The Art of Micro Frontends

By Florian Rappl
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    Chapter 1: Why Micro frontends?

About this book

Micro frontend is a web architecture for frontend development borrowed from the idea of microservices in software development, where each module of the frontend is developed and shipped in isolation to avoid complexity and a single point of failure for your frontend.

Complete with hands-on tutorials, projects, and self-assessment questions, this easy-to-follow guide will take you through the patterns available for implementing a micro frontend solution. You’ll learn about micro frontends in general, the different architecture styles and their areas of use, how to prepare teams for the change to micro frontends, as well as how to adjust the UI design for scalability. Starting with the simplest variants of micro frontend architectures, the book progresses from static approaches to fully dynamic solutions that allow maximum scalability with faster release cycles. In the concluding chapters, you'll reinforce the knowledge you’ve gained by working on different case studies relating to micro frontends.

By the end of this book, you'll be able to decide if and how micro frontends should be implemented to achieve scalability for your user interface (UI).

Publication date:
June 2021


Chapter 1: Why Micro frontends?

Every journey needs to start somewhere. Quite often, we'll find ourselves looking for a solution to a particular problem. Knowing the problem in depth is usually part of the solution. Without a detailed understanding of the various challenges, finding a proper way to handle the situation seems impossible.

After almost three decades of web development, we've reached a point where anything is possible. The boundaries between classical desktop applications, mobile native applications, and websites have been torn apart. These days, many websites are actually web applications and provide a tool-like character.

As developers, we find ourselves in a quite difficult situation. Very often, the cognitive load to handle the underlying complexities of code bases is way too high. Consequently, inefficiencies and bugs haunt us.

One possible way out of this dilemma is the architectural pattern of micro frontends. In this chapter, we'll discover the reasons why micro frontends have become quite a popular choice for projects of any kind.

We will cover the following key topics in this chapter:

  • Evolution of web applications
  • Everything becomes micro
  • Emerging web standards
  • Faster time to market (TTM)

Without further ado, let's get right into the topic.


Evolution of web applications

Before looking for reasons to use micro frontends, we should look at why micro frontends came to exist at all. How did the web evolve from a small proof of concept (POC) running on a NeXT computer in a small office at Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire/The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to becoming a central piece of the information age?

Programming the web

My first contact with web development was in the middle of the 1990s. Back then, the web was mostly composed of static web pages. While some people were experienced enough to bring in some dynamic websites using the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) technology as shown in Figure 1.1, most webmasters did not have knowledge of this or want to spend money on server-side rendering (SSR). The term webmaster was commonly used for somebody who was in charge of a website. Instead of this, everything was crafted by hand upfront:

Figure 1.1 – The web changes from static to dynamic pages

Figure 1.1 – The web changes from static to dynamic pages

To avoid duplication and potential inconsistencies, a new technology was used: frames declared in <frameset> tags. Frames allowed websites to be displayed within websites. Effectively, this enabled the reuse of things such as a menu, header, or footer on different pages. While frames have been removed from the HyperText Markup Language 5 (HTML5) specification, they are still available in all browsers. Their successor still lives on today: the inline frame (iframe) <iframe> tag.

One of the downsides of frames was that link handling became increasingly difficult. To get the best performance, the right target had to be selected explicitly. Another difficulty was encountered in correct Uniform Resource Locator (URL) handling. Since navigation was only performed on a given frame, the displayed page address did not change.

Consequently, people started to look for alternatives. One way was to use SSR without all the complexity. By introducing some special HTML comments as placeholders containing some server instructions, a generic layout could be added that would be dynamically resolved. The name for this technique was Server Side Includes, more commonly known as SSI.

The Apache web server was among the first to introduce SSI support through the mod_ssi module. Other popular web servers, such as Microsoft's Internet Information Services (IIS), followed quickly afterward. The progressive nature and Turing completeness of the allowed instructions made SSI an instant success.

It was around that time that websites became more and more dynamic. To tame the CGI, many solutions were implemented. However, only when a new programming language called PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) was introduced did SSR become mainstream. The cost of running PHP was so cheap that SSI was almost forgotten.

The social web

With the rise of Web 2.0 and the capabilities of JavaScript—especially for dynamic data loading at runtime, known as Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX)—the web community faced another challenge. SSR was no longer a silver bullet. Instead, the dynamic part of websites had to live on the client—at least partially. The complexity of dividing an application into multiple areas (build, server, client), along with their testing and development, skyrocketed.

