Learning OpenStack

4.8 (4 reviews total)
By Alok Shrivastwa , Sunil Sarat
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  1. An Introduction to OpenStack

About this book

OpenStack is a free and open source cloud computing platform that is rapidly gaining popularity in Enterprise data centres. It is a scalable operating system and is used to build private and public clouds. It is imperative for all the aspiring cloud administrators to possess OpenStack skills if they want to succeed in the cloud-led IT infrastructure space.

This book will help you gain a clearer understanding of OpenStack’s components and their interaction with each other to build a cloud environment. You will learn to deploy a self-service based cloud using just four virtual machines and standard networking.

You begin with an introduction on the basics of cloud computing. This is followed by a brief look into the need for authentication and authorization, the different aspects of dashboards, cloud computing fabric controllers, along with “Networking as a Service” and “Software Defined Networking.” Then, you will focus on installing, configuring, and troubleshooting different architectures such as Keystone, Horizon, Nova, Neutron, Cinder, Swift, and Glance. Furthermore, you will see how all of the OpenStack components come together in providing IaaS to users. Finally, you will take your OpenStack cloud to the next level by integrating it with other IT ecosystem elements before automation.

By the end of this book, you will be proficient with the fundamentals and application of OpenStack.

Publication date:
November 2015
Publisher
Packt
Pages
272
ISBN
9781783986965

 

Chapter 1. An Introduction to OpenStack

Enterprises traditionally ran their IT services by running appropriate applications on a set of infrastructures and platforms. These were comprised of physical hardware in terms of compute, storage, and network along with software in terms of hypervisors, operating systems, and platforms. A set of experts from infrastructure, platform, and application teams would then put the pieces together and get a working solution tailored to the needs of the organization.

With the advent of virtualization and later on cloud, things have changed to a certain extent, primarily in the way things are built and delivered. Cloud, which has its foundations in virtualization, delivers a combination of relevant components as a service; be it Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), or Software as a Service (SaaS). In this book, we will only discuss how to provide a system with IaaS using an OpenStack-based private cloud. The key aspect of providing a system with IaaS is cross-domain automation. The system that helps us achieve this is called a Cloud Service Orchestrator or Cloud Platform or Cloud Controller. For the purposes of this book, we will refer to OpenStack as the Cloud Service Orchestrator. The Cloud Service Orchestrator or, simply put, the orchestrator is primarily responsible for the following:

  • The stitching together of hardware and software to deliver a defined service (in the context of our book, IaaS)

  • Automating the workflows that are required to deliver a service

Thus, in a cloud environment, the most important component is the orchestrator. There are several orchestrators; both free and open-source (FOSS) and commercial, which can help turn your virtualized IT infrastructure into a cloud.

Some of the choices in the FOSS segment for the orchestrators are as follows:

  • OpenStack

  • Apache CloudStack

  • Open Nebula

Some choices of commercial orchestrators are as follows:

  • VMware vRealize Automation and vRealize Orchestrator

  • VMware vCloud Director

  • Cisco Intelligent Automation for the cloud (CIAC) and UCS Director

  • Microsoft Opalis and Systems Center

  • BMC Atrium

In this book, we embark on a journey to understand the concepts, to install and configure the components of OpenStack, and finally, to build your own cloud using OpenStack. At the time of writing this book, OpenStack has been by far the most famous and widely adopted FOSS orchestrator or Cloud Software Platform in the market and the most comprehensive offering that provides IaaS among FOSS alternatives.

In this chapter, we will cover the following:

  • The differences between commercial orchestrators and FOSS orchestrators, and where each of these types of orchestrators fit well in today's world

  • The basic building blocks of a private cloud and how OpenStack is different from commercial orchestrators in building a private Cloud

  • The key differences between commercial orchestrators and OpenStack

  • An introduction to OpenStack architecture, services, and service dependencies

  • A preparation for OpenStack setup where we discuss the details of a test setup, which will lead us on a journey of building our own private cloud using OpenStack

 

Choosing an orchestrator


There are some key differences between commercial orchestrators, such as vRealize Automation and CIAC, and FOSS orchestrators, such as OpenStack. While both of them attempt to provide IaaS to users, it is important to understand the difference between both the types of orchestrator in order to appropriately design your Cloud.

