tf.transpose(tf.stack([point1, point2])) C = tf.ones((1,2), dtype=tf.float32) A = tf.matmul(C, tf.matrix_inverse(X)) with tf.Session() as sess: X = sess.run(X) print(X) A = sess.run(A) print(A) b = 1 / A[0][1] a = -b * A[0][0] print("Hence Linear Equation is: y = {a}x + {b}".format(a=a, b=b))

The output of the listing is shown as follows:

[[ 3. 4.][ 2. -1.]] [[ 0.27272728 0.09090909]] Hence Linear Equation is: y = -2.9999999999999996x + 10.999999672174463

The canonical equation for a circle is *x2+y2+dx+ey+f=0*; to solve this for the parameters *d*, *e*, and *f*, we use TensorFlow's solve operation as follows:

# canonical circle equation # x2+y2+dx+ey+f = 0 # dx+ey+f=âˆ’(x2+y2) ==> AX = B # we have to solve for d, e, f points = tf.constant([[2,1], [0,5], [-1,2]], dtype=tf.float64) X = tf.constant([[2,1,1], [0,5,1], [-1,2,1]], dtype=tf.float64) B = -tf.constant([[5], [25], [5]], dtype=tf.float64) A = tf.matrix_solve(X,B) with tf.Session() as sess: result = sess.run(A) D, E, F = result.flatten() print("Hence Circle Equation is: x**2 + y**2 + {D}x + {E}y + {F} = 0".format(**locals()))

The output of the listing is shown in the following code:

Hence Circle Equation is: x**2 + y**2 + -2.0x + -6.0y + 5.0 = 0

When we decompose an integer into its prime factors, we can understand useful properties about the integer. Similarly, when we decompose a matrix, we can understand many functional properties that are not directly evident. There are two types of decomposition, namely eigenvalue decomposition and singular value decomposition.

All real matrices have singular value decomposition, but the same is not true for Eigenvalue decomposition. For example, if a matrix is not square, the Eigen decomposition is not defined and we must use singular value decomposition instead.

**Singular Value Decomposition** (**SVD**) in mathematical form is the product of three matrices *U*, *S*, and *V*, where *U* is *m*r*, *S* is *r*r* and *V* is *r*n*:

The following example shows SVD using a TensorFlow `svd`

operation on textual data:

import numpy as np import tensorflow as tf import matplotlib.pyplot as plts path = "/neuralnetwork-programming/ch01/plots" text = ["I", "like", "enjoy", "deep", "learning", "NLP", "flying", "."] xMatrix = np.array([[0,2,1,0,0,0,0,0], [2,0,0,1,0,1,0,0], [1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0], [0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0], [0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1], [0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1], [0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1], [0,0,0,0,1,1,1,0]], dtype=np.float32) X_tensor = tf.convert_to_tensor(xMatrix, dtype=tf.float32) # tensorflow svd with tf.Session() as sess: s, U, Vh = sess.run(tf.svd(X_tensor, full_matrices=False)) for i in range(len(text)): plts.text(U[i,0], U[i,1], text[i]) plts.ylim(-0.8,0.8) plts.xlim(-0.8,2.0) plts.savefig(path + '/svd_tf.png') # numpy svd la = np.linalg U, s, Vh = la.svd(xMatrix, full_matrices=False) print(U) print(s) print(Vh) # write matrices to file (understand concepts) file = open(path + "/matx.txt", 'w') file.write(str(U)) file.write("\n") file.write("=============") file.write("\n") file.write(str(s)) file.close() for i in range(len(text)): plts.text(U[i,0], U[i,1], text[i]) plts.ylim(-0.8,0.8) plts.xlim(-0.8,2.0) plts.savefig(path + '/svd_np.png')

The output of this is shown as follows:

[[ -5.24124920e-01 -5.72859168e-01 9.54463035e-02 3.83228481e-01 -1.76963374e-01 -1.76092178e-01 -4.19185609e-01 -5.57702743e-02] [ -5.94438076e-01 6.30120635e-01 -1.70207784e-01 3.10038358e-0 1.84062332e-01 -2.34777853e-01 1.29535481e-01 1.36813134e-01] [ -2.56274015e-01 2.74017543e-01 1.59810841e-01 3.73903001e-16 -5.78984618e-01 6.36550903e-01 -3.32297325e-16 -3.05414885e-01] [ -2.85637408e-01 -2.47912124e-01 3.54610324e-01 -7.31901303e-02 4.45784479e-01 8.36141407e-02 5.48721075e-01 -4.68012422e-01] [ -1.93139315e-01 3.38495038e-02 -5.00790417e-01 -4.28462476e-01 3.47110212e-01 1.55483231e-01 -4.68663752e-01 -4.03576553e-01] [ -3.05134684e-01 -2.93989003e-01 -2.23433599e-01 -1.91614240e-01 1.27460942e-01 4.91219401e-01 2.09592804e-01 6.57535374e-01] [ -1.82489842e-01 -1.61027774e-01 -3.97842437e-01 -3.83228481e-01 -5.12923241e-01 -4.27574426e-01 4.19185609e-01 -1.18313827e-01] [ -2.46898428e-01 1.57254755e-01 5.92991650e-01 -6.20076716e-01 -3.21868137e-02 -2.31065080e-01 -2.59070963e-01 2.37976909e-01]] [ 2.75726271 2.67824793 1.89221275 1.61803401 1.19154561 0.94833982 0.61803401 0.56999218] [[ -5.24124920e-01 -5.94438076e-01 -2.56274015e-01 -2.85637408e-01 -1.93139315e-01 -3.05134684e-01 -1.82489842e-01 -2.46898428e-01] [ 5.72859168e-01 -6.30120635e-01 -2.74017543e-01 2.47912124e-01 -3.38495038e-02 2.93989003e-01 1.61027774e-01 -1.57254755e-01] [ -9.54463035e-02 1.70207784e-01 -1.59810841e-01 -3.54610324e-01 5.00790417e-01 2.23433599e-01 3.97842437e-01 -5.92991650e-01] [ 3.83228481e-01 3.10038358e-01 -2.22044605e-16 -7.31901303e-02 -4.28462476e-01 -1.91614240e-01 -3.83228481e-01 -6.20076716e-01] [ -1.76963374e-01 1.84062332e-01 -5.78984618e-01 4.45784479e-01 3.47110212e-01 1.27460942e-01 -5.12923241e-01 -3.21868137e-02] [ 1.76092178e-01 2.34777853e-01 -6.36550903e-01 -8.36141407e-02 -1.55483231e-01 -4.91219401e-01 4.27574426e-01 2.31065080e-01] [ 4.19185609e-01 -1.29535481e-01 -3.33066907e-16 -5.48721075e-01 4.68663752e-01 -2.09592804e-01 -4.19185609e-01 2.59070963e-01] [ -5.57702743e-02 1.36813134e-01 -3.05414885e-01 -4.68012422e-01 -4.03576553e-01 6.57535374e-01 -1.18313827e-01 2.37976909e-01]]

Here is the plot for the SVD of the preceding dataset:

Eigen decomposition is one of the most famous decomposition techniques in which we decompose a matrix into a set of eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

For a square matrix, Eigenvector is a vector *v* such that multiplication by *A* alters only the scale of *v*:

*Av = Î»v*

The scalar *Î»* is known as the eigenvalue corresponding to this eigenvector.

Eigen decomposition of *A* is then given as follows:

Eigen decomposition of a matrix describes many useful details about the matrix. For example, the matrix is singular if, and only if, any of the eigenvalues are zero.

**Principal Component Analysis** (**PCA**) projects the given dataset onto a lower dimensional linear space so that the variance of the projected data is maximized. PCA requires the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix, which is the product where *X* is the data matrix.