As a result, frameworks for client-side rendering (CSR) emerged. The first-generation frameworks such as Backbone.js, Knockout.js, and AngularJS all came with architecture choices similar to the popular frameworks for SSR. They did not intend to place the full application on the client, and they did not intend to grow indefinitely.

In practice, this looked quite different. The application size increased and a lot of code was served to the client that was never intended to be used by the current user. Images and other media were served without any optimizations, and the web became slower and slower.

Of course, we've seen the rise of tools to mitigate this. While JavaScript minification has become nearly as old as JavaScript itself, other tools for image optimization and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) minification came about to improve the situation too.

The missing link was to combine these tools into a single pipeline. Thanks to Node.js, the web community received a truly magnificent gem. Now, we had a runtime that could not only bring JavaScript to the server side, but also allowed the use of cross-platform tooling. New task runners such as Grunt or Gulp started making frontend code easier to develop efficiently.

The web 2.0 movement also made the reuse of web services directly from the UI running in the browser, as shown in the following figure, popular:

Figure 1.2 – With the Web 2.0 movement, services and AJAX enter common architectures

Figure 1.2 – With the Web 2.0 movement, services and AJAX enter common architectures

Having dedicated backend services makes sense for multiple use cases. First, we can leverage AJAX in the frontend to do partial reloads, as outlined in Figure 1.2. Another use case is to allow other systems to access the information, too. This way, useful data can be monetarized as well. Finally, the separation between representation (usually using HTML) and structure (using formats such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) or JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)) allows reuse across multiple applications.

Separation of frontend and backend

The enhanced rendering capabilities on the frontend also accelerated the separation between backend and frontend. Suddenly, there was no giant monolith that handled user activities, page generation, and database queries in one code base. Instead, the data handling was put into an application programming interface (API) layer that could be used for page generation in SSR scenarios or directly from code running in the user's browser. In particular, applications that handle all rendering in the client have been labeled a single-page application (SPA).

Such a separation not only brought benefits—the design of these APIs became an art on their own. Providing suitable security settings and establishing a great performance baseline became more difficult, however. Ultimately, this also became a challenge from a deployment perspective.

From a user experience perspective, the capability of doing partial page updates is not without challenges either. Here, we rely on indicators such as loading spinners, skeleton styles, or other methods to transport the right signals to the user. Another thing to take care of here is correct error handling. Should we retry? Inform the user? Use a fallback? Multiple possibilities exist; however, besides making a good decision here, we also need to spend some time implementing and testing it.

Nevertheless, for many applications, the split into a dedicated frontend and a dedicated backend part is definitely a suitable choice. One reason is that dedicated teams can work on both sides of the story, thus making the development of larger web applications more efficient.

The gain in development efficiency, as we will see, is a driving force behind the move toward micro frontends. Let's see how the trend toward modularization got started in web development.


Everything becomes micro

We already discovered that the eventual split into dedicated parts for the frontend and backend of an application may be quite useful. Staying on the backend, we've seen the rise of smaller services that need to be orchestrated and joined together: so-called microservices.

From SOA to microservices

While the idea of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) is not new, what microservices brought to the table is freedom of choice. In the early 2000s, the term SOA was introduced to already try that out. However, for SOA, we've seen a broad palette of requirements and constraints. From the communicating protocol, to the discoverability of the API, up to the consuming applications, everything was either predetermined—or at least strongly recommended.

With the ultimate failure of SOA, the community tried to stay away from building too many services too quickly. In the end, it was not only about the constraints imposed by SOA, but also about the orchestration struggle of deploying multiple services with potential interdependencies. How could we go ahead and reliably deploy multiple services into—most likely—two or three environments?

When Docker was introduced, it solved a couple of problems. Most importantly, it brought about a way to reliably get deployments working right. Combined with tools such as Ansible, releasing multiple services seemed feasible and a possible improvement. Consequently, multiple teams around the world started breaking existing boundaries. The common design choices used by these teams would then be taken to form a general architecture style, known as microservices.

When using microservices, there was only a single recommendation: build services that are responsible for one thing. The method of communication (usually REpresentational State Transfer (REST) with JSON) was not determined. Whether services should have their own databases or not was left to the developer. If services should communicate directly or indirectly with each other, this could be decided by the architect. Ultimately, best practices for many situations emerged, cementing the success of microservices even more.