Let's begin with commercial orchestrators; these provide a base IaaS to their users. They normally sit on top of a virtualized environment and enable an automated provisioning of compute, storage, and network, even though the extent of automation varies. As a part of the toolset, they also typically have a workflow engine, which in most cases provides us with an extensibility option.

The commercial orchestrators are a better choice when the entire orchestration needs to be plugged in to the current IT processes. They work wonderfully well when extensibility and integration are major tasks of the cloud environment, which is typically seen in large enterprises given the scale of operations, the type of business critical applications, and the maturity of IT processes.

In such large enterprises, in order to take full advantage of the private cloud, the integration and automation of the orchestrator in the IT systems of the company becomes necessary. This kind of orchestration is normally used when minimum changes are anticipated to be made to the applications. A primary use case of this is IaaS, where virtual machines are provisioned on a self-service basis and a very small learning curve is involved.

FOSS orchestrators are less extensible, but more standardized in terms of offerings. They offer standardized services that a user is expected to use as building blocks to offer a larger solution. In order to take full advantage of the FOSS orchestrators, some amount of recoding of applications is required as they need to make use of the newly offered services. The use cases here are both IaaS and PaaS (for example, Database as a Service, Message Queue as a Service, and so on).

For this reason, the APIs that are used among the FOSS orchestrators need to have some common ground. This common ground that we are talking about here is Amazon Web Services (AWS) API compatibility, as Amazon has emerged as the gold standard as far as the service-oriented cloud architecture is concerned. At the time of writing the book, OpenStack Nova still had AWS EC2 API compatibility, but this may be pushed out to the StackForge project.

  • Most FOSS orchestrators provide us with a way to use Amazon APIs wherever possible. It is for this reason that in the next section, we will compare the services available in OpenStack to the equivalent services offered by AWS.

 

Building a private cloud


Clouds fall under different categories depending on the perspective. If we look at it from an ownership and control standpoint, they will fall under private, public, hybrid, and community cloud categories. If we take a service perspective, it could be IaaS, PaaS, or SaaS. Let's look at the basic building blocks of a private cloud and understand how commercial orchestrators fit in vis-à-vis OpenStack.

Commercial orchestrators

The following block diagram shows the different building blocks of a cloud that are normally seen in a private implementation with a commercial orchestrator:

A private cloud with a commercial orchestrator

As we can see, in this private cloud setup, additional blocks such as Self Service Portal, Metering & Billing, and Workflows & Connectors sit on top of an already existing virtualized environment to provision a virtual machine, a stack of virtual machines, or a virtual machine with some application installed and configured over it.

While most of the commercial orchestrators are extensible, some of them have prebuilt plugins or connectors to most commonly used enterprise toolsets.

OpenStack

OpenStack doesn't natively support integration with enterprise toolsets, but in lieu of this, it provides more standardized services. OpenStack feels and behaves more like a public cloud inside an enterprise and provides more flexibility to a user. As you can see in the following diagram, apart from VM provisioning, services such as database, image storage, and so on are also provisioned:

A private cloud with OpenStack

Please note that some of these services, which are provided as a part of the standard offering by OpenStack, can be also be orchestrated using commercial orchestrators. However, this will take some efforts in terms of additional automation and integration.

 

When to choose OpenStack?


So the big question is: under what circumstances should we choose OpenStack over the commercial orchestrators or vice versa? Let's look at the following table that compares the features that are significantly different.

Please note that the ease of installation and management are not covered in the following table:

Feature

OpenStack

Commercial orchestrator

Identity and access management*

Yes

Yes

Connectivity to enterprise toolsets

Not natively (Possible with ManageIQ)

Yes

Flexibility to the user

Yes

Somewhat

Enterprise control

Not natively (Possible with ManageIQ)

Yes

Standardized prebuilt services

Yes

No (Except virtual machines)

EC2-compatible API

Yes

No

So based on the previous table, OpenStack is an amazing candidate for an enterprise dev-test cloud and for providing public cloud-like services to an enterprise, while reusing existing hardware.

