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Generative AI with LangChain

By Ben Auffarth
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  1. Free Chapter
    What Is Generative AI?
About this book
ChatGPT and the GPT models by OpenAI have brought about a revolution not only in how we write and research but also in how we can process information. This book discusses the functioning, capabilities, and limitations of LLMs underlying chat systems, including ChatGPT and Bard. It also demonstrates, in a series of practical examples, how to use the LangChain framework to build production-ready and responsive LLM applications for tasks ranging from customer support to software development assistance and data analysis – illustrating the expansive utility of LLMs in real-world applications. Unlock the full potential of LLMs within your projects as you navigate through guidance on fine-tuning, prompt engineering, and best practices for deployment and monitoring in production environments. Whether you're building creative writing tools, developing sophisticated chatbots, or crafting cutting-edge software development aids, this book will be your roadmap to mastering the transformative power of generative AI with confidence and creativity.
Publication date:
December 2023
Publisher
Packt
Pages
360
ISBN
9781835083468

 

What Is Generative AI?

Over the last decade, deep learning has evolved massively to process and generate unstructured data like text, images, and video. These advanced AI models have gained popularity in various industries, and include large language models (LLMs). There is currently a significant level of fanfare in both the media and the industry surrounding AI, and there’s a fair case to be made that Artificial Intelligence (AI), with these advancements, is about to have a wide-ranging and major impact on businesses, societies, and individuals alike. This is driven by numerous factors, including advancements in technology, high-profile applications, and the potential for transformative impacts across multiple sectors.

In this chapter, we’ll explore generative models and their application. We’ll provide an overview of the technical concepts and training approaches that power these models’ ability to produce novel content. While we won’t be diving deep into generative models for sound or video, we aim to convey a high-level understanding of how techniques like neural networks, large datasets, and computational scale enable generative models to reach new capabilities in text and image generation. The goal is to demystify the underlying magic that allows these models to generate remarkably human-like content across various domains. With this foundation, readers will be better prepared to consider both the opportunities and challenges posed by this rapidly advancing technology.

We’ll follow this structure:

  • Introducing generative AI
  • Understanding LLMs
  • What are text-to-image models?
  • What can AI do in other domains?

Let’s start from the beginning – by introducing the terminology!

 

Introducing generative AI

In the media, there is substantial coverage of AI-related breakthroughs and their potential implications. These range from advancements in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and computer vision to the development of sophisticated language models like GPT-4. Particularly, generative models have received a lot of attention due to their ability to generate text, images, and other creative content that is often indistinguishable from human-generated content. These same models also provide wide functionality including semantic search, content manipulation, and classification. This allows cost savings with automation and allows humans to leverage their creativity to an unprecedented level.

Generative AI refers to algorithms that can generate novel content, as opposed to analyzing or acting on existing data like more traditional, predictive machine learning or AI systems.

Benchmarks capturing task performance in different domains have been major drivers of the development of these models. The following graph, inspired by a blog post titled GPT-4 Predictions by Stephen McAleese on LessWrong, shows the improvements of LLMs in the Massive Multitask Language Understanding (MMLU) benchmark, which was designed to quantify knowledge and problem-solving ability in elementary mathematics, US history, computer science, law, and more:

llm_mmlu.png

Figure 1.1: Average performance on the MMLU benchmark of LLMs

Please note that while most benchmark results come from 5-shot, a few, like the GPT-2, PaLM, and PaLM-2 results, refer to zero-shot conditioning.

You can see significant improvements in recent years in this benchmark. Particularly, it highlights the progress of the models provided through a public user interface by OpenAI, especially the improvements between releases, from GTP-2 to GPT-3 and GPT-3.5 to GPT-4, although the results should be taken with a grain of salt, since they are self-reported and are obtained either by 5-shot or zero-shot conditioning. Zero-shot means the models were prompted with the question, while in 5-shot settings, models were additionally given 5 question-answer examples. These added examples could naively account for about 20% of performance according to Measuring Massive Multitask Language Understanding (Hendrycks and colleagues, revised 2023).

There are a few differences between these models and their training that can account for these boosts in performance, such as scale, instruction-tuning, a tweak to the attention mechanisms, and more and different training data. First and foremost, the massive scaling in parameters from 1.5 billion (GPT-2) to 175 billion (GPT-3) to more than a trillion (GPT-4) enables models to learn more complex patterns; however, another major change in early 2022 was the post-training fine-tuning of models based on human instructions, which teaches the model how to perform a task by providing demonstrations and feedback.

Across benchmarks, a few models have recently started to perform better than an average human rater, but generally still haven’t reached the performance of a human expert. These achievements of human engineering are impressive; however, it should be noted that the performance of these models depends on the field; most models are still performing poorly on the GSM8K benchmark of grade school math word problems.

Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) models, like OpenAI’s GPT-4, are prime examples of AI advancements in the sphere of LLMs. ChatGPT has been widely adopted by the general public, showing greatly improved chatbot capabilities enabled by being much bigger than previous models. These AI-based chatbots can generate human-like responses as real-time feedback to customers and can be applied to a wide range of use cases, from software development to writing poetry and business communications.

As AI models like OpenAI’s GPT continue to improve, they could become indispensable assets to teams in need of diverse knowledge and skills.

For example, GPT-4 could be considered a polymath that works tirelessly without demanding compensation (beyond subscription or API fees), providing competent assistance in subjects like mathematics and statistics, macroeconomics, biology, and law (the model performs well on the Uniform Bar Exam). As these AI models become more proficient and easily accessible, they are likely to play a significant role in shaping the future of work and learning.

OpenAI is a US AI research company that aims to promote and develop friendly AI. It was established in 2015 with the support of several influential figures and companies, who pledged over $1 billion to the venture. The organization initially committed to being non-profit, collaborating with other institutions and researchers by making its patents and research open to the public. In 2018, Elon Musk resigned from the board citing a potential conflict of interest with his role at Tesla. In 2019, OpenAI transitioned to become a for-profit organization, and subsequently Microsoft made significant investments in OpenAI, leading to the integration of OpenAI systems with Microsoft’s Azure-based supercomputing platform and the Bing search engine. The most significant achievements of the company include OpenAI Gym for training reinforcement algorithms, and – more recently – the GPT-n models and the DALL-E generative models, which generate images from text.

By making knowledge more accessible and adaptable, these models have the potential to level the playing field and create new opportunities for people from all walks of life. These models have shown potential in areas that require higher levels of reasoning and understanding, although progress varies depending on the complexity of the tasks involved.

As for generative models with images, they have pushed the boundaries in their capabilities to assist in creating visual content, and their performance in computer vision tasks such as object detection, segmentation, captioning, and much more.

Let’s clear up the terminology a bit and explain in more detail what is meant by generative model, artificial intelligence, deep learning, and machine learning.

What are generative models?

