Mastering Windows PowerShell Scripting - Second Edition

4.8 (4 reviews total)
By Chris Dent , Brenton J.W. Blawat
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  1. Introduction to PowerShell

About this book

PowerShell scripts offer a handy way to automate various chores. Working with these scripts effectively can be a difficult task.

This comprehensive guide starts from scratch and covers advanced-level topics to make you a PowerShell expert. The first module, PowerShell Fundamentals, begins with new features, installing PowerShell on Linux, working with parameters and objects, and also how you can work with .NET classes from within PowerShell.

In the next module, you’ll see how to efficiently manage large amounts of data and interact with other services using PowerShell. You’ll be able to make the most of PowerShell’s powerful automation feature, where you will have different methods to parse and manipulate data, regular expressions, and WMI.

After automation, you will enter the Extending PowerShell module, which covers topics such as asynchronous processing and, creating modules. The final step is to secure your PowerShell, so you will land in the last module, Securing and Debugging PowerShell, which covers PowerShell execution policies, error handling techniques, and testing.

By the end of the book, you will be an expert in using the PowerShell language.

Publication date:
October 2017
Publisher
Packt
Pages
440
ISBN
9781787126305

 

Chapter 1. Introduction to PowerShell

I write this as PowerShell approaches its 10th birthday since its release. PowerShell has come a long way since that time.

For me, PowerShell has gone from being a speculative replacement for a mixture of VBScript, C#, and Perl to a complex language with a great community.

This book is split into a number of sections. Much of the book is intended to act as a reference. We will cover the following topics in this book:

  • Exploring PowerShell fundamentals
  • Working with data
  • Automating with PowerShell
  • Extending PowerShell

In the first section of this book, while exploring the PowerShell fundamentals, we will look at the use of language and cover as many building blocks as possible.

In this chapter, we will briefly look at a number of short, diverse topics:

  • What is PowerShell?
  • Quick reference
  • PowerShell editors
  • PowerShell on Linux
 

What is PowerShell?


PowerShell is a mixture of a command line, a functional programming language, and an object-oriented programming language. PowerShell is based on Microsoft .NET, which gives it a level of open flexibility that was not available in Microsoft's scripting languages (such as VBScript or batch) before this.

PowerShell is an explorer's scripting language. With built-in help, command discovery, and with access to much of the .NET Framework, it is possible to dig down through the layers.

This book is based on PowerShell 5.1; some of the features discussed in the book may not be available in the earlier versions of PowerShell.

 

Quick reference


There is a wide variety of quick references available for PowerShell. This particular reference is intended to kick-start the book, as a lot of this is either not explicitly explained or used often before in a more detailed explanation.

Comments

Refer to the following table:

Line comment

#

# This is a line comment

Block comment

<#

#>

<#
This is a block or multi-line comment
#>

Special characters

Refer to the following table:

Statement separator

;

Get-Command Get-Process; Get-Command Get-Help

Call operator

&

& ‘Get-Process’   # Invoke the string as a command
& { Get-Process –Id $PID }    # Invoke the script block

Dot-source operator

.

. C:\script.ps1    # Execute the script in the current scope (instead of its own scope)

Tick in PowerShell

PowerShell uses a tick as a multipurpose escaped character.

A tick may be used as a line continuation character. Consider the following example:

'one' -replace 'o', 't' ` 
      -replace 'n', 'w' ` 
      -replace 'e', 'o' 

When using a tick to split a long statement across several lines, the tick must be the last character (it cannot be followed by a space or any other character).

A tick is used to construct several characters that can be used in strings:

Description

String

ASCII character code

Null

`0

0

Bell sound

`a

7

Backspace

`b

8

New page form feed

`f

12

Line feed

`n

10

Carriage return

`r

13

Horizontal tab

`t

9

Vertical tab

`v

11

 

The tab character, for example, may be included in a string:

PS> Write-Host "First`tSecond" 
First Second  

Alternatively, the bell sound may be played in the PowerShell console (but not ISE):

Write-Host "`a"

Common operators

Refer to the following table:

Equal to

-eq

1 –eq 1    # Returns $true
1 –eq 2    # Returns $false

Not equal to

-ne

1 –ne 2    # Returns $true
1 –ne 1    # Returns $false

And

-and

$true –and $true    # Returns $true
$true –and $false    # Returns $false
$false –and $false    # Returns $false

Or

-or

$true –or $true    # Returns $true
$true –or $false   # Returns $true
$false –or $false  # Returns $false