Note

The currently supported stable release of OpenStack is codenamed Liberty. This book will deal with Juno, but the core concepts and procedures will be fairly similar to the other releases of OpenStack. The differences between Juno, Kilo, and Liberty and the subtle differences between the installation procedures of these will be dealt with in the Appendix section of the book.

OpenStack has a very modular architecture. OpenStack is a group of different components that deliver specific functions and come together to create a full-fledged orchestrator.

OpenStack architecture

The following architecture diagram explains the architecture of the base components of the OpenStack environment. Each of these blocks and their subcomponents will be dealt with in detail in the subsequent chapters:

An OpenStack block diagram

The gray boxes show the core services that OpenStack absolutely needs to run. The other services are optional and are called Big Tent services, without which OpenStack can run, but we may need to use them as required. In this book, we look at the core components and also look at Horizon, Heat, and Ceilometer in the Big Tent services.

Each of the previously mentioned components has their own database. While each of these services can run independently, they form relationships and have dependencies among each other. As an example, Horizon and Keystone provide their services to the other components of OpenStack and should be the first ones to be deployed.

Service relationships

The following diagram expands on the preceding block diagram and depicts the different relationships amongst the different services:

Service relationships

The service relationship shows that the services are dependent on each other. It is to be noted that all the services work together in harmony to produce the end product as a Virtual Machine (VM). So the services can be turned on or off depending on what kind of virtual machine is needed as the output. While the details of the services are mentioned in the next section, if, as an example, the VM or the cloud doesn't require advanced networking, you may completely skip the installation and configuration of the Neutron service.

Services and releases history

Not all the services of the OpenStack system were available from the first release. More services were added as the complexity of the orchestrator increased. The following table will help you understand the different services that can be installed, or should you choose to install another release in your environment:

Release name

Components

Austin

Nova, Swift

Bexar

Nova, Glance, Swift

Cactus

Nova, Glance, Swift

Diablo

Nova, Glance, Swift

Essex

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone

Folsom

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Quantum, Cinder

Grizzly

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Quantum, Cinder

Havana

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Heat, Ceilometer

Icehouse

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Heat, Ceilometer, Trove

Juno

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Heat, Ceilometer, Trove, Sahara

Kilo

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Heat, Ceilometer, Trove, Sahara, Ironic, Zaqar, Manila, Designate, Barbican

Liberty

Nova, Glance, Swift, Horizon, Keystone, Neutron, Cinder, Heat, Ceilometer, Trove, Sahara, Ironic, Zaqar, Manila, Designate, Barbican, Murano, Magnum, Kolla, Congress

The OpenStack services and releases

Note

At the time of writing, the only fully supported releases were Juno, Kilo, and Liberty. Icehouse is only supported from the security updates standpoint in the OpenStack community. There are, however, some distributions of OpenStack that are still available on older releases such as that of Icehouse. (You can read more about different distributions in the last chapter of the book.).

Service functions

It is important to know about the functions that each of these services performs. We will discuss the different services of OpenStack. In order to understand the functions more clearly, we will also draw parallels with the services from AWS. So if you ever want to compare your private cloud with the most used public cloud, you can.

Please refer to the preceding table in order to see the services that are available in a particular OpenStack release.

Keystone

This service provides identity and access management for all the components of OpenStack. It has internal services such as identity, resource, assignment, token, catalog, and policy, which are exposed as an HTTP frontend.

So if we are logging in to Horizon or making an API call to any component, we have to interact with the service and be able to authenticate ourselves in order to use it. The policy services allow the setting up of granular control over the actions allowed by a user for a particular service. The service supports federation and authentication with an external system such as an LDAP server.

This service is equivalent to the IAM service of the AWS public cloud.

Horizon

Horizon provides us with a dashboard for both self-service and day-to-day administrative activities. It is a highly extensible Django project where you can add your own custom dashboards if you choose to. (The creation of custom dashboards is beyond the scope of this book and is not covered here).

Horizon provides a web-based user interface to OpenStack services including Nova, Swift, Keystone, and so on.

This can be equated to the AWS console, which is used to create and configure the services.

Nova

Nova is the compute component of OpenStack. It's one of the first services available since the inception as it is at the core of IaaS offering.

Nova supports various hypervisors for virtual machines such as XenServer, KVM, and VMware. It also supports Linux Containers (LXC) if we need to minimize the virtualization overhead. In this book, we will deal with LXC and KVM as our hypervisors of choice to get started.