In popular media, the term artificial intelligence is used a lot when referring to these new models. In theoretical and applied research circles, it is often joked that AI is just a fancy word for ML, or AI is ML in a suit, as illustrated in this image:

../../ml_in_a_suit.png

Figure 1.2: ML in a suit. Generated by a model on replicate.com, Diffusers Stable Diffusion v2.1

It’s worth distinguishing more clearly between the terms generative model, artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and language model:

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad field of computer science focused on creating intelligent agents that can reason, learn, and act autonomously.
  • Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of AI focused on developing algorithms that can learn from data.
  • Deep Learning (DL) uses deep neural networks, which have many layers, as a mechanism for ML algorithms to learn complex patterns from data.
  • Generative Models are a type of ML model that can generate new data based on patterns learned from input data.
  • Language Models (LMs) are statistical models used to predict words in a sequence of natural language. Some language models utilize deep learning and are trained on massive datasets, becoming large language models (LLMs).

This class diagram illustrates how LLMs combine deep learning techniques like neural networks with sequence modeling objectives from language modeling, at a very large scale:

class_diagram2_landscape.png

Figure 1.3: Class diagram of different models. LLMs represent the intersection of deep learning techniques with language modeling objectives.

Generative models are a powerful type of AI that can generate new data that resembles the training data. Generative AI models have come a long way, enabling the generation of new examples from scratch using patterns in data. These models can handle different data modalities and are employed across various domains, including text, image, music, and video.

The key distinction is that generative models synthesize new data rather than just making predictions or decisions. This enables applications like generating text, images, music, and video.

Some language models are generative, while some are not. Generative models facilitate the creation of synthetic data to train AI models when real data is scarce or restricted. This type of data generation reduces labeling costs and improves training efficiency. Microsoft Research took this approach (Textbooks Are All You Need, June 2023) to training their phi-1 model, where they used GPT-3.5 to create synthetic Python textbooks and exercises.

There are many types of generative models, handling different data modalities across various domains. They are:

  • Text-to-text: Models that generate text from input text, like conversational agents. Examples: LLaMa 2, GPT-4, Claude, and PaLM 2.
  • Text-to-image: Models that generate images from text captions. Examples: DALL-E 2, Stable Diffusion, and Imagen.
  • Text-to-audio: Models that generate audio clips and music from text. Examples: Jukebox, AudioLM, and MusicGen.
  • Text-to-video: Models that generate video content from text descriptions. Example: Phenaki and Emu Video.
  • Text-to-speech: Models that synthesize speech audio from input text. Examples: WaveNet and Tacotron.
  • Speech-to-text: Models that transcribe speech to text [also called Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)]. Examples: Whisper and SpeechGPT.
  • Image-to-text: Models that generate image captions from images. Examples: CLIP and DALL-E 3.
  • Image-to-image: Applications for this type of model are data augmentation such as super-resolution, style transfer, and inpainting.
  • Text-to-code: Models that generate programming code from text. Examples: Stable Diffusion and DALL-E 3.
  • Video-to-audio: Models that analyze video and generate matching audio. Example: Soundify.

There are a lot more combinations of modalities to consider; these are just some that I have come across. Further, we could consider subcategories of text, such as text-to-math, which generates mathematical expressions from text, where some models such as ChatGPT and Claude shine, or text-to-code, which are models that generate programming code from text, such as AlphaCode or Codex. A few models are specialized in scientific text, such as Minerva or Galactica, or algorithm discovery, such as AlphaTensor.

A few models work with several modalities for input or output. An example of a model that demonstrates generative capabilities in multimodal input is OpenAI’s GPT-4V model (GPT-4 with vision), released in September 2023, which takes both text and images and comes with better Optical Character Recognition (OCR) than previous versions to read text from images. Images can be translated into descriptive words, then existing text filters are applied. This mitigates the risk of generating unconstrained image captions.

As the list shows, text is a common input modality that can be converted into various outputs like image, audio, and video. The outputs can also be converted back into text or within the same modality. LLMs have driven rapid progress for text-focused domains. These models enable a diverse range of capabilities via different modalities and domains. The LLM categories are the main focus of this book; however, we’ll also occasionally look at other models, text-to-image in particular. These models typically use a Transformer architecture trained on massive datasets via self-supervised learning.

The rapid progress shows the potential of generative AI across diverse domains. Within the industry, there is a growing sense of excitement around AI’s capabilities and its potential impact on business operations. But there are key challenges such as data availability, compute requirements, bias in data, evaluation difficulties, potential misuse, and other societal impacts that need to be addressed going forward, which we’ll discuss in Chapter 10, The Future of Generative Models.

Let’s delve a bit more into this progress and pose the question why now ?

Why now?

The success of generative AI coming into the public spotlight in 2022 can be attributed to several interlinked drivers. The development and success of generative models have relied on improved algorithms, considerable advances in compute power and hardware design, the availability of large, labeled datasets, and an active and collaborative research community helping to evolve a set of tools and techniques.

Developing more sophisticated mathematical and computational methods has played a vital role in advancing generative models. The backpropagation algorithm introduced in the 1980s by Geoffrey Hinton, David Rumelhart, and Ronald Williams is one such example. It provided a way to effectively train multi-layer neural networks.

In the 2000s, neural networks began to regain popularity as researchers developed more complex architectures. However, it was the advent of DL, a type of neural network with numerous layers, that marked a significant turning point in the performance and capabilities of these models. Interestingly, although the concept of DL has existed for some time, the development and expansion of generative models correlate with significant advances in hardware, particularly Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which have been instrumental in propelling the field forward.

As mentioned, the availability of cheaper and more powerful hardware has been a key factor in the development of deeper models. This is because DL models require a lot of computing power to train and run. This concerns all aspects of processing power, memory, and disk space. This graph shows the cost of computer storage over time for different mediums such as disks, solid state, flash, and internal memory in terms of price in dollars per terabyte (adapted from Our World in Data by Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie, and Edouard Mathieu; https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/historical-cost-of-computer-memory-and-storage:

compute_costs.png

Figure 1.4: Cost of computer storage since the 1950s in dollars (unadjusted) per terabyte

While, in the past, training a DL model was prohibitively expensive, as the cost of hardware has come down, it has become possible to train bigger models on much larger datasets. The model size is one of the factors determining how well a model can approximate (as measured in perplexity) the training dataset.

The importance of the number of parameters in an LLM: The more parameters a model has, the higher its capacity to capture relationships between words and phrases as knowledge. As a simple example of these higher-order correlations, an LLM could learn that the word “cat” is more likely to be followed by the word “dog” if it is preceded by the word “chase,” even if there are other words in between. Generally, the lower a model’s perplexity, the better it will perform, for example, in terms of answering questions.

Particularly, it seems that in models with between 2 and 7 billion parameters, new capabilities emerge such as the ability to generate different creative text in formats like poems, code, scripts, musical pieces, emails, and letters, and to answer even open-ended and challenging questions in an informative way.