While some purists see microservices as "fine-grained SOA," most people believe in the freedom of choice of using only the single-responsibility principle (SRP). The following figure shows the web applications using microservices with a SPA:

Figure 1.3 – Current state-of-the-art web applications using microservices with a SPA

Figure 1.3 – Current state-of-the-art web applications using microservices with a SPA

With people being busy building backends using microservices, the frontend needed to follow this dynamic approach too. Consequently, a lot of applications are heavily built on top of JavaScript, leveraging SPAs to avoid having to deal with the complexities of having to define both SSR and CSR. This is also shown in Figure 1.3.

Advantages of microservices

Why should a book on micro frontends spend any time looking at the history of microservices or their potential advantages? Well, for one, both start with micro, which could be a coincidence but actually is not. Another reason is that, as we will see, the background and history of both architectures are actually quite analogous. Since microservices are older than micro frontends, they can be used to give us a view into the future, which can only be helpful when making design decisions.

How did microservices become the de facto standard for doing backends these days? Sure—a good monolith is still the right choice for many projects but is not commonly regarded as a "popular choice." Most larger projects immediately head for the microservice route, independent of any evaluations or other constraints they could encounter.

Besides their obvious popularity, microservices also come with some intrinsic advantages, outlined as follows:

  • Failures only directly concern a single service.
  • Multiple teams can work independently.
  • Deployments are smaller.
  • Frameworks and programming languages can be chosen freely.
  • The initial release time is smaller.
  • They have clear architectural boundaries.

Every project willingly choosing microservices hopes to benefit from one or more of the advantages from this list, but there are—of course—some disadvantages too.

Disadvantages of microservices

For every advantage, there is also a disadvantage. What really matters is our perspective and how we weigh the arguments. For instance, if failures only concern a single service, this results in increased complexity for debugging. A service that depends on another service that just failed will also behave strangely. Finding the root cause for why another service failed and working out how to mitigate this situation is increasingly difficult.

Nevertheless, if we go for microservices, we should value their advantages over their disadvantages. If we cannot live with the disadvantages, then we need to either look for a different pattern or try our best to make the disadvantage in question go away as much as possible.

Another example of where an advantage can lead to a disadvantage is in the freedom of choice in terms of frameworks and programming languages. Depending on the number of developers, a certain number of languages may be supported as well. Anything that exceeds that number will be unmaintainable. It's certainly quite fashionable to try new languages and frameworks; however, if no one else is capable of maintaining the new service written in some niche language, we'll have a hard time scaling the development.

Some of the most popular disadvantages are outlined as follows:

  • Increased orchestration complexity
  • Multiple points of failure
  • Debugging and testing gets more difficult
  • Lack of responsibility
  • Eventual inconsistencies between the different services
  • Versioning hell

This list may look intimidating at first, but we need to remember that people already addressed these issues with best practices and enhanced tooling. In the end, it's our call to make the best of the situation and choose wisely.

Micro and frontend

Microservices sound great, so applying their principles to the frontend seems to be an obvious next step. The easiest solution would be to just implement microservices that serve HTML instead of JSON. Problem solved, right? Not so fast…

Just assembling the HTML would not be so difficult, but we need to think bigger than that. We need assets such as JavaScript, CSS, and image files. How can we interleave JavaScript content? If global variables are placed with the same name, which one wins? Should the URLs of all the files resolve to the individual services serving them?

There are more questions than answers here, but one thing is sure: while doing so would be possible in theory, in practice the experience would be limited, and we would lose the separation between backend and frontend, which—as we found out—is fundamental to today's mindset of web development.

Consequently, micro frontends did not exist until quite recently, when some of these barriers could be broken. As we'll see, there are multiple ways to establish a micro frontend solution. As with microservices, there are no fixed constraints. In the end, a project uses micro frontends when independent teams can freely deploy smaller chunks of the frontend without having to update the main application.

Besides some technical reasons, there is also another argument why micro frontends were established later than microservices: they were not required beforehand.

As outlined, the web just recently exploded on frontend code. Beforehand, either separated pages with no uniform user experience were sufficient or a monolith did the job sufficiently well. With applications growing massively in size, micro frontends came to the rescue.