It has various subcomponents such as compute, scheduler, xvpvncproxy, novncproxy, serialproxy, manage, API, and metadata. It serves an EC2 (AWS)-compatible API. This is useful in case you have a custom system such as ITIL tool integration with EC2 or a self-healing application. Using the EC2 API, this will run with minor modifications on OpenStack Nova.

Nova also provides proxy access to a console of guest virtual machines using the VNC proxy services available on hypervisors, which is very useful in a private cloud environment. This can be considered equivalent to the EC2 service of AWS.

Glance

Glance service allows the storage and retrieval of images and corresponding metadata. In other words, this will allow you to store your OS templates that you want to be made available for your users to deploy. Glance can store your images in a flat file or in an object store (such as Swift).

Swift

Swift is the object storage service of OpenStack. This service is primarily used to store and retrieve Binary Large Object (BLOBs). It has various subservices such as ring, container server, updater, and auditors, which have a proxy server as their frontend.

The swift service is used to actually store Glance images. As a comparison, the EC2 AMIs are stored in your S3 bucket.

The swift service is equivalent to the S3 storage service of AWS.

Cinder

Cinder provides block storage to the Nova VMs. Its subsystems include a volume manager, a SQL database, an authentication manager, and so on. The client uses AQMP such as Rabbit MQ to provide its services to Nova. It has drivers for various storage systems such as Cloud Byte, Gluster FS, EMC VMAX, Netapp, Dell Storage Centre, and so on.

This service provides similar features to the EBS service of AWS.

Neutron

Previously known as Quantum, Neutron provides networking as a service. There are several functionalities that it provides such as Load Balancer as a Service and Firewall as a Service. This is an optional service and we can choose not to use this, as basic networking is built into Nova. Also, Nova networking is being phased out. Therefore, it is important to deal with Neutron, as 99 percent of OpenStack implementations have implemented Neutron in their network services.

The system, when configured, can be used to create multi-tiered isolated networks. An example of this could be a full three-tiered network stack for an application that needs it.

This is equivalent to multiple services in AWS such as ELB, Elastic IP, and VPC.

Heat

Heat is the core orchestration service of the orchestrator. What this means is that you can script the different components that are being spun up in an order. This is especially helpful if we want to deploy multicomponent stacks. The system integrates with most of the services and makes API calls in order to create and configure different components.

The template used in Heat is called Heat Orchestrator Template (HOT). It is actually a single file in which you can script multiple actions. As an example, we can write a template to create an instance, some floating IPs and security groups, and even create some users in Keystone.

The equivalent of Heat in AWS would be the cloud formation service.

Ceilometer

Ceilometer service is used to collect metering data. There are several subsystems in the Ceilometer such as polling agent, notification agent, collector, and API. This also allows the saving of alarms abstracted by a storage abstraction layer to one of the supported databases such as Mongo DB, Hbase, or SQL server.

Trove

Trove is the Database as a Service component of OpenStack. This service uses Nova to create the compute resource to run DBaaS. It is installed as a bunch of integration scripts that run along with Nova. The service requires the creation of special images that are stored in Glance.

This is equivalent to the RDS service of AWS.

Sahara

Sahara service is the Big Data service of OpenStack; it is used to provision a Hadoop cluster by passing a few parameters. It has several components such as Auth component, Data Access Layer, Provisioning Engine, and Elastic Data Processing.

This is very close to getting the MapReduce AWS service in your very own cloud.

Designate

The Designate service offers DNS services equivalent to Route 53 of the AWS. The service has various subsystems such as API, the Central/Core service, the Mini DNS service, and Pool Manager. It has multiple backend drivers that can be used, examples being PowerDNS, BIND, NSD, and DynECT. We can create our own backend drivers as well.

Ironic

The Ironic service allows bare metal provisioning using technologies such as the PXE boot and the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI). This will allow bare metal servers to be provisioned provided we have the requisite drivers for them.

Please remember that the requisite networking elements have to be configured, for example, the DNS, DHCP configuration and so on, which are needed for the PXE boot to work.