This trend toward larger models started around 2009, when NVIDIA catalyzed what is often called the Big Bang of DL. GPUs are particularly well suited for the matrix/vector computations necessary to train deep learning neural networks, therefore significantly increasing the speed and efficiency of these systems by several orders of magnitude and reducing running times from weeks to days. In particular, NVIDIA’s CUDA platform, which allows direct programming of GPUs, has made it easier than ever for researchers and developers to experiment with and deploy complex generative models facilitating breakthroughs in vision, speech recognition, and – more recently – LLMs. Many LLM papers describe the use of NVIDIA A100s for training.

In the 2010s, several types of generative models started gaining traction. Autoencoders, a kind of neural network that can learn to compress data from the input layer to a representation, and then reconstruct the input, served as a basis for more advanced models like Variational Autoencoders (VAEs), which were first proposed in 2013. VAEs, unlike traditional autoencoders, use variational inference to learn the distribution of data, also called the latent space of input data. Around the same time, GANs were proposed by Ian Goodfellow and others in 2014.

Over the past decade, significant advancements have been made in the fundamental algorithms used in DL, such as better optimization methods, more sophisticated model architectures, and improved regularization techniques. Transformer models, introduced in 2017, built upon this progress and enabled the creation of large-scale models like GPT-3. Transformers rely on attention mechanisms and resulted in a further leap in the performance of generative models. These models, such as Google’s BERT and OpenAI’s GPT series, can generate highly coherent and contextually relevant text.

The development of transfer learning techniques, which allow a model pre-trained on one task to be fine-tuned on another, similar task, has also been significant. These techniques have made it more efficient and practical to train large generative models. Moreover, part of the rise of generative models can be attributed to the development of software libraries and tools (TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Keras) specifically designed to work with these artificial neural networks, streamlining the process of building, training, and deploying them.

In addition to the availability of cheaper and more powerful hardware, the availability of large datasets of labeled data has also been a key factor in the development of generative models. This is because DL models, particularly generative ones, require vast amounts of text data for effective training. The explosion of data available from the internet, particularly in the last decade, has created a suitable environment for such models to thrive. As the internet has become more popular, it has become easier to collect large datasets of text, images, and other data.

This has made it possible to train generative models on much larger datasets than would have been possible in the past. To further drive the development of generative models, the research community has been developing benchmarks and other challenges, like the mentioned MMLU and ImageNet for image classification, and has started to do the same for generative models.

In summary, generative modeling is a fascinating and rapidly evolving field. It has the potential to revolutionize the way we interact with computers and create original content. I am excited to see what the future holds for this field.

 

Understanding LLMs

Text generation models, such as GPT-4 by OpenAI, can generate coherent and grammatically correct text in different languages and formats. These models have practical applications in fields like content creation and NLP, where the ultimate goal is to create algorithms capable of understanding and generating natural language text.

Language modeling aims to predict the next word, character, or even sentence based on the previous ones in a sequence. In this sense, language modeling serves as a way of encoding the rules and structures of a language in a way that can be understood by a machine. LLMs capture the structure of human language in terms of grammar, syntax, and semantics. These models form the backbone of larger NLP tasks, such as content creation, translation, summarization, machine translation, and text-editing tasks such as spelling correction.

At its core, language modeling, and more broadly NLP, relies heavily on the quality of representation learning. A generative language model encodes information about the text that it has been trained on and generates new text based on those learnings, thereby taking on the task of text generation.

Representation learning is about a model learning its internal representations of raw data to perform a machine learning task, rather than relying only on engineered feature extraction. For example, an image classification model based on representation learning might learn to represent images according to visual features like edges, shapes, and textures. The model isn’t told explicitly what features to look for – it learns representations of the raw pixel data that help it make predictions.

Recently, LLMs have found applications for tasks like essay generation, code development, translation, and understanding genetic sequences. More broadly, applications of language models involve multiple areas, such as:

  • Question answering: AI chatbots and virtual assistants can provide personalized and efficient assistance, reducing response times in customer support and thereby enhancing customer experience. These systems can be used in specific contexts like restaurant reservations and ticket booking.
  • Automatic summarization: Language models can create concise summaries of articles, research papers, and other content, enabling users to consume and understand information rapidly.
  • Sentiment analysis: By analyzing opinions and emotions in texts, language models can help businesses understand customer feedback and opinions more efficiently.
  • Topic modeling: LLMs can discover abstract topics and themes across a corpus of documents. It identifies word clusters and latent semantic structures.
  • Semantic search: LLMs can focus on understanding meaning within individual documents. It uses NLP to interpret words and concepts for improved search relevance.
  • Machine translation: Language models can translate texts from one language into another, supporting businesses in their global expansion efforts. New generative models can perform on par with commercial products (for example, Google Translate).

Despite the remarkable achievements, language models still face limitations when dealing with complex mathematical or logical reasoning tasks. It remains uncertain whether continually increasing the scale of language models will inevitably lead to new reasoning capabilities. Further, LLMs are known to return the most probable answers within the context, which can sometimes yield fabricated information, termed hallucinations. This is a feature as well as a bug since it highlights their creative potential. We’ll talk about hallucinations in Chapter 5, Building a Chatbot Like ChatGPT, but for now, let’s discuss the technical background of LLMs in some more detail.

What is a GPT?

LLMs are deep neural networks adept at understanding and generating human language. The current generation of LLMs such as ChatGPT are deep neural network architectures that utilize the transformer model and undergo pre-training using unsupervised learning on extensive text data, enabling the model to learn language patterns and structures. Models have evolved rapidly, enabling the creation of versatile foundational AI models suitable for a wide range of downstream tasks and modalities, ultimately driving innovation across various applications and industries.

The notable strength of the latest generation of LLMs as conversational interfaces (chatbots) lies in their ability to generate coherent and contextually appropriate responses, even in open-ended conversations. By generating the next word based on the preceding words repeatedly, the model produces fluent and coherent text often indistinguishable from text produced by humans. However, ChatGPT has been observed to “sometimes write plausible sounding but incorrect or nonsensical answers,” as expressed in a disclaimer by OpenAI. This is referred to as a hallucination and is just one of the concerns around LLMs.

A transformer is a DL architecture, first introduced in 2017 by researchers at Google and the University of Toronto (in an article called Attention Is All You Need; Vaswani and colleagues), that comprises self-attention and feed-forward neural networks, allowing it to effectively capture the word relationships in a sentence. The attention mechanism enables the model to focus on various parts of the input sequence.

Generative Pre-Trained Transformers (GPTs), on the other hand, were introduced by researchers at OpenAI in 2018 together with the first of their eponymous GPT models, GPT-1 (Improving Language Understanding by Generative Pre-Training; Radford and others). The pre-training process involves predicting the next word in a text sequence, enhancing the model’s grasp of language as measured in the quality of the output. Following pre-training, the model can be fine-tuned for specific language processing tasks like sentiment analysis, language translation, or chat. This combination of unsupervised and supervised learning enables GPT models to perform better across a range of NLP tasks and reduces the challenges associated with training LLMs.

