Microservices are an architecture style and an approach for software development to satisfy modern business demands. Microservices are not invented; they are more of an evolution from the previous architecture styles.
We will start the chapter by taking a closer look at the evolution of the microservices architecture from the traditional monolithic architectures. We will also examine the definition, concepts, and characteristics of microservices. Finally, we will analyze typical use cases of microservices and establish the similarities and relationships between microservices and other architecture approaches such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Twelve-Factor Apps. Twelve-Factor Apps defines a set of software engineering principles of developing applications targeting the cloud.
In this chapter you, will learn about:
The evolution of microservices
The definition of the microservices architecture with examples
Concepts and characteristics of the microservices architecture
Typical use cases of the microservices architecture
The relationship of microservices with SOA and Twelve-Factor Apps
Microservices are one of the increasingly popular architecture patterns next to SOA, complemented by DevOps and cloud. The microservices evolution is greatly influenced by the disruptive digital innovation trends in modern business and the evolution of technologies in the last few years. We will examine these two factors in this section.
In this era of digital transformation, enterprises increasingly adopt technologies as one of the key enablers for radically increasing their revenue and customer base. Enterprises primarily use social media, mobile, cloud, big data, and Internet of Things as vehicles to achieve the disruptive innovations. Using these technologies, enterprises find new ways to quickly penetrate the market, which severely pose challenges to the traditional IT delivery mechanisms.
The following graph shows the state of traditional development and microservices against the new enterprise challenges such as agility, speed of delivery, and scale.
Microservices promise more agility, speed of delivery, and scale compared to traditional monolithic applications.
Gone are the days when businesses invested in large application developments with the turnaround time of a few years. Enterprises are no longer interested in developing consolidated applications to manage their end-to-end business functions as they did a few years ago.
The following graph shows the state of traditional monolithic applications and microservices in comparison with the turnaround time and cost.
Microservices provide an approach for developing quick and agile applications, resulting in less overall cost.
Today, for instance, airlines or financial institutions do not invest in rebuilding their core mainframe systems as another monolithic monster. Retailers and other industries do not rebuild heavyweight supply chain management applications, such as their traditional ERPs. Focus has shifted to building quick-win point solutions that cater to specific needs of the business in the most agile way possible.
Let's take an example of an online retailer running with a legacy monolithic application. If the retailer wants to innovate his/her sales by offering their products personalized to a customer based on the customer's past shopping, preferences, and so on and also wants to enlighten customers by offering products based on their propensity to buy them, they will quickly develop a personalization engine or offers based on their immediate needs and plug them into their legacy application.
As shown in the preceding diagram, rather than investing in rebuilding the core legacy system, this will be either done by passing the responses through the new functions, as shown in the diagram marked A, or by modifying the core legacy system to call out these functions as part of the processing, as shown in the diagram marked B. These functions are typically written as microservices.
This approach gives organizations a plethora of opportunities to quickly try out new functions with lesser cost in an experimental mode. Businesses can later validate key performance indicators and alter or replace these implementations if required.
Emerging technologies have also made us rethink the way we build software systems. For example, a few decades back, we couldn't even imagine a distributed application without a two-phase commit. Later, NoSQL databases made us think differently.
Similarly, these kinds of paradigm shifts in technology have reshaped all the layers of the software architecture.
With cloud adoptions steamed into the mainstream, Platform as a Services (PaaS) providers such as Pivotal CF, AWS, Salesforce.com, IBMs Bluemix, RedHat OpenShift, and so on made us rethink the way we build middleware components. The container revolution created by Docker radically influenced the infrastructure space. These days, an infrastructure is treated as a commodity service.
The integration landscape has also changed with Integration Platform as a Service (iPaaS), which is emerging. Platforms such as Dell Boomi, Informatica, MuleSoft, and so on are examples of iPaaS. These tools helped organizations stretch integration boundaries beyond the traditional enterprise.
NoSQLs have revolutionized the databases space. A few years ago, we had only a few popular databases, all based on relational data modeling principles. We have a long list of databases today: Hadoop, Cassandra, CouchDB, and Neo 4j to name a few. Each of these databases addresses certain specific architectural problems.
Application architecture has always been evolving alongside demanding business requirements and the evolution of technologies. Architectures have gone through the evolution of age-old mainframe systems to fully abstract cloud services such as AWS Lambda.
Read more about Lambda at: https://aws.amazon.com/documentation/lambda/
Different architecture approaches and styles such as mainframes, client server, N-tier, and service-oriented were popular at different timeframes. Irrespective of the choice of architecture styles, we always used to build one or the other forms of monolithic architectures. The microservices architecture evolved as a result of modern business demands such as agility and speed of delivery, emerging technologies, and learning from previous generations of architectures.
Microservices are an architecture style used by many organizations today as a game changer to achieve a high degree of agility, speed of delivery, and scale. Microservices give us a way to develop more physically separated modular applications.
Microservices are not invented. Many organizations such as Netflix, Amazon, and eBay successfully used the divide-and-conquer technique to functionally partition their monolithic applications into smaller atomic units, each performing a single function. These organizations solved a number of prevailing issues they were experiencing with their monolithic applications.
Following the success of these organizations, many other organizations started adopting this as a common pattern to refactor their monolithic applications. Later, evangelists termed this pattern as the microservices architecture.
Read more about hexagonal architecture at http://alistair.cockburn.us/Hexagonal+architecture.
The preceding diagram depicts a traditional N-tier application architecture having a presentation layer, business layer, and database layer. The modules A, B, and C represent three different business capabilities. The layers in the diagram represent a separation of architecture concerns. Each layer holds all three business capabilities pertaining to this layer. The presentation layer has web components of all the three modules, the business layer has business components of all the three modules, and the database hosts tables of all the three modules. In most cases, layers are physically spreadable, whereas modules within a layer are hardwired.
As we can note in the preceding diagram, the boundaries are inversed in the microservices architecture. Each vertical slice represents a microservice. Each microservice has its own presentation layer, business layer, and database layer. Microservices are aligned towards business capabilities. By doing so, changes to one microservice do not impact others.
There is no standard for communication or transport mechanisms for microservices. In general, microservices communicate with each other using widely adopted lightweight protocols, such as HTTP and REST, or messaging protocols, such as JMS or AMQP. In specific cases, one might choose more optimized communication protocols, such as Thrift, ZeroMQ, Protocol Buffers, or Avro.