Zaqar

Zaqar is the messaging and notification service of OpenStack. This is equivalent to the SNS service from AWS. It provides multitenanted HTTP-based messaging API that can be scaled horizontally as and when the need arises.

Barbican

Barbican is the key management service of OpenStack that is comparable to KMS from AWS. This provides secure storage, retrieval, provisioning and management of various types of secret data such as keys, certificates, and even binary data.

Manila

Manila provides a shared filesystem as a service. At the moment, it has a single subcomponent called the manila-manage. This doesn't have any equivalent in the AWS world yet. This can be used to mount a single filesystem on multiple Nova instances, for instance a web server with shared assets, which will help to keep the static assets in sync without having to run a block-level redundancy such as DRBD or continuous rsyncs.

Murano

Murano is an application catalog, enabling application developers and cloud administrators to publish various cloud-ready applications in a catalog format. This service will use Heat at the backend to deliver this and will only work on the UI and API layer.

Magnum

Magnum introduces Linux Containers such as Dockers and Kubernetes (by Google) to improve migration option. This service is in some ways like Trove, it uses an image with Docker installed on it and orchestrates Magnum with Heat. It is effectively Container as a Service (CaaS) of OpenStack.

Kolla

Kolla is another project that is focused on containers. While it did make its first appearance in Kilo, it was majorly introduced in the Liberty release. This is aimed at better operationalization by containerizing OpenStack itself. That means, we can now run the OpenStack services in containers, and thereby make governance easier.

At the time of writing, the Kolla project supported services such as Cinder, Swift, Ceph, and Ironic.

Congress

Congress is another project focused on governance. It provides Policy as a Service, which can be used for compliance in a dynamic infrastructure, thereby maintaining the OpenStack components to be compliant to the enterprise policy.

Service dependency maps

The following table shows the dependency of services. The Dependent on column shows all the services, which are needed for successful installation and configuration of the service. There might be other interactions with other services, but they are not mentioned here:

Service name

Core service

Dependent on

Keystone

True

None

Horizon

False

Keystone

Glance

True

Swift

Keystone

Horizon

Swift

True

Keystone

Nova

True

Keystone

Horizon

Glance

Cinder (Optional)

Neutron (Optional)

Heat

False

Keystone

Cinder

False

Keystone

Neutron

False

Keystone

Nova

Ceilometer

False

Keystone

Trove

False

Keystone

Nova

Glance

Sahara

False

Keystone

Nova

Glance

Swift

Keystone

Magnum

False

Heat

Nova

Glance

Swift

Keystone

Murano

False

Heat

Service dependency

 

Preparing for the OpenStack setup


In the remainder of this book, we will be installing and configuring various OpenStack components. Therefore, let's look at the architecture that we will follow in the remainder of the book and what we need to have handy.

While we can set up all the components of the OpenStack on a single server, it will not be close to any real-life scenario, so taking this into consideration, we will do a minimal distributed installation. Since this book is intended to be a beginner's guide, we shall not bore ourselves with cloud architecture questions.

Selecting the services

As we are aware by now that OpenStack is made up of individual components, we need to be careful in selecting the appropriate services. As we have already seen in the dependency maps table, some services are sort of mandatory and the others are optional depending on the scenario. Too many services and you complicate the design, too little and you constrain it; so it is imperative that we strike a good balance. In our case, we will stick to the basic services:

  • Keystone

  • Horizon

  • Nova

  • Cinder

  • Swift

  • Glance

In the optional section, we will choose Neutron. This should help us in getting a pretty robust cloud with the essential features rolled out in no time.

Service layout

We will be installing these components on virtual machines for our learning purposes; we will use four different virtual machines to run our cloud:

  • Controller node

  • Network node

  • Compute node

  • Storage node

The following diagram shows the kind of services that will be hosted in each of the different nodes in the rest of the book. We will identify the servers with the previously mentioned names:

The OpenStack service layout

Controller node

The controller node will house the manager services for all the different OpenStack components such as message queue, Keystone, image service, Nova management, and Neutron management.

Network node

The network node server will house Neutron components such as the DHCP Agent, the L3 Agent, and Open vSwitch. This node will provide networking to all the guest VMs that spin up in the OpenStack environment.