The size of the training corpus for LLMs has been increasing drastically. GPT-1, introduced by OpenAI in 2018, was trained on BookCorpus with 985 million words. BERT, released in the same year, was trained on a combined corpus of BookCorpus and English Wikipedia, totaling 3.3 billion words. Now, training corpora for LLMs reach up to trillions of tokens.

This graph illustrates how LLMs have been growing:

llm_sizes3.png

Figure 1.5: LLMs from BERT to GPT-4 – size, training budget, and organizations. For the proprietary models, parameter sizes are often estimates.

The size of the data points indicates training cost in terms of petaFLOPs and petaFLOP/s-days. A petaFLOP/s day is a unit of throughput that consists of performing 10 to the power of 15 operations per day. Training operations in the calculations are estimated as the approximate number of addition and multiplication operations based on the GPU utilization efficiency.

For some models, especially proprietary and closed-source models, this information is not known – in these cases, I’ve placed a cross. For example, for XLNet, the paper doesn’t give information about compute in flops; however, the training was done on 512 TPU v3 chips over 2.5 days.

The development of GPT models has seen considerable progress, with OpenAI’s GPT-n series leading the way in creating foundational AI models. GPT models can also work with modalities beyond text for input and output, as seen in GPT-4’s ability to process image input alongside text. Additionally, they serve as a foundation for text-to-image technologies like diffusion and parallel decoding, enabling the development of Visual Foundation Models (VFMs) for systems that work with images.

A foundation model (sometimes known as a base model) is a large model that was trained on an immense quantity of data at scale so that it can be adapted to a wide range of downstream tasks. In GPT models, this pre-training is done via self-supervised learning.

Trained on 300 billion tokens, GPT-3 has 175 billion parameters, an unprecedented size for DL models. GPT-4 is the most recent in the series, though its size and training details have not been published due to competitive and safety concerns. However, different estimates suggest it has between 200 and 500 billion parameters. Sam Altman, the CEO of OpenAI, has stated that the cost of training GPT-4 was more than $100 million.

ChatGPT, a conversation model, was released by OpenAI in November 2022. Based on prior GPT models (particularly GPT-3) and optimized for dialogue, it uses a combination of human-generated roleplaying conversations and a dataset of human labeler demonstrations of the desired model behavior. The model exhibits excellent capabilities such as wide-ranging knowledge retention and precise context tracking in multi-turn dialogues.

Another substantial advancement came in March 2023 with GPT-4. GPT-4 provides superior performance on various evaluation tasks coupled with significantly better response avoidance to malicious or provocative queries due to six months of iterative alignment during training.

OpenAI has been coy about the technical details; however, information has been circulating that, with about 1.8 trillion parameters, GPT-4 is more than 10x the size of GPT-3. Further, OpenAI was able to keep costs reasonable by utilizing a Mixture of Experts (MoE) model consisting of 16 experts within their model, each having about 111 billion parameters.

Apparently, GPT-4 was trained on about 13 trillion tokens. However, these are not unique tokens since they count repeated presentation of the data in each epoch. Training was conducted for 2 epochs for text-based data and 4 for code-based data. For fine-tuning, the dataset consisted of millions of rows of instruction fine-tuning data. Another rumor, again to be taken with a grain of salt, is that OpenAI might be applying speculative decoding on GPT-4’s inference, with the idea that a smaller model (oracle model) could be predicting the large model’s responses, and these predicted responses could help speed up decoding by feeding them into the larger model, thereby skipping tokens. This is a risky strategy because – depending on the threshold of the confidence of the oracle’s responses – the quality could deteriorate.

There’s also a multi-modal version of GPT-4 that incorporates a separate vision encoder, trained on joined image and text data, giving the model the capability to read web pages and transcribe what’s in images and video.

As can be seen in Figure 1.5, there are quite a few models besides OpenAI’s, some of which are suitable as a substitute for the OpenAI closed-source models, which we will have a look at.

Other LLMs

Other notable foundational GPT models besides OpenAI’s include Google DeepMind’s PaLM 2, the model behind Google’s chatbot Bard. Although GPT-4 leads most benchmarks in performance, these and other models demonstrate a comparable performance in some tasks and have contributed to advancements in generative transformer-based language models.

PaLM 2, released in May 2023, was trained with the focus of improving multilingual and reasoning capabilities while being more compute efficient. Using evaluations at different compute scales, the authors (Anil and others; PaLM 2 Technical Report) estimated an optimal scaling of training data sizes and parameters. PaLM 2 is smaller and exhibits faster and more efficient inference, allowing for broader deployment and faster response times for a more natural pace of interaction.

Extensive benchmarking across different model sizes has shown that PaLM 2 has significantly improved quality on downstream tasks, including multilingual common sense and mathematical reasoning, coding, and natural language generation, compared to its predecessor PaLM.

PaLM 2 was also tested on various professional language-proficiency exams. The exams used were for Chinese (HSK 7-9 Writing and HSK 7-9 Overall), Japanese (J-Test A-C Overall), Italian (PLIDA C2 Writing and PLIDA C2 Overall), French (TCF Overall), and Spanish (DELE C2 Writing and DELE C2 Overall). Across these exams, which were designed to test C2-level proficiency, considered mastery or advanced professional level according to the CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages), PaLM 2 achieved mostly high-passing grades.

The releases of the LLaMa and LLaMa 2 series of models, with up to 70B parameters, by Meta AI in February and July 2023, respectively, have been highly influential by enabling the community to build on top of them, thereby kicking off a Cambrian explosion of open-source LLMs. LLaMa triggered the creation of models such as Vicuna, Koala, RedPajama, MPT, Alpaca, and Gorilla. LLaMa 2, since its recent release, has already inspired several very competitive coding models, such as WizardCoder.

Optimized for dialogue use cases, at their release, the LLMs outperformed other open-source chat models on most benchmarks and seem on par with some closed-source models based on human evaluations. The LLaMa 2 70B model performs on par or better than PaLM (540B) on almost all benchmarks, but there is still a large performance gap between LLaMa 2 70B and GPT-4 and PaLM-2-L.

LLaMa 2 is an updated version of LLaMa 1 trained on a new mix of publicly available data. The pre-training corpus size has increased by 40% (2 trillion tokens of data), the context length of the model has doubled, and grouped-query attention has been adopted.

Variants of LLaMa 2 with different parameter sizes (7B, 13B, 34B, and 70B) have been released. While LLaMa was released under a non-commercial license, the LLaMa 2 are open to the general public for research and commercial use.

LLaMa 2-Chat has undergone safety evaluation results compared to other open-source and closed-source models. Human raters judged the safety violations of model generations across approximately 2,000 adversarial prompts, including both single and multi-turn prompts.

Claude and Claude 2 are AI assistants created by Anthropic. Evaluations suggest Claude 2, released in July 2023, is one of the best GPT-4 competitors in the market. It improves on previous versions in helpfulness, honesty, and lack of stereotype bias based on human feedback comparisons. It also performs well on standardized tests like GRE and MBE. Key model improvements include an expanded context size of up to 200K tokens, far larger than most available models, and being commercial or open source. It also performs better on use cases like coding, summarization, and long document understanding.