Addition and concatenation

+

1 + 1            # Equals 2
“one” + “one”    # Equals oneone

Subexpression operator

$( )

“Culture is $($host.CurrentCulture)”
“Culture is $(Get-Culture)”

Dropping unwanted output

Refer to the following table:

Assign to null

$null = Expression

$null = Get-Command

Cast to void

[Void](Expression)

[Void](Get-Command)

Pipe to Out-Null

Expression | Out-Null

Get-Command | Out-Null

Redirect to null

Expression > $null

Get-Command > $null

Creating arrays and hashtables

Refer to the following table:

Using the array operator

@()

$array = @()    # Empty array
$array = @(1, 2, 3, 4)

Implicit array

Value1, Value2, Value3

$array = 1, 2, 3, 4
$array = “one”, “two”, “three”, “four”

Using the hashtable operator

@{}

$hashtable = @{}    # Empty hashtable
$hashtable = @{Key1 = “Value1”}
$hashtable = @{Key1 = “Value1”; Key2 = “Value2”}

Strings

Refer to the following table:

Expanding string

“ “

“Value”
$greeting = “Hello”; “$greeting World”   # Expands variable

Expanding here-string

@”

“@

$one = ‘One’
@”
Must be opened on its own line.
This string will expand variables like $var.
Can contain other quotes like “ and ‘.
Must be closed on its own line with no preceding white space.
“@

Non-expanding string

‘ ‘

‘Value’
‘$greeting World’    # Does not expand variable

Non-expanding here-string

@’

‘@

@’
Must be opened on its own line.
This string will not expand variables like $var.
Can contain other quotes like “ and ‘.
Must be closed on its own line with no preceding white space.
‘@

Quotes in strings

“ `” “

“ ““ “

‘ `’ ‘

‘ ‘‘ ‘

“Double-quotes may be escaped with tick like `”.”
“Or double-quotes may be escaped with another quote ““.”
‘Single-quotes may be escaped with tick like `’.’
‘Or single-quotes may be escaped with another quote like ‘‘.’

Common reserved variables

Refer to the following table:

Errors

$Error

$Error[0]    # The last error

Formats the enumeration limit. Dictates the number of elements displayed for objects with properties based on arrays.

The default is 4.

$FormatEnumerationLimit

$object = [PSCustomObject]@{
Array = @(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
}
$object    # Shows 1, 2, 3, and 4
$formatenumerationlimit = 1
$object    # Shows 1

Holds data of the current PowerShell host.

$Host

$host
$host.UI.RawUI.WindowTitle

The matches found when using the -match operator.

$Matches

‘text’ –match ‘.*’
$matches

The output field separator.

The default is a single space.

Dictates how arrays are joined when included in an expandable string.

$OFS

$arr = 1, 2, 3, 4
“Joined based on OFS: $arr”
$ofs = ‘, ‘
“Joined based on OFS: $arr”

Current PowerShell process ID.

$PID

Get-Process –Id $PID

Holds the path to each of the profile files.

$PROFILE

$profile.AllUsersAllHosts
$profile.AllUsersCurrentHost
$profile.CurrentUserAllHosts
$profile.CurrentUserCurrentHost

PowerShell version information.

$PSVersionTable


$PSVersionTable.PSVersion

Present working directory.

$PWD

$PWD.Path

Quick commands and hot keys

Refer to the following table:

ise

ise <file>

Opens PowerShell ISE.

Opens a file with ISE if a filename is given.

code

code <file or folder>

If Visual Studio Code is installed (and in %PATH%).

Opens the VS Code.

Opens a file or folder with the VS Code.

Get-History

history

Shows command history for the current session.

<Text><Tab>

Autocompletes in context. Tab can be used to complete command names, parameter names, and some parameter values.

#<Text><Tab>

Autocompletes against history (beginning of the line). Typing #get- and repeatedly pressing Tab will cycle through all commands containing Get- from your history.

ii

ii is an alias for the invoke-item. Opens the current directory in Explorer.

start iexplore

start is an alias for the start-process. Opens Internet Explorer.

start <name> -verb runas

Runs a process as administrator.

 

PowerShell editors


While it is possible to write for PowerShell using the Notepad application alone, it is rarely desirable. Using an editor designed to work with PowerShell can save a lot of time.

Specialized PowerShell editors, at a minimum, offer automatic completion (IntelliSense) that reduces the amount of cross-referencing required while writing code. Finding a comfortable editor early is a good way to ease into PowerShell: memorizing commands and parameters is not necessary.