Server-side solutions such as SSI or dedicated logic can help a fair bit to establish a micro frontend solution, but what about bringing this dynamic composition to the client? As it turns out, emerging web standards make this possible too.


Emerging web standards

There are a couple of problems that make developing micro frontends that run on the client problematic. Among other considerations, we need to be able to isolate code as much as possible to avoid conflicts. However, in contrast to backend microservices, we may also want to share resources such as a runtime framework; otherwise, exhausting the available resources on the user's computer is possible.

While this sounds exotic at first, performance is one of the bigger challenges for micro frontends. On the backend, we can give every service a suitable amount of hardware. On the frontend, we need to live with the browser running code on a machine that the user chooses. This could be a larger desktop machine, but it could also be a Raspberry Pi or a smartphone.

One area where recent web standards help quite a bit is with style isolation. Without style isolation, the Document Object Model (DOM) would treat every style as global, resulting in accidental style leaks or overwrites due to conflicts.

Isolation via Web Components

Styles may be isolated using the technique of a shadow DOM. A shadow DOM enables us to write components that are projected into the parent DOM without being part of the parent DOM. Instead, only a carrier element (referred to as the host) is directly mounted. Not only do style rules from the parent not leak into the shadow DOM—style definitions in general are not applied either.

Consequently, a shadow DOM requires style sheets from the parent to be loaded again—if we want to use these styles. This isolation thus only makes sense if we want to be completely autonomous regarding styling in the shadow DOM.

The same isolation does not work for the JavaScript parts. Through global variables, we are still able to access the exports of the parent's scripts. Here, another drawback of the Web Components' standard shines through. Usually, the way to transport shadow DOM definitions is by using custom elements. However, custom elements require a unique name that cannot be redefined.

A way around many of the JavaScript drawbacks is to fall back to the mentioned <iframe> element. An iframe comes with style and script isolation, but how can we communicate between the parent and the content living in the frame?

Frame communication

Originally introduced in HTML5, the window.postMessage function has proven to be quite useful when it comes to micro frontends. This was already introduced quite early in reusable frontend pieces. Today, we can find reusable frontend pieces relying on frame communication—for instance—in most chatbot services or cookie consent services.

While sending a message is one part of the story, the other part is to receive messages. For this, a message event was introduced on the window object. The difference from many other events is that this event also gives us an origin property, which allows us to track the URL of the sender.

The URL of a particular frame to send the message to is also necessary when sending a message. Let's see an example of such a process.

Here is the HTML code of the parent document:

<!doctype html>
<iframe src="iframe.html" id="iframe"></iframe>
setTimeout(() => {
iframe.contentWindow.postMessage('Hello!', '*');
}, 1000);

After a second, we'll send a message containing the string Hello! to the document loaded from iframe.html. For the URL, we use the * wildcard string.

The iframe can be defined like so:

<!doctype html>
window.addEventListener('message', event => {
  const text = document.body.appendChild(
text.textContent = ` Received "${}" from 

This will display the posted message in the frame.

Important note

The access and manipulation of frames is only forbidden when using a cross-origin. The definition of a cross-domain origin is one of the security fundamentals that the web is currently built upon. An origin consists of the protocol (for example, HTTP Secure (HTTPS)), the domain, and the port. Different subdomains also correspond to different origins. Many HTTP requests can only be performed if the cross-origin rules are positively evaluated by the browser. Technically, this is referred to as cross-origin resource sharing (CORS). See the following MDN Web Docs page for more on this:

While these communication patterns are quite fruitful, they do not allow the sharing of any resources. Remember that only strings can be transported via the postMessage function. While these strings may be complex objects serialized as JSON, they can never be true objects with nested cyclic references or functions inside.

An alternative is to give up on direct isolation and instead work on indirect isolation. A wonderful possibility is to leverage web workers to do this.

Web workers and proxies

A web worker represents an easy way to break out of the single-threaded model of the JavaScript engine, without all the usual hassle of multithreading.

As with iframes, the only method of communication between the main thread and the worker thread is to post messages. A key difference, however, is that the worker runs in another global context that is different from the current window object. While some APIs still exist, many parts are either different or not available at all.

One example is in the way of loading additional scripts. While standard code may just append another <script> element, the web worker needs to use the importScripts function. This one is synchronous and allows not only one URL to be specified, but actually multiple URLs. The given URLs are loaded and evaluated in order.