SVD on the data matrix *X* is given as follows:

The following example shows PCA using SVD:

import numpy as np import tensorflow as tf import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import plotly.plotly as py import plotly.graph_objs as go import plotly.figure_factory as FF import pandas as pd path = "/neuralnetwork-programming/ch01/plots" logs = "/neuralnetwork-programming/ch01/logs" xMatrix = np.array([[0,2,1,0,0,0,0,0], [2,0,0,1,0,1,0,0], [1,0,0,0,0,0,1,0], [0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0], [0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1], [0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1], [0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1], [0,0,0,0,1,1,1,0]], dtype=np.float32) def pca(mat): mat = tf.constant(mat, dtype=tf.float32) mean = tf.reduce_mean(mat, 0) less = mat - mean s, u, v = tf.svd(less, full_matrices=True, compute_uv=True) s2 = s ** 2 variance_ratio = s2 / tf.reduce_sum(s2) with tf.Session() as session: run = session.run([variance_ratio]) return run if __name__ == '__main__': print(pca(xMatrix))

The output of the listing is shown as follows:

[array([ 4.15949494e-01, 2.08390564e-01, 1.90929279e-01, 8.36438537e-02, 5.55494241e-02, 2.46047471e-02, 2.09326427e-02, 3.57540098e-16], dtype=float32)]

Topics in the previous sections are covered as part of standard linear algebra; something that wasn't covered is basic calculus. Despite the fact that the calculus that we use is relatively simple, the mathematical form of it may look very complex. In this section, we present some basic forms of matrix calculus with a few examples.

Gradient for functions with respect to a real-valued matrix*A* is defined as the matrix of partial derivatives of *A* and is denoted as follows:

TensorFlow does not do numerical differentiation; rather, it supports automatic differentiation. By specifying operations in a TensorFlow graph, it can automatically run the chain rule through the graph and, as it knows the derivatives of each operation we specify, it can combine them automatically.

The following example shows training a network using MNIST data, the MNIST database consists of handwritten digits. It has a training set of 60,000 examples and a test set of 10,000 samples. The digits are size-normalized.

Here backpropagation is performed without any API usage and derivatives are calculated manually. We get 913 correct out of 1,000 tests.Â This concept will be introduced in the next chapter.

The following code snippet describes how to get the `mnist`

dataset and initialize weights and biases:

import tensorflow as tf # get mnist dataset from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data data = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True) # x represents image with 784 values as columns (28*28), y represents output digit x = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 784]) y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 10]) # initialize weights and biases [w1,b1][w2,b2] numNeuronsInDeepLayer = 30 w1 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([784, numNeuronsInDeepLayer])) b1 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([1, numNeuronsInDeepLayer])) w2 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([numNeuronsInDeepLayer, 10])) b2 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([1, 10]))

We now define a two-layered network with a nonlinear `sigmoid`

function; a squared loss function is applied and optimized using a backward propagation algorithm, as shown in the following snippet:

# non-linear sigmoid function at each neuron def sigmoid(x): sigma = tf.div(tf.constant(1.0), tf.add(tf.constant(1.0), tf.exp(tf.negative(x)))) return sigma # starting from first layer with wx+b, then apply sigmoid to add non-linearity z1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(x, w1), b1) a1 = sigmoid(z1) z2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(a1, w2), b2) a2 = sigmoid(z2) # calculate the loss (delta) loss = tf.subtract(a2, y) # derivative of the sigmoid function der(sigmoid)=sigmoid*(1-sigmoid) def sigmaprime(x): return tf.multiply(sigmoid(x), tf.subtract(tf.constant(1.0), sigmoid(x))) # backward propagation dz2 = tf.multiply(loss, sigmaprime(z2)) db2 = dz2 dw2 = tf.matmul(tf.transpose(a1), dz2) da1 = tf.matmul(dz2, tf.transpose(w2)) dz1 = tf.multiply(da1, sigmaprime(z1)) db1 = dz1 dw1 = tf.matmul(tf.transpose(x), dz1) # finally update the network eta = tf.constant(0.5) step = [ tf.assign(w1, tf.subtract(w1, tf.multiply(eta, dw1))) , tf.assign(b1, tf.subtract(b1, tf.multiply(eta, tf.reduce_mean(db1, axis=[0])))) , tf.assign(w2, tf.subtract(w2, tf.multiply(eta, dw2))) , tf.assign(b2, tf.subtract(b2, tf.multiply(eta, tf.reduce_mean(db2, axis=[0])))) ] acct_mat = tf.equal(tf.argmax(a2, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1)) acct_res = tf.reduce_sum(tf.cast(acct_mat, tf.float32)) sess = tf.InteractiveSession() sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer()) for i in range(10000): batch_xs, batch_ys = data.train.next_batch(10) sess.run(step, feed_dict={x: batch_xs, y: batch_ys}) if i % 1000 == 0: res = sess.run(acct_res, feed_dict= {x: data.test.images[:1000], y: data.test.labels[:1000]}) print(res)