Two editors are discussed, as follows:

  • PowerShell ISE
  • Visual Studio Code

PowerShell ISE

PowerShell IntegratedScriptingEnvironment (ISE) was introduced with PowerShell 2 in October 2009 and has been updated with every subsequent release.

ISE has an immediate advantage over other editors. It is installed along with PowerShell itself and is likely to be available in some form wherever PowerShell is. ISE consists of a text editor pane and a script pane, as shown in the following screenshot:

Features

ISE is a rich editing environment that includes IntelliSense, built-in help, syntax checking, debugging, and so on.

Additional features are available for ISE from the following add-on tools website:

http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/2969.windows-powershell-ise-add-on-tools.aspx

If you are developing code for use on production systems, I strongly recommend adding PS Script Analyzer. PS Script Analyzer will highlight areas of your code that do not conform to its rule set; for example, using an alias instead of a command name would be highlighted.

Community and commercial add-ons can greatly extend the functionality of ISE to simplify day-to-day use.

Installing ISE Preview

In PowerShell 5, the distribution model for ISE is in the process of changing. Until version 5, ISE was released as a part of the Windows Management Framework (WMF). New features were introduced with each version of WMF, but the time between the versions was long.

ISE Preview may be installed from the PowerShell gallery using the following command:

Install-Module -Name PowerShellISE-Preview

Once installed, the update-module command may be used to bring ISE up to par with the published version.

ISE Preview can coexist with the version of ISE installed by the WMF package.

Starting ISE

ISE may be started from the start menu; however, running the powershell_ise command (from the Run dialog, cmd, or the search box) is sufficient. In PowerShell, the simpler ise command is aliased to powershell_ise.exe.

If the preview version from the PowerShell gallery is being used, the following command will start that version of ISE:

Start-ISEPreview 

This first preview version differs a little from the version of ISE shipping with WMF 5. If the distribution model is successful, the PowerShell team hopes to release a new version of ISE every month, with each release fixing bugs and/or adding new features.

Visual Studio Code

Visual Studio Code is a free open source editor published by Microsoft. VS Code may be downloaded from http://code.visualstudio.com.

VS Code is a good choice of editor when working with multiple languages or when specifically looking for an editor that supports Git in a simple manner.

Features

VS Code does not come with the native PowerShell support. It must be added. Once VS Code is installed, open it, and select the EXTENSIONS button on the left-hand side.

Type PowerShell in the search dialog box, and install the PowerShell language support:

After installation, the extension provides Syntax highlighting, testing using PowerShell Script Analyzer, debugging, and so on.

Console

Unlike ISE, the console (or terminal, as it is named) in VS Code must be configured. By default, the terminal in code uses cmd.exe.

The following process is used to make the terminal use PowerShell:

  1. Open UserSettings from FileandPreferences. The same may be achieved by pressing F1 and typing user settings followed by return.
  2. This opens two windows: a Default Settings file on the left and a settings.json on the right. The file on the right holds user-specific configuration that overrides or adds to the default.
  3. Expand the Integrated Terminal section in Default Settings (by clicking on the o9 symbol) to show the default values.
  4. On the right-hand side, enter the following between the curly braces:
"terminal.integrated.shell.windows": "C:\\Windows\\sysnative\\WindowsPowerShell\\v1.0\\powershell.exe" 
  1. Save the changes, then press Ctrl+Shift+' (apostrophe) to open a new PowerShell terminal. Ctrl + ' (apostrophe) toggles the visibility of the terminal window.

Note

This is not ISE In PowerShell ISE, F5 + F8 may be used to execute a script. This is not the case in VS Code. A selection may be executed by pressing F1 and typing run selected to filter options to Terminal: Run Selected Text in Active Terminal.

Version control (Git)

Visual Studio Code comes with integrated support for Git version control. Git is a distributed version control system; each developer has a copy of the same repository.

Setting up a repository is simple, as follows:

  1. Open a folder that contains a project. Then, select the Git button (or press Ctrl +Shift +G).
  2. Click on Initialize git repository button as shown in the following screenshot:
  1. Once you have done this, files may be added to version control when committing (applying a change).

Subsequent changes to files may be inspected before committing again:

 

PowerShell on Linux


PowerShell for Linux is, at least at the time of writing, in alpha. The current release is still worth installing even if only to see what having a unified shell may look like.