As microservices are more aligned to business capabilities and have independently manageable life cycles, they are the ideal choice for enterprises embarking on DevOps and cloud. DevOps and cloud are two facets of microservices.
In the real world, bees build a honeycomb by aligning hexagonal wax cells. They start small, using different materials to build the cells. Construction is based on what is available at the time of building. Repetitive cells form a pattern and result in a strong fabric structure. Each cell in the honeycomb is independent but also integrated with other cells. By adding new cells, the honeycomb grows organically to a big, solid structure. The content inside each cell is abstracted and not visible outside. Damage to one cell does not damage other cells, and bees can reconstruct these cells without impacting the overall honeycomb.
This implies that a unit, either a class, a function, or a service, should have only one responsibility. At no point should two units share one responsibility or one unit have more than one responsibility. A unit with more than one responsibility indicates tight coupling.
As shown in the preceding diagram, Customer, Product, and Order are different functions of an e-commerce application. Rather than building all of them into one application, it is better to have three different services, each responsible for exactly one business function, so that changes to one responsibility will not impair others. In the preceding scenario, Customer, Product, and Order will be treated as three independent microservices.
Microservices are self-contained, independently deployable, and autonomous services that take full responsibility of a business capability and its execution. They bundle all dependencies, including library dependencies, and execution environments such as web servers and containers or virtual machines that abstract physical resources.
One of the major differences between microservices and SOA is in their level of autonomy. While most SOA implementations provide service-level abstraction, microservices go further and abstract the realization and execution environment.
In traditional application developments, we build a WAR or an EAR, then deploy it into a JEE application server, such as with JBoss, WebLogic, WebSphere, and so on. We may deploy multiple applications into the same JEE container. In the microservices approach, each microservice will be built as a fat Jar, embedding all dependencies and run as a standalone Java process.
Microservices may also get their own containers for execution, as shown in the preceding diagram. Containers are portable, independently manageable, lightweight runtime environments. Container technologies, such as Docker, are an ideal choice for microservices deployment.
The microservices definition discussed earlier in this chapter is arbitrary. Evangelists and practitioners have strong but sometimes different opinions on microservices. There is no single, concrete, and universally accepted definition for microservices. However, all successful microservices implementations exhibit a number of common characteristics. Therefore, it is important to understand these characteristics rather than sticking to theoretical definitions. Some of the common characteristics are detailed in this section.
In the microservices world, services are first-class citizens. Microservices expose service endpoints as APIs and abstract all their realization details. The internal implementation logic, architecture, and technologies (including programming language, database, quality of services mechanisms, and so on) are completely hidden behind the service API.
Moreover, in the microservices architecture, there is no more application development; instead, organizations focus on service development. In most enterprises, this requires a major cultural shift in the way that applications are built.
In a Customer Profile microservice, internals such as the data structure, technologies, business logic, and so on are hidden. They aren't exposed or visible to any external entities. Access is restricted through the service endpoints or APIs. For instance, Customer Profile microservices may expose Register Customer and Get Customer as two APIs for others to interact with.
The following are some of the characteristics of services that are applicable to microservices as well:
Service contract: Similar to SOA, microservices are described through well-defined service contracts. In the microservices world, JSON and REST are universally accepted for service communication. In the case of JSON/REST, there are many techniques used to define service contracts. JSON Schema, WADL, Swagger, and RAML are a few examples.
Loose coupling: Microservices are independent and loosely coupled. In most cases, microservices accept an event as input and respond with another event. Messaging, HTTP, and REST are commonly used for interaction between microservices. Message-based endpoints provide higher levels of decoupling.
Service abstraction: In microservices, service abstraction is not just an abstraction of service realization, but it also provides a complete abstraction of all libraries and environment details, as discussed earlier.
Statelessness: Well-designed microservices are stateless and share nothing with no shared state or conversational state maintained by the services. In case there is a requirement to maintain state, they are maintained in a database, perhaps in memory.
Services are discoverable: Microservices are discoverable. In a typical microservices environment, microservices self-advertise their existence and make themselves available for discovery. When services die, they automatically take themselves out from the microservices ecosystem.
Service interoperability: Services are interoperable as they use standard protocols and message exchange standards. Messaging, HTTP, and so on are used as transport mechanisms. REST/JSON is the most popular method for developing interoperable services in the microservices world. In cases where further optimization is required on communications, other protocols such as Protocol Buffers, Thrift, Avro, or Zero MQ could be used. However, the use of these protocols may limit the overall interoperability of the services.
Well-designed microservices are aligned to a single business capability, so they perform only one function. As a result, one of the common characteristics we see in most of the implementations are microservices with smaller footprints.
When selecting supporting technologies, such as web containers, we will have to ensure that they are also lightweight so that the overall footprint remains manageable. For example, Jetty or Tomcat are better choices as application containers for microservices compared to more complex traditional application servers such as WebLogic or WebSphere.
Container technologies such as Docker also help us keep the infrastructure footprint as minimal as possible compared to hypervisors such as VMWare or Hyper-V.
As shown in the preceding diagram, microservices are typically deployed in Docker containers, which encapsulate the business logic and needed libraries. This help us quickly replicate the entire setup on a new machine or on a completely different hosting environment or even to move across different cloud providers. As there is no physical infrastructure dependency, containerized microservices are easily portable.
As microservices are autonomous and abstract everything behind service APIs, it is possible to have different architectures for different microservices. A few common characteristics that we see in microservices implementations are:
Different services use different versions of the same technologies. One microservice may be written on Java 1.7, and another one could be on Java 1.8.
Different languages are used to develop different microservices, such as one microservice is developed in Java and another one in Scala.
Different architectures are used, such as one microservice using the Redis cache to serve data, while another microservice could use MySQL as a persistent data store.
In the preceding example, as Hotel Search is expected to have high transaction volumes with stringent performance requirements, it is implemented using Erlang. In order to support predictive searching, Elasticsearch is used as the data store. At the same time, Hotel Booking needs more ACID transactional characteristics. Therefore, it is implemented using MySQL and Java. The internal implementations are hidden behind service endpoints defined as REST/JSON over HTTP.