The model card Anthropic has created is fairly detailed, showing Claude 2 still has limitations in areas like confabulation, bias, factual errors, and potential for misuse, problems it has in common with all LLMs. Anthropic is working to address these through techniques like data filtering, debiasing, and safety interventions.

The development of LLMs has been limited to a few players due to high computational requirements. In the next section, we’ll look into who these organizations are.

Major players

Training a large number of parameters on large-scale datasets requires significant compute power and a skilled data science and data engineering team. Meta’s LLaMa 2 model, with a size of up to 70 billion parameters, was trained on 1.4 trillion tokens, while PaLM 2, reportedly consisting of 340 billion parameters – smaller than their previous LLMs – appears to have a larger scale of training data in at least 100 languages. Modern LLMs can cost anywhere from 10 million to over 100 million US dollars in computing costs for training.

Only a few companies, such as those shown in Figure 1.5, have been able to successfully train and deploy very large models. Major companies like Microsoft and Google have invested in start-ups and collaborations to support the development of these models. Universities, such as KAUST, Carnegie Mellon University, Nanyang Technological University, and Tel Aviv University, have also contributed to the development of these models. Some projects are developed through collaborations between companies and universities, as seen in the cases of Stable Diffusion, Soundify, and DreamFusion.

There are quite a few companies and organizations developing generative AI in general, as well as LLMs, and they are releasing them on different terms – here’s just a few:

  • OpenAI have released GPT-2 as open source; however, subsequent models have been closed source but open for public usage on their website or through an API.
  • Google (including Google’s DeepMind division) have developed a number of LLMs, starting from BERT and – more recently – Chinchilla, Gopher, PaLM, and PaLM2. They previously released the code and weights (parameters) of a few of their models under open-source licensing, even though recently they have moved toward more secrecy in their development.
  • Anthropic have released the Claude and Claude 2 models for public usage on their website. The API is in private beta. The models themselves are closed source.
  • Meta have released models like RoBERTa, BART, and LLaMa 2, including parameters of the models (although often under a non-commercial license) and the source code for setting up and training the models.
  • Microsoft have developed models like Turing-NLG and Megatron-Turing NLG but have focused on integrating OpenAI models into products over releasing their own models. The training code and parameters for phi-1 have been released for research use.
  • Stability AI, the company behind Stable Diffusion, released the model weights under a non-commercial license.
  • The French AI startup Mistral has unveiled its free-to-use, open-license 7B model, outperforming similar-sized models, generated from private datasets, and developed with the intent to support the open generative AI community, while also offering commercial products.
  • EleutherAI is a grassroots collection of researchers developing open-access models like GPT-Neo and GPT-J, fully open source and available to the public.
  • Aleph Alpha, Alibaba, and Baidu are providing API access or integrating their models into products rather than releasing parameters or training code.

There are a few more notable institutions, such as the Technology Innovation Institute (TII), an Abu Dhabi government-funded research institution, which open-sourced Falcon LLM for research and commercial usage.

The complexity of estimating parameters in generative AI models suggests that smaller companies or organizations without sufficient computation power and expertise may struggle to deploy these models successfully; although, recently, after the publication of the LLaMa models, we’ve seen smaller companies making significant breakthroughs, for example, in terms of coding ability.

In the next section, we’ll review the progress that DL and generative models have been making over recent years that has led up to the current explosion of their apparent capabilities and the attention these models have been getting.

Let’s get into the nitty-gritty details – how do these LLMs work under the hood? How do GPT models work?

How do GPT models work?

Generative pre-training has been around for a while, employing methods such as Markov models or other techniques. However, language models such as BERT and GPT were made possible by the transformer deep neural network architecture (Vaswani and others, Attention Is All You Need, 2017), which has been a game-changer for NLP. Designed to avoid recursion to allow parallel computation, the Transformer architecture, in different variations, continues to push the boundaries of what’s possible within the field of NLP and generative AI.

Transformers have pushed the envelope in NLP, especially in translation and language understanding. Neural Machine Translation (NMT) is a mainstream approach to machine translation that uses DL to capture long-range dependencies in a sentence. Models based on transformers outperformed previous approaches, such as using recurrent neural networks, particularly Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks.

The transformer model architecture has an encoder-decoder structure, where the encoder maps an input sequence to a sequence of hidden states, and the decoder maps the hidden states to an output sequence. The hidden state representations consider not only the inherent meaning of the words (their semantic value) but also their context in the sequence.

The encoder is made up of identical layers, each with two sub-layers. The input embedding is passed through an attention mechanism, and the second sub-layer is a fully connected feed-forward network. Each sub-layer is followed by a residual connection and layer normalization. The output of each sub-layer is the sum of the input and the output of the sub-layer, which is then normalized.

The decoder uses this encoded information to generate the output sequence one item at a time, using the context of the previously generated items. It also has identical modules, with the same two sub-layers as the encoder.

In addition, the decoder has a third sub-layer that performs Multi-Head Attention (MHA) over the output of the encoder stack. The decoder also uses residual connections and layer normalization. The self-attention sub-layer in the decoder is modified to prevent positions from attending to subsequent positions. This masking, combined with the fact that the output embeddings are offset by one position, ensures that the predictions for position i can only depend on the known outputs at positions less than i. These are indicated in the diagram here (source: Yuening Jia, Wikimedia Commons):

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Figure 1.6: The Transformer architecture

The architectural features that have contributed to the success of transformers are:

  • Positional encoding: Since the transformer doesn’t process words sequentially but instead processes all words simultaneously, it lacks any notion of the order of words. To remedy this, information about the position of words in the sequence is injected into the model using positional encodings. These encodings are added to the input embeddings representing each word, thus allowing the model to consider the order of words in a sequence.
  • Layer normalization: To stabilize the network’s learning, the transformer uses a technique called layer normalization. This technique normalizes the model’s inputs across the features dimension (instead of the batch dimension as in batch normalization), thus improving the overall speed and stability of learning.
  • Multi-head attention: Instead of applying attention once, the transformer applies it multiple times in parallel – improving the model’s ability to focus on different types of information and thus capturing a richer combination of features.

A key reason for the success of transformers has been their ability to maintain performance across longer sequences better than other models, for example, recurrent neural networks.

The basic idea behind attention mechanisms is to compute a weighted sum of the values (usually referred to as values or content vectors) associated with each position in the input sequence, based on the similarity between the current position and all other positions. This weighted sum, known as the context vector, is then used as an input to the subsequent layers of the model, enabling the model to selectively attend to relevant parts of the input during the decoding process.

To enhance the expressiveness of the attention mechanism, it is often extended to include multiple so-called heads, where each head has its own set of query, key, and value vectors, allowing the model to capture various aspects of the input representation. The individual context vectors from each head are then concatenated or combined in some way to form the final output.