So far so good, but how can we use the web worker if it comes with a different global context? Any frontend-related code that tries to do DOM manipulation will fail here. This is where proxies come to the rescue.

A proxy can be used to capture desired object accesses and function calls. This allows us to forward certain behavior from the web worker to the host. The only drawback is that the postMessage interface is asynchronous in nature, which can be a challenge when synchronous APIs should be mimicked.

One of the simplest proxies is actually the I can handle everything proxy. This small amount of code, shown in the following snippet, provides a solid basis for 90% of all stubs:

const generalProxy = new Proxy(() => generalProxy, {
  get(target, name) {
    if (name === Symbol.toPrimitive) {
      return () => ({}).toString();
    } else {
      return generalProxy();

The trick here is that this allows it to be used like without any problems and with no undefined access or invalid functions.

Using a proxy, we can mock necessary DOM APIs, which are then forwarded to the parent document. Of course, we would only define and forward API calls that can be safely used. Ultimately, the trick is to filter against a safe list of acceptable APIs.

Facing the problem of transporting object references such as callbacks from the web worker to the parent, we may fall back to wrapping these. A custom marker may be used to allow the web worker to be called to run the callback at a later point in time.

We will go into the details of such a solution later—for now, it's enough to know that the web offers a fair share of security and performance measures that can be utilized to allow strong modularization.

For the final section, let's close out the original question with a look at the business reasons for choosing micro frontends.


Faster TTM

As already written, there are technical and business reasons why micro frontends have been a bit more difficult to fully embrace than their backend counterparts. My personal opinion is that the technical reasons are significant, but not as crucial as the business reasons.

When implementing micro frontends, we should never look for technical reasons alone. Ultimately, our applications are created for the end users. As a result, end users should not be impacted negatively by our technical choices.

But not only may the user experience be a driver from a business perspective—the productivity level and the development process should also be taken into consideration. In the end, this impacts the user experience just as much and represents the basis for any implementation: how fast we can ship new features or adjust to some user surveys.

Decreasing onboarding time

20 years ago, most developers that entered a company stayed for quite a while. Over time this decreased, to be around 2 years for most companies (source: The average employment duration is shown here:

Figure 1.4 – Average time of developers at a single company

Figure 1.4 – Average time of developers at a single company

If a standard developer gets productive in a larger code base after 6 months, this means that a large fraction of the investment (about 25%) is not really fulfilled. Being productive from day one should be the goal, even if it is unrealistic.

One way to achieve faster onboarding time is by decreasing the required cognitive load, and a strong modularization with independent repositories can help a lot with this. After all, if a new developer fixes a single bug, a smaller repository can be debugged and understood much faster than a large repository.

Also, the documentation can be kept up to date much more easily with a lot of smaller repositories than a few larger ones. Together with a smaller (and more focused) commit history, the entry level is far smaller.

The downside is that complex bugs may be more problematic to debug. To understand the system fully, most likely a lot more expertise may be required. Knowing which code resides in which repository becomes a virtue and gives some senior developers and architects a special status that makes it difficult to remove them safely from a project.

A solution is to think in terms of feature teams that have main responsibilities but may share common infrastructure expertise.

Multiple teams

If we are capable of onboarding new developers quickly, we can also leverage multiple sources for recruiting. Recruiting great talent in information technology (IT) has become absurdly difficult. The top players already attract a fair share of all the top developers needed, especially in smaller ventures. How can new features be developed quickly when it takes months to acquire a single new developer?

A solution to this challenge is to consider the help of IT agencies or service providers who can offer on-demand development help. Historically, bringing in externals can be a source of trouble too. Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) need to be filled out; access needs to be granted. The biggest pain point may be procedural differences.

By using modularization as a key architecture feature, different teams may work in their own repositories. They can use their own processes and have their own release schedules. This can come in handy internally too, but obviously has the greatest benefit when working with external developers and teams.

One of the best advantages of being able to modularize the frontend is that we can come up with new ways to cut the teams. For instance, we can introduce true full-stack teams, where each team is responsible for one backend service and one frontend module. While this boundary may not always make sense, it can be very helpful in a number of scenarios. Giving the same team that made a backend API its frontend counterpart reduces alignment requirements and enables more stable releases.

Combining the ideas of domain-driven design (DDD) with multiple teams is an efficient way to reduce cognitive load and establish clear architectural boundaries.