The output of this is shown as follows:

Extracting MNIST_data 125.0 814.0 870.0 874.0 889.0 897.0 906.0 903.0 922.0 913.0

Now, let's use automatic differentiation with TensorFlow. The following example demonstrates the use of `GradientDescentOptimizer`

. We get 924 correct out of 1,000 tests.

import tensorflow as tf # get mnist dataset from tensorflow.examples.tutorials.mnist import input_data data = input_data.read_data_sets("MNIST_data/", one_hot=True) # x represents image with 784 values as columns (28*28), y represents output digit x = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 784]) y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, [None, 10]) # initialize weights and biases [w1,b1][w2,b2] numNeuronsInDeepLayer = 30 w1 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([784, numNeuronsInDeepLayer])) b1 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([1, numNeuronsInDeepLayer])) w2 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([numNeuronsInDeepLayer, 10])) b2 = tf.Variable(tf.truncated_normal([1, 10])) # non-linear sigmoid function at each neuron def sigmoid(x): sigma = tf.div(tf.constant(1.0), tf.add(tf.constant(1.0), tf.exp(tf.negative(x)))) return sigma # starting from first layer with wx+b, then apply sigmoid to add non-linearity z1 = tf.add(tf.matmul(x, w1), b1) a1 = sigmoid(z1) z2 = tf.add(tf.matmul(a1, w2), b2) a2 = sigmoid(z2) # calculate the loss (delta) loss = tf.subtract(a2, y) # derivative of the sigmoid function der(sigmoid)=sigmoid*(1-sigmoid) def sigmaprime(x): return tf.multiply(sigmoid(x), tf.subtract(tf.constant(1.0), sigmoid(x))) # automatic differentiation cost = tf.multiply(loss, loss) step = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(0.1).minimize(cost) acct_mat = tf.equal(tf.argmax(a2, 1), tf.argmax(y, 1)) acct_res = tf.reduce_sum(tf.cast(acct_mat, tf.float32)) sess = tf.InteractiveSession() sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer()) for i in range(10000): batch_xs, batch_ys = data.train.next_batch(10) sess.run(step, feed_dict={x: batch_xs, y: batch_ys}) if i % 1000 == 0: res = sess.run(acct_res, feed_dict= {x: data.test.images[:1000], y: data.test.labels[:1000]}) print(res)

The output of this is shown as follows:

96.0 777.0 862.0 870.0 889.0 901.0 911.0 905.0 914.0 924.0

The following example shows linear regression using gradient descent:

import tensorflow as tf import numpy import matplotlib.pyplot as plt rndm = numpy.random # config parameters learningRate = 0.01 trainingEpochs = 1000 displayStep = 50 # create the training data trainX = numpy.asarray([3.3,4.4,5.5,6.71,6.93,4.168,9.779,6.182,7.59,2.167, 7.042,10.791,5.313,7.997,5.654,9.27,3.12]) trainY = numpy.asarray([1.7,2.76,2.09,3.19,1.694,1.573,3.366,2.596,2.53,1.221, 2.827,3.465,1.65,2.904,2.42,2.94,1.34]) nSamples = trainX.shape[0] # tf inputs X = tf.placeholder("float") Y = tf.placeholder("float") # initialize weights and bias W = tf.Variable(rndm.randn(), name="weight") b = tf.Variable(rndm.randn(), name="bias") # linear model linearModel = tf.add(tf.multiply(X, W), b) # mean squared error loss = tf.reduce_sum(tf.pow(linearModel-Y, 2))/(2*nSamples) # Gradient descent opt = tf.train.GradientDescentOptimizer(learningRate).minimize(loss) # initializing variables init = tf.global_variables_initializer() # run with tf.Session() as sess: sess.run(init) # fitting the training data for epoch in range(trainingEpochs): for (x, y) in zip(trainX, trainY): sess.run(opt, feed_dict={X: x, Y: y}) # print logs if (epoch+1) % displayStep == 0: c = sess.run(loss, feed_dict={X: trainX, Y:trainY}) print("Epoch is:", '%04d' % (epoch+1), "loss=", "{:.9f}".format(c), "W=", sess.run(W), "b=", sess.run(b)) print("optimization done...") trainingLoss = sess.run(loss, feed_dict={X: trainX, Y: trainY}) print("Training loss=", trainingLoss, "W=", sess.run(W), "b=", sess.run(b), '\n') # display the plot plt.plot(trainX, trainY, 'ro', label='Original data') plt.plot(trainX, sess.run(W) * trainX + sess.run(b), label='Fitted line') plt.legend() plt.show() # Testing example, as requested (Issue #2) testX = numpy.asarray([6.83, 4.668, 8.9, 7.91, 5.7, 8.7, 3.1, 2.1]) testY = numpy.asarray([1.84, 2.273, 3.2, 2.831, 2.92, 3.24, 1.35, 1.03]) print("Testing... (Mean square loss Comparison)") testing_cost = sess.run( tf.reduce_sum(tf.pow(linearModel - Y, 2)) / (2 * testX.shape[0]), feed_dict={X: testX, Y: testY}) print("Testing cost=", testing_cost) print("Absolute mean square loss difference:", abs(trainingLoss - testing_cost)) plt.plot(testX, testY, 'bo', label='Testing data') plt.plot(trainX, sess.run(W) * trainX + sess.run(b), label='Fitted line') plt.legend() plt.show()

The output of this is shown as follows:

Epoch is: 0050 loss= 0.141912043 W= 0.10565 b= 1.8382 Epoch is: 0100 loss= 0.134377643 W= 0.11413 b= 1.7772 Epoch is: 0150 loss= 0.127711013 W= 0.122106 b= 1.71982 Epoch is: 0200 loss= 0.121811897 W= 0.129609 b= 1.66585 Epoch is: 0250 loss= 0.116592340 W= 0.136666 b= 1.61508 Epoch is: 0300 loss= 0.111973859 W= 0.143304 b= 1.56733 Epoch is: 0350 loss= 0.107887231 W= 0.149547 b= 1.52241 Epoch is: 0400 loss= 0.104270980 W= 0.15542 b= 1.48017 Epoch is: 0450 loss= 0.101070963 W= 0.160945 b= 1.44043 Epoch is: 0500 loss= 0.098239250 W= 0.166141 b= 1.40305 Epoch is: 0550 loss= 0.095733419 W= 0.171029 b= 1.36789 Epoch is: 0600 loss= 0.093516059 W= 0.175626 b= 1.33481 Epoch is: 0650 loss= 0.091553882 W= 0.179951 b= 1.3037 Epoch is: 0700 loss= 0.089817807 W= 0.184018 b= 1.27445 Epoch is: 0750 loss= 0.088281371 W= 0.187843 b= 1.24692 Epoch is: 0800 loss= 0.086921677 W= 0.191442 b= 1.22104 Epoch is: 0850 loss= 0.085718453 W= 0.194827 b= 1.19669 Epoch is: 0900 loss= 0.084653646 W= 0.198011 b= 1.17378 Epoch is: 0950 loss= 0.083711281 W= 0.201005 b= 1.15224 Epoch is: 1000 loss= 0.082877308 W= 0.203822 b= 1.13198 optimization done... Training loss= 0.0828773 W= 0.203822 b= 1.13198 Testing... (Mean square loss Comparison) Testing cost= 0.0957726 Absolute mean square loss difference: 0.0128952

The plots are as follows:

The following image shows the fitted line on testing data using the model:

Gradient is the first derivative for functions of vectors, whereas hessian is the second derivative. We will go through the notation now:

Similar to the gradient, the hessian is defined only when *f(x)* is real-valued.