Early attention mechanisms scaled quadratically with the length of the sequences (context size), rendering them inapplicable to settings with long sequences. Different mechanisms have been tried out to alleviate this. Many LLMs use some form of Multi-Query Attention (MQA), including OpenAI’s GPT-series models, Falcon, SantaCoder, and StarCoder.

MQA is an extension of MHA, where attention computation is replicated multiple times. MQA improves the performance and efficiency of language models for various language tasks. By removing the heads dimension from certain computations and optimizing memory usage, MQA allows for 11 times better throughput and 30% lower latency in inference tasks compared to baseline models without MQA.

LLaMa 2 and a few other models used Grouped-Query Attention (GQA), which is a practice used in autoregressive decoding to cache the key (K) and value (V) pairs for the previous tokens in the sequence, speeding up attention computation. However, as the context window or batch sizes increase, the memory costs associated with the KV cache size in MHA models also increase significantly. To address this, the key and value projections can be shared across multiple heads without much degradation of performance.

There have been many other proposed approaches to obtain efficiency gains, such as sparse, low-rank self-attention, and latent bottlenecks, to name just a few. Other work has tried to extend sequences beyond the fixed input size; architectures such as transformer-XL reintroduce recursion by storing hidden states of already encoded sentences to leverage them in the subsequent encoding of the next sentences.

The combination of these architectural features allows GPT models to successfully tackle tasks that involve understanding and generating text in human language and other domains. The overwhelming majority of LLMs are transformers, as are many other state-of-the-art models we will encounter in the different sections of this chapter, including models for image, sound, and 3D objects.

As the name suggests, a particularity of GPTs lies in pre-training. Let’s see how these LLMs are trained!

Pre-training

The transformer is trained in two phases using a combination of unsupervised pre-training and discriminative task-specific fine-tuning. The goal during pre-training is to learn a general-purpose representation that transfers to a wide range of tasks.

The unsupervised pre-training can follow different objectives. In Masked Language Modeling (MLM), introduced in BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding by Devlin and others (2019), the input is masked out, and the model attempts to predict the missing tokens based on the context provided by the non-masked portion. For example, if the input sentence is “The cat [MASK] over the wall,” the model would ideally learn to predict “jumped” for the mask.

In this case, the training objective minimizes the differences between predictions and the masked tokens according to a loss function. Parameters in the models are then iteratively updated according to these comparisons.

Negative Log-Likelihood (NLL) and Perplexity (PPL) are important metrics used in training and evaluating language models. NLL is a loss function used in ML algorithms, aimed at maximizing the probability of correct predictions. A lower NLL indicates that the network has successfully learned patterns from the training set, so it will accurately predict the labels of the training samples. It’s important to mention that NLL is a value constrained within a positive interval.

PPL, on the other hand, is an exponentiation of NLL, providing a more intuitive way to understand the model’s performance. Smaller PPL values indicate a well-trained network that can predict accurately while higher values indicate poor learning performance. Intuitively, we could say that a low perplexity means that the model is less surprised by the next word. Therefore, the goal in pre-training is to minimize perplexity, which means the model’s predictions align more with the actual outcomes.

In comparing different language models, perplexity is often used as a benchmark metric across various tasks. It gives an idea about how well the language model is performing, where a lower perplexity indicates the model is more certain of its predictions. Hence, a model with lower perplexity would be considered better performing in comparison to others with higher perplexity.

The first step in training an LLM is tokenization. This process involves building a vocabulary, which maps tokens to unique numerical representations so that they can be processed by the model, given that LLMs are mathematical functions that require numerical inputs and outputs.

Tokenization

Tokenizing a text means splitting it into tokens (words or subwords), which then are converted to IDs through a look-up table mapping words in text to corresponding lists of integers.

Before training the LLM, the tokenizer – more precisely, its dictionary – is typically fitted to the entire training dataset and then frozen. It’s important to note that tokenizers do not produce arbitrary integers. Instead, they output integers within a specific range – from to , where represents the vocabulary size of the tokenizer.

Definitions:

Token: A token is an instance of a sequence of characters, typically forming a word, punctuation mark, or number. Tokens serve as the base elements for constructing sequences of text.

Tokenization: This refers to the process of splitting text into tokens. A tokenizer splits on whitespace and punctuation to break text into individual tokens.

Examples:

Consider the following text:

“The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog!”

This would get split into the following tokens:

[“The”, “quick”, “brown”, “fox”, “jumps”, “over”, “the”, “lazy”, “dog”, “!”]

Each word is an individual token, as is the punctuation mark.

There are a lot of tokenizers that work according to different principles, but common types of tokenizers employed in models are Byte-Pair Encoding (BPE), WordPiece, and SentencePiece. For example, LLaMa 2’s BPE tokenizer splits numbers into individual digits and uses bytes to decompose unknown UTF-8 characters. The total vocabulary size is 32K tokens.

It is necessary to point out that LLMs can only generate outputs based on a sequence of tokens that does not exceed its context window. This context window refers to the length of the longest sequence of tokens that an LLM can use. Typical context window sizes for LLMs can range from about 1,000 to 10,000 tokens.

Next, it is worth talking at least briefly about the scale of these architectures, and why these models are as large as they are.

Scaling

As we’ve seen in Figure 1.5, language models have been becoming bigger over time. That corresponds to a long-term trend in machine learning that models get bigger as computing resources get cheaper, enabling higher performance. In a paper from 2020 by researchers from OpenAI, Kaplan and others (Scaling laws for neural language models, 2020) discussed scaling laws and the choice of parameters.

Interestingly, they compare lots of different architecture choices and, among other things, show that transformers outperform LSTMs as language models in terms of perplexity in no small part due to the improved use of long contexts. While recurrent networks plateau after less than 100 tokens, transformers improve throughout the whole context. Therefore, transformers not only come with better training and inference speed but also give better performance when looking at relevant contexts.

Further, they found a power-law relationship between performance and each of the following factors: dataset size, model size (number of parameters), and the amount of computational resources required for training. This implies that to improve performance by a certain factor, one of these elements must be scaled up by the power of that factor; however, for optimal performance, all three factors must be scaled in tandem to avoid bottlenecks.

Researchers at DeepMind (An empirical analysis of compute-optimal large language model training; Hoffmann and others, 2022) analyzed the training compute and dataset size of LLMs and concluded that LLMs are undertrained in terms of compute budget and dataset size as suggested by scaling laws.

They predicted that large models would perform better if substantially smaller and trained for much longer, and – in fact – validated their prediction by comparing a 70-billion-parameter Chinchilla model on a benchmark to their Gopher model, which consists of 280 billion parameters.

However, more recently, a team at Microsoft Research has challenged these conclusions and surprised everyone (Textbooks Are All You Need; Gunaseka and colleagues, June 2023), finding that a small network (350M parameters) trained on high-quality datasets can give very competitive performance. We’ll discuss this model again in Chapter 6, Developing Software with Generative AI, and we’ll discuss the implications of scaling in Chapter 10, The Future of Generative Models.