As microservices break monolithic applications into a number of smaller services, large enterprises may see a proliferation of microservices. A large number of microservices is hard to manage until and unless automation is in place. The smaller footprint of microservices also helps us automate the microservices development to the deployment life cycle. In general, microservices are automated end to endâfor example, automated builds, automated testing, automated deployment, and elastic scaling.
As indicated in the preceding diagram, automations are typically applied during the development, test, release, and deployment phases:
The development phase is automated using version control tools such as Git together with Continuous Integration (CI) tools such as Jenkins, Travis CI, and so on. This may also include code quality checks and automation of unit testing. Automation of a full build on every code check-in is also achievable with microservices.
The testing phase will be automated using testing tools such as Selenium, Cucumber, and other AB testing strategies. As microservices are aligned to business capabilities, the number of test cases to automate is fewer compared to monolithic applications, hence regression testing on every build also becomes possible.
Infrastructure provisioning is done through container technologies such as Docker, together with release management tools such as Chef or Puppet, and configuration management tools such as Ansible. Automated deployments are handled using tools such as Spring Cloud, Kubernetes, Mesos, and Marathon.
Most of the large-scale microservices implementations have a supporting ecosystem in place. The ecosystem capabilities include DevOps processes, centralized log management, service registry, API gateways, extensive monitoring, service routing, and flow control mechanisms.
Microservices work well when supporting capabilities are in place, as represented in the preceding diagram.
Compared to traditional applications, which consolidate all logic and data into one application boundary, microservices decentralize data and logic. Each service, aligned to a specific business capability, owns its data and logic.
The dotted line in the preceding diagram implies the logical monolithic application boundary. When we migrate this to microservices, each microservice A, B, and C creates its own physical boundaries.
Microservices don't typically use centralized governance mechanisms the way they are used in SOA. One of the common characteristics of microservices implementations is that they do not relay on heavyweight enterprise-level products, such as Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). Instead, the business logic and intelligence are embedded as a part of the services themselves.
A typical SOA implementation is shown in the preceding diagram. Shopping logic is fully implemented in ESB by orchestrating different services exposed by Customer, Order, and Product. In the microservices approach, on the other hand, Shopping itself will run as a separate microservice, which interacts with Customer, Product, and Order in a fairly decoupled way.
SOA implementations heavily relay on static registry and repository configurations to manage services and other artifacts. Microservices bring a more dynamic nature into this. Hence, a static governance approach is seen as an overhead in maintaining up-to-date information. This is why most of the microservices implementations use automated mechanisms to build registry information dynamically from the runtime topologies.
The antifragility concept is introduced by Nassim Nicholas Taleb in his book Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder.
In the antifragility practice, software systems are consistently challenged. Software systems evolve through these challenges and, over a period of time, get better and better at withstanding these challenges. Amazon's GameDay exercise and Netflix' Simian Army are good examples of such antifragility experiments.
Fail fast is another concept used to build fault-tolerant, resilient systems. This philosophy advocates systems that expect failures versus building systems that never fail. Importance should be given to how quickly the system can fail and if it fails, how quickly it can recover from this failure. With this approach, the focus is shifted from Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) to Mean Time To Recover (MTTR). A key advantage of this approach is that if something goes wrong, it kills itself, and downstream functions aren't stressed.
In the first example, we will review a holiday portal, Fly By Points. Fly By Points collects points that are accumulated when a customer books a hotel, flight, or car through the online website. When the customer logs in to the Fly By Points website, he/she is able to see the points accumulated, personalized offers that can be availed of by redeeming the points, and upcoming trips if any.
Let's assume that the preceding page is the home page after login. There are two upcoming trips for Jeo, four personalized offers, and 21,123 loyalty points. When the user clicks on each of the boxes, the details are queried and displayed.
The holiday portal has a Java Spring-based traditional monolithic application architecture, as shown in the following:
As shown in the preceding diagram, the holiday portal's architecture is web-based and modular, with a clear separation between layers. Following the usual practice, the holiday portal is also deployed as a single WAR file on a web server such as Tomcat. Data is stored on an all-encompassing backing relational database. This is a good fit for the purpose architecture when the complexities are few. As the business grows, the user base expands, and the complexity also increases. This results in a proportional increase in transaction volumes. At this point, enterprises should look to rearchitecting the monolithic application to microservices for better speed of delivery, agility, and manageability.
Each subsystem has now become an independent system by itself, a microservice. There are three microservices representing three business functions: Trips, Offers, and Points. Each one has its internal data store and middle layer. The internal structure of each service remains the same.
Each service encapsulates its own database as well as its own HTTP listener. As opposed to the previous model, there is no web server or WAR. Instead, each service has its own embedded HTTP listener, such as Jetty, Tomcat, and so on.
Each microservice exposes a REST service to manipulate the resources/entity that belong to this service.
When the web page is loaded, all the three boxes, Trips, Offers, and Points will be displayed with details such as points, the number of offers, and the number of trips. This will be done by each box independently making asynchronous calls to the respective backend microservices using REST. There is no dependency between the services at the service layer. When the user clicks on any of the boxes, the screen will be transitioned and will load the details of the item clicked on. This will be done by making another call to the respective microservice.
Let's examine another microservices example: an online retail website. In this case, we will focus more on the backend services, such as the Order Service which processes the Order Event generated when a customer places an order through the website:
This microservices system is completely designed based on reactive programming practices.
When an event is published, a number of microservices are ready to kick-start upon receiving the event. Each one of them is independent and does not rely on other microservices. The advantage of this model is that we can keep adding or replacing microservices to achieve specific needs.
In the preceding diagram, there are eight microservices shown. The following activities take place upon the arrival of Order Event:
Order Service kicks off when Order Event is received. Order Service creates an order and saves the details to its own database.
If the order is successfully saved, Order Successful Event is created by Order Service and published.
A series of actions take place when Order Successful Event arrives.
Delivery Service accepts the event and places Delivery Record to deliver the order to the customer. This, in turn, generates Delivery Event and publishes the event.
Trucking Service picks up Delivery Event and processes it. For instance, Trucking Service creates a trucking plan.
Customer Notification Service sends a notification to the customer informing the customer that an order is placed.
Inventory Cache Service updates the inventory cache with the available product count.
Stock Reorder Service checks whether the stock limits are adequate and generates Replenish Event if required.
Customer Points Service recalculates the customer's loyalty points based on this purchase.
Customer Account Service updates the order history in the customer's account.