Compute node

The compute node will have the hypervisor installed on itself. For the purpose of this setup, we will use LXC or KVM to keep things simple. It also houses network agents.

Storage node

The storage node will provide block and object storage to the rest of the OpenStack services. This will be the node that needs to be connected to the iSCSI storage in order to create different blocks.

Operating system

We will use Linux Ubuntu 14.04 as the operating system of choice to install and configure the different components. All the previously mentioned nodes should be running Ubuntu.

Network layout

Since we are going to use Neutron, the following network architecture needs to be followed:

  • Management network: This network is available on all the OpenStack servers.

  • Tunnel network: This network is used to tunnel the traffic between the compute nodes and the network node and is available on all the compute and the network nodes. There can be more than one if we are going for a multi-tiered environment.

  • Storage network: This connects the compute and storage nodes. This is used as a separate network to ensure that there is no network congestion.

  • External network: This is connected only to the network node and can be accessed using Neutron. The elastic IPs are configured on this network.

The following diagram shows the different connections in our network. The compute node is connected to all the networks except the external network. It is to be noted that the storage and the tunnel network can be completely internal networks. The management network is primarily the one that needs to be accessible from the LAN of the company, as this will be the network that the users will need to reach in order to access the self-service portal:

Network connectivity

For the purpose of learning, let's set up the network ranges that we will use in our installation. The following is the table of the network range:

Network Name

IP Range

Management Network

172.22.6.0/24

Tunnel Network

10.0.0.0/24

Storage Network

192.168.10.0/24

External Network

192.168.2.0/24

Network ranges

Since we are using this in the lab network, the external network is assumed and will need to be changed depending on the routing rules.

 

Summary


In this chapter, we were introduced to orchestrators, both commercial and FOSS. At a very high level, we looked at the differences between these two types of orchestrators and the appropriate use cases for OpenStack. We also looked at the basic building blocks of a private cloud and their correlation in the OpenStack world. We looked at the OpenStack architecture and services. And finally, we covered the lab setup that would be required to learn the deployment of your private cloud using OpenStack.

We start our journey in the next chapter by learning to install and configure the common components that form the basis of most of the OpenStack services. The key topic covered, however, would be installation and configuration of Keystone, which is the core authentication and authorization service of OpenStack

About the Authors

  • Alok Shrivastwa

    Alok Shrivastwa is a technologist from India, currently working as the Director of special projects for Microland in the CMD's office. He currently runs special projects on cloud technologies. Having worked at multiple enterprises of varied sizes, designing and implementing solutions, public and private clouds, and integrations, he has created a myriad number of tools and intellectual properties in the operationalization of emerging technologies. He has authored two books on OpenStack alongside several white papers and blogs on technology, in addition to writing poems in Hindi.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Sunil Sarat

    Sunil Sarat is the vice president of Cloud and Mobility Services at Microland Ltd, an India-based global hybrid IT infrastructure services provider.

    He played a key role in setting up and running emerging technology practices dealing with areas such as public/private cloud (AWS and Azure, VMware vCloud Suite, Microsoft, and OpenStack), hybrid IT (VMware vRealize Automation/Orchestration, Chef, and Puppet), enterprise mobility (Citrix Xenmobile and VMware Airwatch), VDI /app virtualization (VMware Horizon Suite, Citrix XenDesktop/XenApp, Microsoft RDS, and AppV), and associated transformation services.

    He is a technologist and a business leader with an expertise in creating new practices/service portfolios and in building and managing high performance teams, strategy definition, technology roadmaps, and 24/7 global remote infrastructure operations. He has varied experiences in handling diverse functions such as innovation/technology, service delivery, transition, presales/solutions, and automation.

    He has authored white papers, blogs, and articles on various technology- and service-related areas. Also, he is a speaker at cloud-related events and reviews technical books. He has reviewed the books Learning Airwatch and Mastering VMware Horizon 6, Packt Publishing.

    He holds various industry certifications in the areas of compute, storage, and security and also has an MBA degree in marketing.

    Besides technology and business, he is passionate about filmmaking and is a part-time filmmaker as well.

    For more information, you can visit his Linkedin profile at https://www.linkedin.com/in/sunilsarat or follow him at @sunilsarat.

    Browse publications by this author

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