DDD is a set of techniques to formalize how modularization can be performed without ending up in unmaintainable spaghetti code. In Chapter 4, Domain Decomposition, we'll have a closer look at these techniques, which can help us to derive a modularization referred to as domain decomposition. Deriving the right domain decomposition is, however, not easy at all. Keeping the different functional domains separated is key here.

Isolated features

My favorite business driver for introducing micro frontends is the ability to ship independent features using their own schedules.

Let's say one of the product owners (POs) has an idea for a new feature. Right now, it is not really known how this feature will be accepted by the users. What can be done here? Surely, we want to start with a small POC presented to the PO. If this is well accepted, we can refine it and publish a minimum viable product (MVP), which would serve to gather some end user feedback.

Historically, a lot of alignment would be needed just to get this feature into the application in the desired way. Using micro frontends, we can roll out the feature progressively. We would first only make it available to the PO, and then adjust the rollout to the target end users too. Finally, we could release it in full regions or worldwide.

A selective rollout is only possible when a feature is isolated. If we have two features— feature A and feature B, with A requiring B—then a progressive rollout is never possible for feature B. It would always need to be a superset of the rollout rules of feature A.

In general, such dependencies may still be possible (or even desired), but they should never be direct in nature. As such, all available features may only weakly reference other features. We will see later that weak references form a basis for scalability and are crucial for sound micro frontend solutions.

A good test to verify whether a given micro frontend is well designed is to turn it off. Is the overall application still working? Maybe it may not be useful any more, but that is not the key point. If the application is still technically working, then the micro frontend solution is still sound. Always ask yourself: Does it—in principle—work without this module?

Being able to turn off micro frontends consequently allows us to also swap individual micro frontends. As the inner workings are not required to be available, we can also fully replace them. This can be used to our advantage to gather useful user feedback.

A/B testing

We may find at least a dozen more good reasons to use micro frontends from a business perspective; however, one—unfortunately, often forgotten—reason is to simplify gathering user feedback. A great way to do this is by introducing A/B testing.

In A/B testing, we introduce two variants of a feature. One is variant A, while the other is labeled variant B. While A may be the current state of the feature (usually called the baseline), B may be a new way of approaching the problem. The following diagram illustrates this:

Figure 1.5 – A/B testing of a feature results in different experiences for different users

Figure 1.5 – A/B testing of a feature results in different experiences for different users

In scenarios where the feature is new anyway, an A/B test may be served to all users interested in taking part here. If we work with a baseline, it may make sense to survey only users that are new to the feature to avoid having existing habits contaminating the data.

Most frontend monoliths require quite a few code changes to include the ability of A/B testing for specific features. In the worst case, branching from variant A to variant B can be found in dozens—if not hundreds—of places. By introducing a suitable modularization, we can introduce A/B testing without any code change. This is an ideal scenario, where only the part shipping the micro frontends needs to know about the rules of the active A/B test.

Actually, including the feedback and evaluating the results is then, of course, a completely different story. Here, micro frontends don't really help us. The connection to dedicated tools for supporting the data analysis is unchanged, with a monolithic solution.



In this chapter, we investigated how the web evolved to reach a point where micro frontends could be presented as a viable solution. We discussed that the need for application scaling hit a point where alignment efforts had a massive impact on efficiency. Together with some new technical possibilities, the architectural pattern of micro frontends can now be implemented successfully.

You now know that micro frontends have not only a technical but also a business background. However, besides some advantages, they also come with disadvantages. Knowing from the start what to expect is crucial when aiming for a solid solution.

In the next chapter, we'll have a more detailed look at the challenges and pitfalls of micro frontends. Our goal is to be able to successfully tackle all challenges with sound solutions. We will cover some of the most difficult problems, together with a path leading to proper implementation.

About the Author

  • Florian Rappl

    Florian Rappl is a solution architect working on distributed web applications for digital transformation and IoT projects. His main interest lies in the implementation of micro frontends and their impact on teams and business models.

    As the lead architect he helped to create outstanding web applications for many industry leading companies. He regularly gives lectures on software design patterns and web development. Florian won multiple prizes for his work over the years and is recognized as a Microsoft MVP for development technologies.

    He started his career in software engineering before studying physics and helping to build an energy-efficient supercomputer. Florian currently lives in Munich, Germany, with his wife and two daughters.

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