In this approach, each service is responsible for only one function. Services accept and generate events. Each service is independent and is not aware of its neighborhood. Hence, the neighborhood can organically grow as mentioned in the honeycomb analogy. New services can be added as and when necessary. Adding a new service does not impact any of the existing services.
In this case, the portal is just a container application with multiple menu items or links in the portal. When specific pages are requestedâfor example, when the menu or a link is clicked onâthey will be loaded from the specific microservices.
The travel agent opens the flight UI, searches for a flight, and identifies the right flight for the customer. Behind the scenes, the flight UI is loaded from the Flight microservice. The flight UI only interacts with its own backend APIs within the Flight microservice. In this case, it makes a REST call to the Flight microservice to load the flights to be displayed.
The travel agent then queries the customer details by accessing the customer UI. Similar to the flight UI, the customer UI is loaded from the Customer microservice. Actions in the customer UI will invoke REST calls on the Customer microservice. In this case, customer details are loaded by invoking appropriate APIs on the Customer microservice.
Then, the travel agent checks the visa details for the customer's eligibility to travel to the selected country. This also follows the same pattern as mentioned in the previous two points.
Next, the travel agent makes a booking using the booking UI from the Booking microservice, which again follows the same pattern.
The payment pages are loaded from the Payment microservice. In general, the payment service has additional constraints such as PCIDSS compliance (protecting and encrypting data in motion and data at rest). The advantage of the microservices approach is that none of the other microservices need to be considered under the purview of PCIDSS as opposed to the monolithic application, where the complete application comes under the governing rules of PCIDSS. Payment also follows the same pattern as described earlier.
Once the booking is submitted, the Booking microservice calls the flight service to validate and update the flight booking. This orchestration is defined as part of the Booking microservice. Intelligence to make a booking is also held within the Booking microservice. As part of the booking process, it also validates, retrieves, and updates the Customer microservice.
Finally, the Booking microservice sends the Booking Event, which the Notification service picks up and sends a notification of to the customer.
This is a clean and neat approach. A number of portal applications can be built by composing different screens from different microservices, especially for different user communities. The overall behavior and navigation will be controlled by the portal application.
The approach has a number of challenges unless the pages are designed with this approach in mind. Note that the site layouts and static content will be loaded by the Content Management System (CMS) as layout templates. Alternately, this could be stored in a web server. The site layout may have fragments of UIs that will be loaded from the microservices at runtime.
With microservices, architects and developers can choose fit for purpose architectures and technologies for each microservice. This gives the flexibility to design better-fit solutions in a more cost-effective way.
As microservices are autonomous and independent, each service can run with its own architecture or technology or different versions of technologies.
The following shows a simple, practical example of a polyglot architecture with microservices.
As shown in the preceding diagram, while core services such as the Order and Products microservices use a relational data store, the Audit microservice persists data in Hadoop File System (HDFS). A relational data store is neither ideal nor cost effective in storing large data volumes such as in the case of audit data. In the monolithic approach, the application generally uses a shared, single database that stores Order, Products, and Audit data.
In this example, the audit service is a technical microservice using a different architecture. Similarly, different functional services could also use different architectures.
In another example, there could be a Reservation microservice running on Java 7, while a Search microservice could be running on Java 8. Similarly, an Order microservice could be written on Erlang, whereas a Delivery microservice could be on the Go language. None of these are possible with a monolithic architecture.
As services are fairly simple and smaller in size, enterprises can afford to experiment new processes, algorithms, business logics, and so on. With large monolithic applications, experimentation was not easy; nor was it straightforward or cost effective. Businesses had to spend huge money to build or change an application to try out something new. With microservices, it is possible to write a small microservice to achieve the targeted functionality and plug it into the system in a reactive style. One can then experiment with the new function for a few months, and if the new microservice does not work as expected, we can change or replace it with another one. The cost of change will be considerably less compared to that of the monolithic approach.
In another example of an airline booking website, the airline wants to show personalized hotel recommendations in their booking page. The recommendations must be displayed on the booking confirmation page.
As shown in the preceding diagram, it is convenient to write a microservice that can be plugged into the monolithic applications booking flow rather than incorporating this requirement in the monolithic application itself. The airline may choose to start with a simple recommendation service and keep replacing it with newer versions till it meets the required accuracy.
Scalability requirements may be different for different functions in an application. A monolithic application, packaged as a single WAR or an EAR, can only be scaled as a whole. An I/O-intensive function when streamed with high velocity data could easily bring down the service levels of the entire application.
In the case of microservices, each service could be independently scaled up or down. As scalability can be selectively applied at each service, the cost of scaling is comparatively less with the microservices approach.
In practice, there are many different ways available to scale an application and is largely subject to the architecture and behavior of the application. Scale Cube defines primarily three approaches to scaling an application:
Scaling the x axis by horizontally cloning the application
Scaling the y axis by splitting different functionality
Scaling the z axis by partitioning or sharding the data
When y axis scaling is applied to monolithic applications, it breaks the monolithic to smaller units aligned with business functions. Many organizations successfully applied this technique to move away from monolithic applications. In principle, the resulting units of functions are in line with the microservices characteristics.
For instance, in a typical airline website, statistics indicate that the ratio of flight searching to flight booking could be as high as 500:1. This means one booking transaction for every 500 search transactions. In this scenario, the search needs 500 times more scalability than the booking function. This is an ideal use case for selective scaling.
The solution is to treat search requests and booking requests differently. With a monolithic architecture, this is only possible with z scaling in the scale cube. However, this approach is expensive because in the z scale, the entire code base is replicated.
In the preceding diagram, Search and Booking are designed as different microservices so that Search can be scaled differently from Booking. In the diagram, Search has three instances, and Booking has two instances. Selective scalability is not limited to the number of instances, as shown in the diagram, but also in the way in which the microservices are architected. In the case of Search, an in-memory data grid (IMDG) such as Hazelcast can be used as the data store. This will further increase the performance and scalability of Search. When a new Search microservice instance is instantiated, an additional IMDG node is added to the IMDG cluster. Booking does not require the same level of scalability. In the case of Booking, both instances of the Booking microservice are connected to the same instance of the database.