The following example shows the hessian implementation using TensorFlow:

import tensorflow as tf import numpy as np X = tf.Variable(np.random.random_sample(), dtype=tf.float32) y = tf.Variable(np.random.random_sample(), dtype=tf.float32) def createCons(x): return tf.constant(x, dtype=tf.float32) function = tf.pow(X, createCons(2)) + createCons(2) * X * y + createCons(3) * tf.pow(y, createCons(2)) + createCons(4) * X + createCons(5) * y + createCons(6) # compute hessian def hessian(func, varbles): matrix = [] for v_1 in varbles: tmp = [] for v_2 in varbles: # calculate derivative twice, first w.r.t v2 and then w.r.t v1 tmp.append(tf.gradients(tf.gradients(func, v_2)[0], v_1)[0]) tmp = [createCons(0) if t == None else t for t in tmp] tmp = tf.stack(tmp) matrix.append(tmp) matrix = tf.stack(matrix) return matrix hessian = hessian(function, [X, y]) sess = tf.Session() sess.run(tf.initialize_all_variables()) print(sess.run(hessian))

The output of this is shown as follows:

[[ 2. 2.] [ 2. 6.]]

Determinant shows us information about the matrix that is helpful in linear equations and also helps in finding the inverse of a matrix.

For a given matrix *X*, the determinant is shown as follows:

The following example shows how to get a determinant using TensorFlow:

import tensorflow as tf import numpy as np x = np.array([[10.0, 15.0, 20.0], [0.0, 1.0, 5.0], [3.0, 5.0, 7.0]], dtype=np.float32) det = tf.matrix_determinant(x) with tf.Session() as sess: print(sess.run(det))

The output of this is shown as follows:

-15.0

As part of deep learning, we mostly would like to optimize the value of a function that either minimizes or maximizes *f(x)* with respect to *x*. A few examples of optimization problems are least-squares, logistic regression, and support vector machines. Many of these techniques will get examined in detail in later chapters.

We will study `AdamOptimizer`

here; TensorFlow `AdamOptimizer`

uses Kingma and Ba's Adam algorithm to manage the learning rate. Adam has many advantages over the simple `GradientDescentOptimizer`

. The first is that it uses moving averages of the parameters, which enables Adam to use a larger step size, and it will converge to this step size without any fine-tuning.

The disadvantage of Adam is that it requires more computation to be performed for each parameter in each training step. `GradientDescentOptimizer`

can be used as well, but it would require more hyperparameter tuning before it would converge as quickly.
The following example shows how to use `AdamOptimizer`

:

`tf.train.Optimizer`

creates an optimizer`tf.train.Optimizer.minimize(loss, var_list)`

adds the optimization operation to the computation graph

Here, automatic differentiation computes gradients without user input:

import numpy as np import seaborn import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import tensorflow as tf # input dataset xData = np.arange(100, step=.1) yData = xData + 20 * np.sin(xData/10) # scatter plot for input data plt.scatter(xData, yData) plt.show() # defining data size and batch size nSamples = 1000 batchSize = 100 # resize xData = np.reshape(xData, (nSamples,1)) yData = np.reshape(yData, (nSamples,1)) # input placeholders x = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=(batchSize, 1)) y = tf.placeholder(tf.float32, shape=(batchSize, 1)) # init weight and bias with tf.variable_scope("linearRegression"): W = tf.get_variable("weights", (1, 1), initializer=tf.random_normal_initializer()) b = tf.get_variable("bias", (1,), initializer=tf.constant_initializer(0.0)) y_pred = tf.matmul(x, W) + b loss = tf.reduce_sum((y - y_pred)**2/nSamples) # optimizer opt = tf.train.AdamOptimizer().minimize(loss) with tf.Session() as sess: sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer()) # gradient descent loop for 500 steps for _ in range(500): # random minibatch indices = np.random.choice(nSamples, batchSize) X_batch, y_batch = xData[indices], yData[indices] # gradient descent step _, loss_val = sess.run([opt, loss], feed_dict={x: X_batch, y: y_batch})

Here is the scatter plot for the dataset:

This is the plot of the learned model on the data:

In this chapter, we've introduced the mathematical concepts that are key to the understanding of neural networks and reviewed some maths associated with tensors. We also demonstrated how to perform mathematical operations within TensorFlow. We will repeatedly be applying these concepts in the following chapters.

Â

Â

Â