It will be instructive to observe whether model sizes for LLMs keep increasing at the same rate as they have. This is an important question since it determines if the development of LLMs will be firmly in the hands of large organizations. It could be that there’s a saturation of performance at a certain size, which only changes in the approach can overcome. However, we could see new scaling laws linking performance with data quality.

After pre-training, a major step is how models are prepared for specific tasks either by fine-tuning or prompting. Let’s see what this task conditioning is about!

Conditioning

Conditioning LLMs refers to adapting the model for specific tasks. It includes fine-tuning and prompting:

  • Fine-tuning involves modifying a pre-trained language model by training it on a specific task using supervised learning. For example, to make a model more amenable to chats with humans, the model is trained on examples of tasks formulated as natural language instructions (instruction tuning). For fine-tuning, pre-trained models are usually trained again using Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) to be helpful and harmless.
  • Prompting techniques present problems in text form to generative models. There are a lot of different prompting techniques, starting from simple questions to detailed instructions. Prompts can include examples of similar problems and their solutions. Zero-shot prompting involves no examples, while few-shot prompting includes a small number of examples of relevant problem and solution pairs.

These conditioning methods continue to evolve, becoming more effective and useful for a wide range of applications. Prompt engineering and conditioning methods will be explored further in Chapter 8, Customizing LLMs and Their Output.

How to try out these models

You can access OpenAI’s model through their website or their API. If you want to try other LLMs on your laptop, open-source LLMs are a good place to get started. There is a whole zoo of stuff out there!

You can access these models through Hugging Face or other providers, as we’ll see starting in Chapter 3, Getting Started with LangChain. You can even download these open-source models, fine-tune them, or fully train them. We’ll fine-tune a model in Chapter 8, Customizing LLMs and Their Output.

Generative AI is extensively used in generating 3D images, avatars, videos, graphs, and illustrations for virtual or augmented reality, video games graphic design, logo creation, image editing, or enhancement. The most popular model category here is for text-conditioned image synthesis, specifically text-to-image generation. As mentioned, in this book, we’ll focus on LLMs, since they have the broadest practical application, but we’ll also have a look at image models, which sometimes can be quite useful.

In the next section, we’ll be reviewing state-of-the-art methods for text-conditioned image generation. I’ll highlight the progress made in the field so far, but also discuss existing challenges and potential future directions.

 

What are text-to-image models?

Text-to-image models are a powerful type of generative AI that creates realistic images from textual descriptions. They have diverse use cases in creative industries and design for generating advertisements, product prototypes, fashion images, and visual effects. The main applications are:

  • Text-conditioned image generation: Creating original images from text prompts like “a painting of a cat in a field of flowers.” This is used for art, design, prototyping, and visual effects.
  • Image inpainting: Filling in missing or corrupted parts of an image based on the surrounding context. This can restore damaged images (denoising, dehazing, and deblurring) or edit out unwanted elements.
  • Image-to-image translation: Converting input images to a different style or domain specified through text, like “make this photo look like a Monet painting.”
  • Image recognition: Large foundation models can be used to recognize images, including classifying scenes, but also object detection, for example, detecting faces.

Models like Midjourney, DALL-E 2, and Stable Diffusion provide creative and realistic images derived from textual input or other images. These models work by training deep neural networks on large datasets of image-text pairs. The key technique used is diffusion models, which start with random noise and gradually refine it into an image through repeated denoising steps.

Popular models like Stable Diffusion and DALL-E 2 use a text encoder to map input text into an embedding space. This text embedding is fed into a series of conditional diffusion models, which denoise and refine a latent image in successive stages. The final model output is a high-resolution image aligned with the textual description.

Two main classes of models are used: Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and diffusion models. GAN models like StyleGAN or GANPaint Studio can produce highly realistic images, but training is unstable and computationally expensive. They consist of two networks that are pitted against each other in a game-like setting – the generator, which generates new images from text embeddings and noise, and the discriminator, which estimates the probability of the new data being real. As these two networks compete, GANs get better at their task, generating realistic images and other types of data.

The setup for training GANs is illustrated in this diagram (taken from A Survey on Text Generation Using Generative Adversarial Networks, G de Rosa and J P. Papa, 2022; https://arxiv.org/pdf/2212.11119.pdf):

chapter1/chapter1_GAN_setup.png

Figure 1.7: GAN training

Diffusion models have become popular and promising for a wide range of generative tasks, including text-to-image synthesis. These models offer advantages over previous approaches, such as GANs, by reducing computation costs and sequential error accumulation. Diffusion models operate through a process like diffusion in physics. They follow a forward diffusion process by adding noise to an image until it becomes uncharacteristic and noisy. This process is analogous to an ink drop falling into a glass of water and gradually diffusing.

The unique aspect of generative image models is the reverse diffusion process, where the model attempts to recover the original image from a noisy, meaningless image. By iteratively applying noise removal transformations, the model generates images of increasing resolutions that align with the given text input. The final output is an image that has been modified based on the text input. An example of this is the Imagen text-to-image model (Photorealistic Text-to-Image Diffusion Models with Deep Language Understanding by Google Research, May 2022), which incorporates frozen text embeddings from LLMs, pre-trained on text-only corpora. A text encoder first maps the input text to a sequence of embeddings. A cascade of conditional diffusion models takes the text embeddings as input and generates images.

The denoising process is demonstrated in this plot (source: user Benlisquare via Wikimedia Commons):

chapter1/X-Y_plot_of_algorithmically-generated_AI_art_of_European-style_castle_in_Japan_demonstrating_DDIM_diffusion_steps.png

Figure 1.8: European-style castle in Japan, created using the Stable Diffusion V1-5 AI diffusion model

In Figure 1.8, only some steps within the 40-step generation process are shown. You can see the image generation step by step, including the U-Net denoising process using the Denoising Diffusion Implicit Model (DDIM) sampling method, which repeatedly removes Gaussian noise, and then decodes the denoised output into pixel space.

With diffusion models, you can see a wide variety of outcomes using only minimal changes to the initial setting of the model or – as in this case – numeric solvers and samplers. Although they sometimes produce striking results, the instability and inconsistency are a significant challenge to applying these models more broadly.

Stable Diffusion was developed by the CompVis group at LMU Munich (High-Resolution Image Synthesis with Latent Diffusion Models by Blattmann and others, 2022). The Stable Diffusion model significantly cuts training costs and sampling time compared to previous (pixel-based) diffusion models. The model can be run on consumer hardware equipped with a modest GPU (for example, the GeForce 40 series). By creating high-fidelity images from text on consumer GPUs, the Stable Diffusion model democratizes access. Further, the model’s source code and even the weights have been released under the CreativeML OpenRAIL-M license, which doesn’t impose restrictions on reuse, distribution, commercialization, and adaptation.

Significantly, Stable Diffusion introduced operations in latent (lower-dimensional) space representations, which capture the essential properties of an image, in order to improve computational efficiency. A VAE provides latent space compression (called perceptual compression in the paper), while a U-Net performs iterative denoising.