Many large enterprises follow buy-versus-build policies to implement software systems. A common scenario is to build most of the functions in house and buy certain niche capabilities from specialists outside. This poses challenges in traditional monolithic applications as these application components are highly cohesive. Attempting to plug in third-party solutions to the monolithic applications results in complex integrations. With microservices, this is not an afterthought. Architecturally, a microservice can be easily replaced by another microservice developed either in-house or even extended by a microservice from a third party.
A pricing engine in the airline business is complex. Fares for different routes are calculated using complex mathematical formulas known as the pricing logic. Airlines may choose to buy a pricing engine from the market instead of building the product in house. In the monolithic architecture, Pricing is a function of Fares and Booking. In most cases Pricing, Fares, and Booking are hardwired, making it almost impossible to detach.
In a well-designed microservices system, Booking, Fares, and Pricing would be independent microservices. Replacing the Pricing microservice will have only a minimal impact on any other services as they are all loosely coupled and independent. Today, it could be a third-party service; tomorrow, it could be easily substituted by another third-party or home-grown service.
Organic systems are systems that grow laterally over a period of time by adding more and more functions to it. In practice, an application grows unimaginably large in its lifespan, and in most cases, the manageability of the application reduces dramatically over this same period of time.
Microservices are all about independently manageable services. This enable us to keep adding more and more services as the need arises with minimal impact on the existing services. Building such systems does not need huge capital investments. Hence, businesses can keep building as part of their operational expenditure.
A loyalty system in an airline was built years ago, targeting individual passengers. Everything was fine until the airline started offering loyalty benefits to their corporate customers. Corporate customers are individuals grouped under corporations. As the current systems core data model is flat, targeting individuals, the corporate environment needs a fundamental change in the core data model, and hence huge reworking, to incorporate this requirement.
In this situation, it is easy to add a new Corporate Customer microservice to manage corporate customers. When a corporation is registered, individual members will be pushed to the Customer microservice to manage them as usual. The Corporate Customer microservice provides a corporate view by aggregating data from the Customer microservice. It will also provide services to support corporate-specific business rules. With this approach, adding new services will have only a minimal impact on the existing services.
Technology changes are one of the barriers in software development. In many traditional monolithic applications, due to the fast changes in technologies, today's next-generation applications could easily become legacy even before their release to production. Architects and developers tend to add a lot of protection against technology changes by adding layers of abstractions. However, in reality, this approach does not solve the issue but, instead, results in over-engineered systems. As technology upgrades are often risky and expensive with no direct returns to business, the business may not be happy to invest in reducing the technology debt of the applications.
With microservices, it is possible to change or upgrade technology for each service individually rather than upgrading an entire application.
Upgrading an application with, for instance, five million lines written on EJB 1.1 and Hibernate to the Spring, JPA, and REST services is almost similar to rewriting the entire application. In the microservices world, this could be done incrementally.
As shown in the preceding diagram, while older versions of the services are running on old versions of technologies, new service developments can leverage the latest technologies. The cost of migrating microservices with end-of-life technologies is considerably less compared to enhancing monolithic applications.
There will be situations where we will have to run multiple versions of the same service at the same time. Zero downtime promote, where one has to gracefully switch over from one version to another, is one example of a such a scenario as there will be a time window where both services will have to be up and running simultaneously. With monolithic applications, this is a complex procedure because upgrading new services in one node of the cluster is cumbersome as, for instance, this could lead to class loading issues. A canary release, where a new version is only released to a few users to validate the new service, is another example where multiple versions of the services have to coexist.
With microservices, both these scenarios are easily manageable. As each microservice uses independent environments, including service listeners such as Tomcat or Jetty embedded, multiple versions can be released and gracefully transitioned without many issues. When consumers look up services, they look for specific versions of services. For example, in a canary release, a new user interface is released to user A. When user A sends a request to the microservice, it looks up the canary release version, whereas all other users will continue to look up the last production version.
Care needs to be taken at the database level to ensure the database design is always backward compatible to avoid breaking the changes.
As shown in the preceding diagram, version 1 and 2 of the Customer service can coexist as they are not interfering with each other, given their respective deployment environments. Routing rules can be set at the gateway to divert traffic to specific instances, as shown in the diagram. Alternatively, clients can request specific versions as part of the request itself. In the diagram, the gateway selects the version based on the region from which the request is originated.
In a well-architected microservices system, a service is unaware of other services. It accepts a message from a selected queue and processes it. At the end of the process, it may send out another message, which triggers other services. This allows us to drop any service into the ecosystem without analyzing the impact on the overall system. Based on the input and output, the service will self-organize into the ecosystem. No additional code changes or service orchestration is required. There is no central brain to control and coordinate the processes.
Let's assume, later, a personalization engine, responsible for changing the language of the message to the customer's native language, needs to be introduced to personalize messages before sending them to the customer, the personalization engine is responsible for changing the language of the message to the customer's native language.
With microservices, a new personalization microservice will be created to do this job. The input queue will be configured as INPUT in an external configuration server, and the personalization service will pick up the messages from the INPUT queue (earlier, this was used by the notification service) and send the messages to the OUTPUT queue after completing process. The notification services input queue will then send to OUTPUT. From the very next moment onward, the system automatically adopts this new message flow.
Microservices enable us to develop transparent software systems. Traditional systems communicate with each other through native protocols and hence behave like a black box application. Business events and system events, unless published explicitly, are hard to understand and analyze. Modern applications require data for business analysis, to understand dynamic system behaviors, and analyze market trends, and they also need to respond to real-time events. Events are useful mechanisms for data extraction.
A well-architected microservice always works with events for both input and output. These events can be tapped by any service. Once extracted, events can be used for a variety of use cases.
For example, the business wants to see the velocity of orders categorized by product type in real time. In a monolithic system, we need to think about how to extract these events. This may impose changes in the system.
In the microservices world, Order Event is already published whenever an order is created. This means that it is just a matter of adding a new service to subscribe to the same topic, extract the event, perform the requested aggregations, and push another event for the dashboard to consume.
Microservices are one of the key enablers of DevOps. DevOps is widely adopted as a practice in many enterprises, primarily to increase the speed of delivery and agility. A successful adoption of DevOps requires cultural changes, process changes, as well as architectural changes. DevOps advocates to have agile development, high-velocity release cycles, automatic testing, automatic infrastructure provisioning, and automated deployment.
Automating all these processes is extremely hard to achieve with traditional monolithic applications. Microservices are not the ultimate answer, but microservices are at the center stage in many DevOps implementations. Many DevOps tools and techniques are also evolving around the use of microservices.