Note

What about Cygwin? PowerShell is not the first to give a hint of a single shell across different operating systems. However, until PowerShell matured, it was a serious challenge to manage Windows and Microsoft-based systems from the command line alone.

Some familiarity with Linux is assumed during this process.

Installing PowerShell

This installation is based on PowerShell 6, alpha 12 as the latest at the time of writing. The package can be downloaded from GitHub with yum, which will also install the dependencies (https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases/latest):

  1. The following command will install PowerShell and any dependencies (libicu, libunwind, and uuid):
sudo yum install https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell/releases/download/v6.0.0-alpha.12/powershell-6.0.0_alpha.12-1.el7.centos.x86_64.rpm

alpha 12 is the latest release but it may not be when you read this.

  1. PowerShell can be immediately started by running the following command:
powershell
  1. Create a few files in the home directory as a test:
Set-Location ~ 
1..10 | ForEach-Object { New-Item $_ -ItemType File }
  1. The previous command creates 10 empty files named 1 to 10 (with no file extension). Ensure that the new files are now visible using Get-ChildItem:
Get-ChildItem

Note

ls versus Get-ChildItem: On Windows, ls (list) in PowerShell is an alias for Get-ChildItem. On Linux, ls is the original command. See Get-Alias -Definition Get-ChildItem to view what still is.

Where are the PowerShell files?

Several of the following used paths are specific to the installed release (in this case, alpha 12).

As with PowerShell on Windows, the PSHOME variable shows where PowerShell itself has been installed:

PS> $PSHOME 
/opt/microsoft/powershell/6.0.0-alpha.12

The paths for module installation may be viewed using the environment variables:

PS> $env:PSMODULEPATH -split ':' 
/home/psuser/.local/share/powershell/Modules 
/usr/local/share/powershell/Modules 
/opt/microsoft/powershell/6.0.0-alpha.12/Modules

Note

Case sensitivity Linux has a much higher regard for case than Windows. Environment variables, file paths, executables, and so on, are case sensitive. The previously used variable name must be written in uppercase. Use Get-ChildItem to list all of the environment variables using the following command:Get-ChildItem env:

Changing the shell

Once installed, PowerShell is visible in the list of available shells:

chsh -l

Set PowerShell as the default shell for the current user:

chsh 
New shell [/bin/bash]: /usr/bin/powershell

Profiles

The current user profile on Linux resides under the home directory:

~/.config/powershell

Two profiles can be created: CurrentUserCurrentHost (Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1) and Current User (profile.ps1). Inspecting the automatic variable, $PROFILE shows the first of these:

  1. The directory will need to be created prior to use; the following command creates it:
New-Item ~/.config/powershell -ItemType Directory 
  1. Create a simple profile file by sending a string to a file:
‘Write-Host “Welcome to PowerShell” -ForegroundColor Green’ |
    Out-File .config/powershell/profile.ps1
  1. The AllUser profile may be created under PowerShell's installation directory, in this case, alpha 12, as this is the version I have installed:
/opt/microsoft/powershell/6.0.0-alpha.12 
  1. Writing to this area of the filesystem requires the root privileges:
sudo vi /opt/microsoft/powershell/6.0.0-alpha.12/profile.ps1 
  1. Inside vi, press i to enter insert mode and then type the following:
Write-Host 'This is the system profile' -ForegroundColor Yellow
  1. Once completed, press Esc, then type :wq to save and quit vi.
  2. As with PowerShell on Windows, this will be executed before a user-level profile that shows the following in the console when the shell is started:
This is the system profile 
Welcome to PowerShell

Multiplatform scripting

PowerShell on Linux (and macOS) has a long way to go to reach maturity. Our experience writing for these systems has to make a similar journey.

One of the most important facets is that Linux and macOS run PowerShell Core. It lacks some features we may have become used to when writing for Windows.

Line endings

Windows editors, including ISE, tend to use a carriage return followed by linefeed (\r\n or `r`n) at the end of each line. Linux editors use linefeed only (\n or `n).

Line endings are less important if the only thing reading the file is PowerShell (on any platform). However, if a script is set to executable on Linux, a sha-bang must be included and the line-ending character used must be linefeed only.

For example, a created as follows named test.ps1 must use \n to end lines:

#!/usr/bin/env powershell 
Get-Process

The first line is the sha-bang and lets Linux know which parser to use when executing the shell script.