Stable Diffusion generates images from text prompts through several clear steps:

  1. It starts by producing a random tensor (random image) in the latent space, which serves as the noise for our initial image.
  2. A noise predictor (U-Net) takes in both the latent noisy image and the provided text prompt and predicts the noise.
  3. The model then subtracts the latent noise from the latent image.
  4. Steps 2 and 3 are repeated for a set number of sampling steps, for instance, 40 times, as shown in the plot.
  5. Finally, the decoder component of the VAE transforms the latent image back into pixel space, providing the final output image.

A VAE is a model that encodes data into a learned, smaller representation (encoding). These representations can then be used to generate new data similar to that used for training (decoding). This VAE is trained first.

A U-Net is a popular type of convolutional neural network (CNN) that has a symmetric encoder-decoder structure. It is commonly used for image segmentation tasks, but in the context of Stable Diffusion, it can help to introduce and remove noise in the image. The U-Net takes a noisy image (seed) as input and processes it through a series of convolutional layers to extract features and learn semantic representations.

These convolutional layers, typically organized in a contracting path, reduce the spatial dimensions while increasing the number of channels. Once the contracting path reaches the bottleneck of the U-Net, it then expands through a symmetric expanding path. In the expanding path, transposed convolutions (also known as upsampling or deconvolutions) are applied to progressively upsample the spatial dimensions while reducing the number of channels.

For training the image generation model in the latent space itself (latent diffusion model), a loss function is used to evaluate the quality of the generated images. One commonly used loss function is the Mean Squared Error (MSE) loss, which quantifies the difference between the generated image and the target image. The model is optimized to minimize this loss, encouraging it to generate images that closely resemble the desired output.

This training was performed on the LAION-5B dataset, consisting of billions of image-text pairs, derived from Common Crawl data, comprising billions of image-text pairs from sources such as Pinterest, WordPress, Blogspot, Flickr, and DeviantArt.

The following images illustrate text-to-image generation from a text prompt with diffusion (source: Ramesh and others, Hierarchical Text-Conditional Image Generation with CLIP Latents, 2022; https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.06125):

Hierarchical%20Text-Conditional%20Image%20Generation%20with%20CLIP%20Latents%20-%20BY.png

Figure 1.9: Image generation from text prompts

Overall, image generation models such as Stable Diffusion and Midjourney process textual prompts into generated images, leveraging the concept of forward and reverse diffusion processes and operating in a lower-dimensional latent space for efficiency. But what about the conditioning for the model in the text-to-image use case?

The conditioning process allows these models to be influenced by specific input textual prompts or input types like depth maps or outlines for greater precision to create relevant images. These embeddings are then processed by a text transformer and fed to the noise predictor, steering it to produce an image that aligns with the text prompt.

It’s out of the scope of this book to provide a comprehensive survey of generative AI models for all modalities. However, let’s get a bit of an overview of what models can do for other domains.

 

What can AI do in other domains?

Generative AI models have demonstrated impressive capabilities across modalities including sound, music, video, and 3D shapes. In the audio domain, models can synthesize natural speech, generate original music compositions, and even mimic a speaker’s voice and the patterns of rhythm and sound (prosody). Speech-to-text systems can convert spoken language into text [Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)]. For video, AI systems can create photorealistic footage from text prompts and perform sophisticated editing like object removal. 3D models learned to reconstruct scenes from images and generate intricate objects from textual descriptions.

The following table summarizes some recent models in these domains:

Model

Organization

Year

Domain

Architecture

Performance

3D-GQN

DeepMind

2018

3D

Deep, iterative, latent variable density models

3D scene generation from 2D images

Jukebox

OpenAI

2020

Music

VQ-VAE + transformer

High-fidelity music generation in different styles

Whisper

OpenAI

2022

Sound/speech

Transformer

Near human-level speech recognition

Imagen Video

Google

2022

Video

Frozen text transformers + video diffusion models

High-definition video generation from text

Phenaki

Google & UCL

2022

Video

Bidirectional masked transformer

Realistic video generation from text

TecoGAN

U. Munich

2022

Video

Temporal coherence module

High-quality, smooth video generation

DreamFusion

Google

2022

3D

NeRF + Diffusion

High-fidelity 3D object generation from text

AudioLM

Google

2023

Sound/speech

Tokenizer + transformer LM + detokenizer

High linguistic quality speech generation maintaining speaker’s identity

AudioGen

Meta AI

2023

Sound/speech

Transformer + text guidance

High-quality conditional and unconditional audio generation

Universal Speech Model (USM)

Google

2023

Sound/speech

Encoder-decoder transformer

State-of-the-art multilingual speech recognition

Table 1.1: Models for audio, video, and 3D domains

Underlying many of these innovations are advances in deep generative architectures like GANs, diffusion models, and transformers. Leading AI labs at Google, OpenAI, Meta, and DeepMind are pushing the boundaries of what’s possible.

 

Summary

With the rise of computing power, deep neural networks, transformers, generative adversarial networks, and VAEs model the complexity of real-world data much more effectively than previous generations of models, pushing the boundaries of what’s possible with AI algorithms. In this chapter, we explored the recent history of DL and AI and generative models such as LLMs and GPTs, together with the theoretical ideas underpinning them, especially the Transformer architecture. We also explained the basic concepts of models for image generation, such as the Stable Diffusion model, and finally discussed applications beyond text and images, such as sound and video.

The next chapter will explore the tooling of generative models, particularly LLMs, with the LangChain framework, focusing on the fundamentals, the implementation, and the use of this particular tool in exploiting and extending the capability of LLMs.

 

Questions

I think it’s a good habit to check that you’ve digested the material when reading a technical book. For this purpose, I’ve created a few questions relating to the content of this chapter. Let’s see if you can answer them:

  1. What is a generative model?
  2. Which applications exist for generative models?
  3. What is an LLM and what does it do?
  4. How can we get better performance from LLMs?
  5. What are the conditions that make these models possible?
  6. Which companies and organizations are the big players in developing LLMs?
  7. What is a transformer and what does it consist of?
  8. What does GPT stand for?
  9. How does Stable Diffusion work?
  10. What is a VAE?

If you struggle to answer these questions, please refer to the corresponding sections in this chapter to ensure that you’ve understood the material.

 

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About the Author
  • Ben Auffarth

    Ben Auffarth is a full-stack data scientist with more than 15 years of work experience. With a background and Ph.D. in computational and cognitive neuroscience, he has designed and conducted wet lab experiments on cell cultures, analyzed experiments with terabytes of data, run brain models on IBM supercomputers with up to 64k cores, built production systems processing hundreds and thousands of transactions per day, and trained language models on a large corpus of text documents. He co-founded and is the former president of Data Science Speakers, London.

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Latest Reviews (2 reviews total)
The book’s github is misleading. There is no discussion around putting langchain applications. The entire book is based on the documentation from langchain, which has now been updated. I wouldn’t recommend this book to anyone.
Generative AI with LangChain
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