Consider a monolithic application that takes hours to complete a full build and 20 to 30 minutes to start the application; one can see that this kind of application is not ideal for DevOps automation. It is hard to automate continuous integration on every commit. As large, monolithic applications are not automation friendly, continuous testing and deployments are also hard to achieve.
Microservices also enable smaller, focused agile teams for development. Teams will be organized based on the boundaries of microservices.
Now that we have seen the characteristics and benefits of microservices, in this section, we will explore the relationship of microservices with other closely related architecture styles such as SOA and Twelve-Factor Apps.
However, are they the same or are they different?
The definition of SOA from The Open Group consortium is as follows:
"Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an architectural style that supports service orientation. Service orientation is a way of thinking in terms of services and service-based development and the outcomes of services.
Is a logical representation of a repeatable business activity that has a specified outcome (e.g., check customer credit, provide weather data, consolidate drilling reports)
It is self-contained.
It may be composed of other services.
It is a "black box" to consumers of the service."
We observed similar aspects in microservices as well. So, in what way are microservices different? The answer is: it depends.
The answer to the previous question could be yes or no, depending upon the organization and its adoption of SOA. SOA is a broader term, and different organizations approached SOA differently to solve different organizational problems. The difference between microservices and SOA is in a way based on how an organization approaches SOA.
In order to get clarity, a few cases will be examined.
Many organizations would have used SOA primarily to solve their integration complexities, also known as integration spaghetti. Generally, this is termed as Service-Oriented Integration (SOI). In such cases, applications communicate with each other through a common integration layer using standard protocols and message formats such as SOAP/XML-based web services over HTTP or JMS. These types of organizations focus on Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP) to model their integration requirements. This approach strongly relies on heavyweight ESB such as TIBCO Business Works, WebSphere ESB, Oracle ESB, and the likes. Most ESB vendors also packed a set of related products such as rules engines, business process management engines, and so on as an SOA suite. Such organizations' integrations are deeply rooted into their products. They either write heavy orchestration logic in the ESB layer or the business logic itself in the service bus. In both cases, all enterprise services are deployed and accessed via ESB. These services are managed through an enterprise governance model. For such organizations, microservices are altogether different from SOA.
Another category of organizations would use SOA in transformation projects or legacy modernization projects. In such cases, the services are built and deployed in the ESB layer connecting to backend systems using ESB adapters. For these organizations, microservices are different from SOA.
In this approach, lightweight integration frameworks, such as Apache Camel or Spring Integration, are embedded within applications to handle service-related cross-cutting capabilities such as protocol mediation, parallel execution, orchestration, and service integration. As some of the lightweight integration frameworks have native Java object support, such applications would even use native Plain Old Java Objects (POJO) services for integration and data exchange between services. As a result, all services have to be packaged as one monolithic web archive. Such organizations could see microservices as the next logical step of their SOA.
The last possibility is transforming a monolithic application into smaller units after hitting the breaking point with the monolithic system. They would break the application into smaller, physically deployable subsystems, similar to the y axis scaling approach explained earlier, and deploy them as web archives on web servers or as JARs deployed on some home-grown containers. These subsystems as service would use web services or other lightweight protocols to exchange data between services. They would also use SOA and service design principles to achieve this. For such organizations, they may tend to think that microservices are the same old wine in a new bottle.
Cloud computing is one of the rapidly evolving technologies. Cloud computing promises many benefits, such as cost advantage, speed, agility, flexibility, and elasticity. There are many cloud providers offering different services. They lower the cost models to make it more attractive to the enterprises. Different cloud providers such as AWS, Microsoft, Rackspace, IBM, Google, and so on use different tools, technologies, and services. On the other hand, enterprises are aware of this evolving battlefield and, therefore, they are looking for options for de-risking from lockdown to a single vendor.
Many organizations do lift and shift their applications to the cloud. In such cases, the applications may not realize all the benefits promised by cloud platforms. Some applications need to undergo overhaul, whereas some may need minor tweaking before moving to cloud. This by and large depends upon how the application is architected and developed.
For example, if the application has its production database server URLs hardcoded as part of the applications WAR, it needs to be modified before moving the application to cloud. In the cloud, the infrastructure is transparent to the application, and especially, the physical IP addresses cannot be assumed.
How do we ensure that an application, or even microservices, can run seamlessly across multiple cloud providers and take advantages of cloud services such as elasticity?
It is important to follow certain principles while developing cloud native applications.
Cloud native is a term used for developing applications that can work efficiently in a cloud environment, understanding and utilizing cloud behaviors such as elasticity, utilization based charging, fail aware, and so on.
Twelve-Factor App, forwarded by Heroku, is a methodology describing the characteristics expected from modern cloud-ready applications. Twelve-Factor App is equally applicable for microservices as well. Hence, it is important to understand Twelve-Factor App.
The code base principle advises that each application has a single code base. There can be multiple instances of deployment of the same code base, such as development, testing, and production. Code is typically managed in a source control system such as Git, Subversion, and so on.
Extending the same philosophy for microservices, each microservice should have its own code base, and this code base is not shared with any other microservice. It also means that one microservice has exactly one code base.
As per this principle, all applications should bundle their dependencies along with the application bundle. With build tools such as Maven and Gradle, we explicitly manage dependencies in a
pom.xml or the
.gradle file and link them using a central build artifact repository such as Nexus or Archiva. This ensures that the versions are managed correctly. The final executables will be packaged as a WAR file or an executable JAR file, embedding all the dependencies.
In the context of microservices, this is one of the fundamental principles to be followed. Each microservice should bundle all the required dependencies and execution libraries such as the HTTP listener and so on in the final executable bundle.
This principle advises the externalization of all configuration parameters from the code. An application's configuration parameters vary between environments, such as support to the e-mail IDs or URL of an external system, username, passwords, queue name, and so on. These will be different for development, testing, and production. All service configurations should be externalized.
The same principle is obvious for microservices as well. The microservices configuration parameters should be loaded from an external source. This will also help to automate the release and deployment process as the only difference between these environments is the configuration parameters.
All backing services should be accessible through an addressable URL. All services need to talk to some external resources during the life cycle of their execution. For example, they could be listening or sending messages to a messaging system, sending an e-mail, persisting data to database, and so on. All these services should be reachable through a URL without complex communication requirements.