Once created, chmod may be used to make the script executable outside of PowerShell:

chmod +x test.ps1

After being made executable, the script may be executed from bash with the full path or a relative path:

./test.ps1

Note

Editor defaults PowerShell ISE uses carriage return followed by line feed (\r\n). This behavior is by design and cannot be changed. Visual Studio Code uses \r\n for line endings by default. This may be changed in User Settings by adding the following command:"files.eol": "\n"

File encoding

Windows editors, including ISE, tend to save files using what is commonly known as ANSI encoding; this is more correctly known as Windows-1252.

As Windows-1252 is a Microsoft native format, it may be more appropriate to save files in a universally accepted format such as UTF8.

Note

Editor defaults PowerShell ISE defaults to saving files in UTF8 with a Byte Order Mark (BOM). Visual Studio Code saves files using UTF8 (without a BOM) by default. The setting may be changed in User Settings by adding "files.encoding": "utf8bom".

Path separator

Testing shows that PowerShell on Linux is forgiving about path separators; that is, Microsoft Windows uses the backslash (\), where Linux uses a forward slash (/).

If anything outside of PowerShell (including native commands) is to be used, a correct separator should be chosen.

The Join-Path command will merge path elements using the correct separator for each platform. Manual path construction (based on merging strings) should be avoided.

Example

The following function uses the System.Net.NetworkInformation namespace to discover IPv4 address information. This allows us to return the same thing whether it is run on Windows or Linux.

If it were Windows only, we might have used WMI or the Get-NetIPConfiguration command. Creating something to work on both operating systems is more challenging:

function Get-IPConfig { 
    [System.Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface]::GetAllNetworkInterfaces() | ForEach-Object { 
        $ipProperties = $_.GetIPProperties() 
             
        $addresses = $ipProperties.UnicastAddresses | 
            Where-Object { 
                $_.Address.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetwork' 
            } | ForEach-Object { 
                "$($_.Address) $($_.IPv4Mask)" 
            } 
 
        $gateway = $ipProperties.GatewayAddresses.Address | 
            Where-Object { 
                $_.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetwork' -and  
                $_ -ne '0.0.0.0' 
            } 
 
        [PSCustomObject]@{ 
            Name      = $_.Name 
            Id        = $_.Id 
            Addresses = $addresses 
            Gateway   = $gateway 
        } 
    } | Where-Object { $_.Addresses } 
} 
Get-IPConfig 
 

Summary


This chapter featured a brief introduction to PowerShell itself and provided a quick reference for some of the syntax and features.

A reasonable PowerShell editor is a great tool to have for any scripting language. A number of excellent options are available for beginners and veterans alike.

Recently, PowerShell has moved onto GitHub as an open source project. At the same time, versions of PowerShell for Linux and macOS have been developed. Installation of PowerShell on CentOS was briefly demonstrated.

In Chapter 2, Working with PowerShell, we will look at the help system and how to discover commands.

 

About the Authors

  • Chris Dent

    Chris Dent is an automation specialist with deep expertise in the PowerShell language. Chris is often found answering questions about PowerShell in both the UK and virtual PowerShell user groups. Chris has been developing in PowerShell since 2007 and has released several modules over the years.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Brenton J.W. Blawat

    Brenton J.W. Blawat is an entrepreneur, strategic technical advisor, author, and enterprise architect, who has a passion for the procurement of technology in profit-based organizations. He is business-centric and technology-minded. Brenton has many years of experience in bridging the gap between technical staff and decision-makers in several organizations. He takes pride in his ability to effectively communicate with a diverse audience and provide strategic direction for large and small organizations alike.

    _x000D_

    In 2013, Brenton authored his first book, PowerShell 3.0 WMI Starter, Packt Publishing. In March 2015, he authored his second book Mastering Windows PowerShell Scripting, Packt Publishing.

    _x000D_

    Brenton currently works at CDW as an Enterprise Architect in strategic solutions and services. CDW is a leading multibrand technology solutions provider in the fields of business, government, education, and healthcare. A Fortune 500 company, it was founded in 1984 and employs approximately 7,200 coworkers. In 2016, the company generated net sales of more than $13.0 billion.

    _x000D_

    His current specialisation sits on top of 15 years experience spread across (predominantly Microsoft) systems, (Juniper and Cisco) networking, and security.

    Browse publications by this author

Latest Reviews

(4 reviews total)
I bought this book for the 100% coverage of the test content.
VEry good book, informative, and to the point.
I did not read till today but I hope it is superb

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