In the microservices world, microservices either talk to a messaging system to send or receive messages, or they could accept or send messages to other service APIs. In a regular case, these are either HTTP endpoints using REST and JSON or TCP- or HTTP-based messaging endpoints.
This principle advocates a strong isolation between the build, release, and run stages. The build stage refers to compiling and producing binaries by including all the assets required. The release stage refers to combining binaries with environment-specific configuration parameters. The run stage refers to running application on a specific execution environment. The pipeline is unidirectional, so it is not possible to propagate changes from the run stages back to the build stage. Essentially, it also means that it is not recommended to do specific builds for production; rather, it has to go through the pipeline.
In microservices, the build will create executable JAR files, including the service runtime such as an HTTP listener. During the release phase, these executables will be combined with release configurations such as production URLs and so on and create a release version, most probably as a container similar to Docker. In the run stage, these containers will be deployed on production via a container scheduler.
All microservices should be designed as stateless functions. If there is any requirement to store a state, it should be done with a backing database or in an in-memory cache.
A Twelve-Factor application is expected to be self-contained. Traditionally, applications are deployed to a server: a web server or an application server such as Apache Tomcat or JBoss. A Twelve-Factor application does not rely on an external web server. HTTP listeners such as Tomcat or Jetty have to be embedded in the service itself.
Port binding is one of the fundamental requirements for microservices to be autonomous and self-contained. Microservices embed service listeners as a part of the service itself.
In the microservices world, services are designed to scale out rather than scale up. The x axis scaling technique is primarily used for a scaling service by spinning up another identical service instance. The services can be elastically scaled or shrunk based on the traffic flow. Further to this, microservices may make use of parallel processing and concurrency frameworks to further speed up or scale up the transaction processing.
This principle advocates building applications with minimal startup and shutdown times with graceful shutdown support. In an automated deployment environment, we should be able bring up or bring down instances as quick as possible. If the application's startup or shutdown takes considerable time, it will have an adverse effect on automation. The startup time is proportionally related to the size of the application. In a cloud environment targeting auto-scaling, we should be able to spin up new instance quickly. This is also applicable when promoting new versions of services.
In the microservices context, in order to achieve full automation, it is extremely important to keep the size of the application as thin as possible, with minimal startup and shutdown time. Microservices also should consider a lazy loading of objects and data.
This principle states the importance of keeping development and production environments as identical as possible. For example, let's consider an application with multiple services or processes, such as a job scheduler service, cache services, and one or more application services. In a development environment, we tend to run all of them on a single machine, whereas in production, we will facilitate independent machines to run each of these processes. This is primarily to manage the cost of infrastructure. The downside is that if production fails, there is no identical environment to re-produce and fix the issues.
Not only is this principle valid for microservices, but it is also applicable to any application development.
A Twelve-Factor application never attempts to store or ship log files. In a cloud, it is better to avoid local I/Os. If the I/Os are not fast enough in a given infrastructure, it could create a bottleneck. The solution to this is to use a centralized logging framework. Splunk, Greylog, Logstash, Logplex, and Loggly are some examples of log shipping and analysis tools. The recommended approach is to ship logs to a central repository by tapping the logback appenders and write to one of the shippers' endpoints.
In a microservices ecosystem, this is very important as we are breaking a system into a number of smaller services, which could result in decentralized logging. If they store logs in a local storage, it would be extremely difficult to correlate logs between services.
In development, the microservice may direct the log stream to
stdout, whereas in production, these streams will be captured by the log shippers and sent to a central log service for storage and analysis.
Apart from application services, most applications provide admin tasks as well. This principle advises to use the same release bundle as well as an identical environment for both application services and admin tasks. Admin code should also be packaged along with the application code.
Not only is this principle valid for microservices, but also it is applicable to any application development.
Microservices may not fit in each and every use case. The success of microservices largely depends on the selection of use cases. The first and the foremost activity is to do a litmus test of the use case against the microservices' benefits. The litmus test must cover all the microservices' benefits we discussed earlier in this chapter. For a given use case, if there are no quantifiable benefits or the cost outweighs the benefits, then the use case may not be the right choice for microservices.
Migrating a monolithic application due to improvements required in scalability, manageability, agility, or speed of delivery. Another similar scenario is rewriting an end-of-life heavily used legacy application. In both cases, microservices present an opportunity. Using a microservices architecture, it is possible to replatform a legacy application by slowly transforming functions to microservices. There are benefits in this approach. There is no humongous upfront investment required, no major disruption to business, and no severe business risks. As the service dependencies are known, the microservices dependencies can be well managed.
Utility computing scenarios such as integrating an optimization service, forecasting service, price calculation service, prediction service, offer service, recommendation service, and so on are good candidates for microservices. These are independent stateless computing units that accept certain data, apply algorithms, and return the results. Independent technical services such as the communication service, the encryption service, authentication services, and so on are also good candidates for microservices.
In many cases, we can build headless business applications or services that are autonomous in natureâfor instance, the payment service, login service, flight search service, customer profile service, notification service, and so on. These are normally reused across multiple channels and, hence, are good candidates for building them as microservices.
There could be micro or macro applications that serve a single purpose and performing a single responsibility. A simple time tracking application is an example of this category. All it does is capture the time, duration, and task performed. Common-use enterprise applications are also candidates for microservices.
Backend services of a well-architected, responsive client-side MVC web application (the Backend as a Service (BaaS) scenario) load data on demand in response to the user navigation. In most of these scenarios, data could be coming from multiple logically different data sources as described in the Fly By Points example mentioned earlier.
Highly agile applications, applications demanding speed of delivery or time to market, innovation pilots, applications selected for DevOps, applications of the System of Innovation type, and so on could also be considered as potential candidates for the microservices architecture.
Applications that we could anticipate getting benefits from microservices such as polyglot requirements, applications that require Command Query Responsibility segregations (CQRS), and so on are also potential candidates of the microservices architecture.
There are few scenarios in which we should consider avoiding microservices:
If the organization's policies are forced to use centrally managed heavyweight components such as ESB to host a business logic or if the organization has any other policies that hinder the fundamental principles of microservices, then microservices are not the right solution unless the organizational process is relaxed.
If the organization's culture, processes, and so on are based on the traditional waterfall delivery model, lengthy release cycles, matrix teams, manual deployments and cumbersome release processes, no infrastructure provisioning, and so on, then microservices may not be the right fit. This is underpinned by Conway's Law. This states that there is a strong link between the organizational structure and software it creates.
Many organizations have already successfully embarked on their journey to the microservices world. In this section, we will examine some of the frontrunners on the microservices space to analyze why they did what they did and how they did it. We will conduct some analysis at the end to draw some conclusions:
Netflix (www.netflix.com): Netflix, an international on-demand media streaming company, is a pioneer in the microservices space. Netflix transformed their large pool of developers developing traditional monolithic code to smaller development teams producing microservices. These microservices work together to stream digital media to millions of Netflix customers. At Netflix, engineers started with monolithic, went through the pain, and then broke the application into smaller units that are loosely coupled and aligned to the business capability.
Uber (www.uber.com): Uber, an international transportation network company, began in 2008 with a monolithic architecture with a single code base. All services were embedded into the monolithic application. When Uber expanded their business from one city to multiple cities, the challenges started. Uber then moved to SOA-based architecture by breaking the system into smaller independent units. Each module was given to different teams and empowered them to choose their language, framework, and database. Uber has many microservices deployed in their ecosystem using RPC and REST.
Airbnb (www.airbnb.com): Airbnb, a world leader providing a trusted marketplace for accommodation, started with a monolithic application that performed all the required functions of the business. Airbnb faced scalability issues with increased traffic. A single code base became too complicated to manage, resulted in a poor separation of concerns, and ran into performance issues. Airbnb broke their monolithic application into smaller pieces with separate code bases running on separate machines with separate deployment cycles. Airbnb developed their own microservices or SOA ecosystem around these services.
Orbitz (www.orbitz.com): Orbitz, an online travel portal, started with a monolithic architecture in the 2000s with a web layer, a business layer, and a database layer. As Orbitz expanded their business, they faced manageability and scalability issues with monolithic-tiered architecture. Orbitz then went through continuous architecture changes. Later, Orbitz broke down their monolithic to many smaller applications.
eBay (www.ebay.com): eBay, one of the largest online retailers, started in the late 1990s with a monolithic Perl application and FreeBSD as the database. eBay went through scaling issues as the business grew. It was consistently investing in improving its architecture. In the mid 2000s, eBay moved to smaller decomposed systems based on Java and web services. They employed database partitions and functional segregation to meet the required scalability.
Amazon (www.amazon.com): Amazon, one of the largest online retailer websites, was run on a big monolithic application written on C++ in 2001. The well-architected monolithic application was based on a tiered architecture with many modular components. However, all these components were tightly coupled. As a result, Amazon was not able to speed up their development cycle by splitting teams into smaller groups. Amazon then separated out the code as independent functional services, wrapped with web services, and eventually advanced to microservices.
Gilt (www.gilt.com): Gilt, an online shopping website, began in 2007 with a tiered monolithic Rails application and a Postgres database at the back. Similarly to many other applications, as traffic volumes increased, the web application was not able to provide the required resiliency. Gilt went through an architecture overhaul by introducing Java and polyglot persistence. Later, Gilt moved to many smaller applications using the microservices concept.
Twitter (www.twitter.com): Twitter, one of the largest social websites, began with a three-tiered monolithic rails application in the mid 2000s. Later, when Twitter experienced growth in its user base, they went through an architecture-refactoring cycle. With this refactoring, Twitter moved away from a typical web application to an API-based even driven core. Twitter uses Scala and Java to develop microservices with polyglot persistence.
Nike (www.nike.com): Nike, the world leader in apparel and footwear, transformed their monolithic applications to microservices. Similarly to many other organizations, Nike too was run with age-old legacy applications that were hardly stable. In their journey, Nike moved to heavyweight commercial products with an objective to stabilize legacy applications but ended up in monolithic applications that were expensive to scale, had long release cycles, and needed too much manual work to deploy and manage applications. Later, Nike moved to a microservices-based architecture that brought down the development cycle considerably.
When we analyze the preceding enterprises, there is one common theme. All these enterprises started with monolithic applications and transitioned to a microservices architecture by applying learning and pain points from their previous editions.
Even today, many start-ups begin with monolith as it is easy to start, conceptualize, and then slowly move to microservices when the demand arises. Monolithic to microservices migration scenarios have an added advantage: they have all the information upfront, readily available for refactoring.
Though, for all these enterprises, it is monolithic transformation, the catalysts were different for different organizations. Some of the common motivations are a lack of scalability, long development cycles, process automation, manageability, and changes in the business models.
While monolithic migrations are no-brainers, there are opportunities to build microservices from the ground up. More than building ground-up systems, look for opportunities to build smaller services that are quick wins for businessâfor example, adding a trucking service to an airline's end-to-end cargo management system or adding a customer scoring service to a retailer's loyalty system. These could be implemented as independent microservices exchanging messages with their respective monolithic applications.
Another point is that many organizations use microservices only for their business-critical customer engagement applications, leaving the rest of the legacy monolithic applications to take their own trajectory.
Another important observation is that most of the organizations examined previously are at different levels of maturity in their microservices journey. When eBay transitioned from a monolithic application in the early 2000s, they functionally split the application into smaller, independent, and deployable units. These logically divided units are wrapped with web services. While single responsibility and autonomy are their underpinning principles, the architectures are limited to the technologies and tools available at that point in time. Organizations such as Netflix and Airbnb built capabilities of their own to solve the specific challenges they faced. To summarize, all of these are not truly microservices, but are small, business-aligned services following the same characteristics.
There is no state called "definite or ultimate microservices". It is a journey and is evolving and maturing day by day. The mantra for architects and developers is the replaceability principle; build an architecture that maximizes the ability to replace its parts and minimizes the cost of replacing its parts. The bottom line is that enterprises shouldn't attempt to develop microservices by just following the hype.
In this chapter, you learned about the fundamentals of microservices with the help of a few examples.
We explored the evolution of microservices from traditional monolithic applications. We examined some of the principles and the mind shift required for modern application architectures. We also took a look at the characteristics and benefits of microservices and use cases. In this chapter, we established the microservices' relationship with service-oriented architecture and Twelve-Factor Apps. Lastly, we analyzed examples of a few enterprises from different industries.
We will develop a few sample microservices in the next chapter to bring more clarity to our learnings in this chapter.