Developing Java Applications with Spring and Spring Boot

5 (2 reviews total)
By Claudio Eduardo de Oliveira , Greg L. Turnquist , Alex Antonov
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  1. Journey to the Spring World

About this book

Spring Framework has become the most popular framework for Java development. It not only simplifies software development but also improves developer productivity. This book covers effective ways to develop robust applications in Java using Spring.

The course is up made of three modules, each one having a take-away relating to building end-to-end java applications. The first module takes the approach of learning Spring frameworks by building applications.You will learn to build APIs and integrate them with popular fraemworks suh as AngularJS, Spring WebFlux, and Spring Data. You will also learn to build microservices using Spring's support for Kotlin. You will learn about the Reactive paradigm in the Spring architecture using Project Reactor. In the second module, after getting hands-on with Spring, you will learn about the most popular tool in the Spring ecosystem-Spring Boot. You will learn to build applications with Spring Boot, bundle them, and deploy them on the cloud. After learning to build applications with Spring Boot, you will be able to use various tests that are an important part of application development. We also cover the important developer tools such as AMQP messaging, websockets, security, and more. This will give you a good functional understanding of scalable development in the Spring ecosystem with Spring Boot. In the third and final module, you will tackle the most important challenges in Java application development with Spring Boot using practical recipes. Including recipes for testing, deployment, monitoring, and securing your applications. This module will also address the functional and technical requirements for building enterprise applications.

By the end of the course you will be comfortable with using Spring and Spring Boot to develop Java applications and will have mastered the intricacies of production-grade applications.

Publication date:
October 2018
Publisher
Packt
Pages
982
ISBN
9781789534757

 

Chapter 1. Journey to the Spring World

Spring is an open source modular framework for the JVM platform. A framework is a collection of libraries whose primary goal is to address common software development problems. The framework should solve these problems in a generic form. 

Rod Johnson created the Spring Framework in 2002 together with his book publication, which was called Expert One-on-One J2EE Design and Development. The idea behind the creation of the framework was to tackle the complexities of Java Enterprise Edition.

At that time, this kind of solution-focused a lot on the details of the infrastructure, and a developer using the solution would spend a lot of time writing code to solve infrastructural problems. Since its creation, one ofRod Johnson's primary concerns has been to increase developer productivity.

The framework was first seen as a lightweight container for Java Runtime Environment, and it became popular in the community, especially because of the dependency injection feature. The framework made dependency injection incredibly easy. Developers hadn't seen such a feature before, and as a consequence, people the world over adopted the project. Year by year, its popularity within the software development world has been increasing.

In the earliest versions, the framework had to work with the XML file to configure the container. At the time, this was so much better than J2EE applications, where it was necessary to create many Ant files to create the boilerplate classes and interfaces.

The framework was always seen as an advanced technology for the Java platform, but in 2014, the Spring team launched the Spring Boot platform. This platform was incredibly successful in the Java Enterprise ecosystem, and it changed the way in which developers built Java Enterprise applications.

Today, Spring is the de facto framework for Java development, and companies around the world use it in their systems. The community is vibrant and contributes to development in different ways, such as opening issues, adding the code, and discussing the framework in the most important Java conferences around the world. Let's look at and play with the famous framework for Java developers.

We will cover the following topics in this chapter:

  • Main modules of the Spring Framework
  • Spring annotations for each module
  • Setting up the development environment
  • Docker and Docker commands
 

Spring modularity


Since its foundation, the framework has had a particular focus on modularity. It is an important framework characteristic because it makes the framework an excellent option for different architectural styles and different parts of applications.

It means the framework is not an opinionated, full-stack framework that dictates the rules to make everything work. We can use the framework as we need and integrate it with a wide range of specification and third-party libraries.

For example, for portal web applications, the Spring MVC supports features such as template engines and REST endpoints and integrates them with the popular JavaScript framework, AngularJS.

Also, if the application needs support for a distributed system, the framework can supply an amazing module called Spring Cloud, which has some essential features for distributed environments, such as service registration and discovery, a circuit breaker, intelligent routing, and client-side load balancing.

Spring makes the development applications for Java Runtime easy with different languages, such as Java, Kotlin, and Groovy (with which you can choose the flavor and make the development task fun).

It is divided into various modules. The main modules are as follows:

  • Spring Core
  • Spring Data
  • Spring Security
  • Spring Cloud
  • Spring Web-MVC

In this book, we will cover the most common solutions involved in Java Enterprise applications, including the awesome Spring Cloud project. Also, we can find some interesting projects such as Spring Batch and Spring Integration, but these projects are for specific needs.

Spring Core Framework

This module is the base of the framework and contains the essential support for dependency injection, web features supported by Spring MVC (model-view-controller) and the pretty new WebFlux frameworks, and aspect-oriented programming. Also, this module supports the foundation for JDBC, JMS, JPA and a declarative way to manage transactions. We will explore it and understand the main projects of this module. So let's do it!

Core container

The core container is the basis of the whole Spring ecosystem and comprehends four components—core, beans, context, and expression language.

Core and beans are responsible for providing the fundamentals of the framework and dependency injection. These modules are responsible for managing the IoC container, and the principal functions are the instantiation, configuration, and destruction of the object residents in the Spring container.

Note

Spring contexts are also called Spring IoC containers, which are responsible for instantiating, configuring, and assembling beans by reading configuration metadata from XML, Java annotations, and/or Java code in the configuration files.

There are two critical interfaces inside these modules—BeanFactory and ApplicationContext. The BeanFactory takes care of the bean lifecycle, instantiating, configuring, managing, and destroying, and the ApplicationContext helps developers to work with files resources in a generic way, enable to publish events to registered listeners. Also, the ApplicationContext supports internationalization and has the ability to work with messages in different Locales.  

These modules help the context component to provide a way to access the objects inside the container. The context component has the ApplicationContext interface with the essential class for the container.

Note

Some common annotations are @Service, @Component, @Bean, and @Configuration.

Spring Messaging

Spring Framework supports a wide range of messaging systems. The Java platform is recognized as providing excellent support for messaging applications, and Spring Framework follows this approach and offers a variety of projects to help developers to write powerful applications with more productivity and fewer lines of infrastructure code. The basic idea of these projects is to provide some template classes that have the convenience methods to interact with the messaging systems.

Also, the project supplies some listener annotations to provide support for listening to messages from the brokers. The framework maintains the standard for different projects. In general, the prefix of the annotations is the name of the messaging system, for example, @KafkaListener.

The framework supplies many abstractions to create messaging applications in a generic way. This is interesting stuff because the application requirements change during the application lifecycle and the message broker solution may change as well. Then, with small changes, the application built with the Spring message module can work in different brokers. This is the goal.

Spring AMQP

This subproject supports the AMQP protocol in Spring Framework. It provides a template to interact with the message broker. A template is like a super high-level API that supports the send and receive operations. 

There are two projects in this set: spring-amqp, which can be used for ActiveMQ for instance, and spring-rabbit, which adds support for the RabbitMQ broker. This project enables broker administration through the APIs to declare queues, bindings, and exchanges.

These projects encourage the extensive use of dependency injection provided by the core container, because they make the configuration more declarative and easy to understand.

Nowadays, the RabbitMQ broker is the popular choice for the messaging applications, and Spring provides full support for client interactions up to the level of administration tasks.

Note

Some common annotations are @Exchange and @QeueueBinding.

Spring for Apache Kafka

Spring for Apache Kafka supports the broker-based Apache Kafka applications. It provides a high-level API to interact with Apache Kafka. Internally, the projects use the Kafka Java APIs.

This module supports the annotation programming model. The basic idea is that with a couple of annotations and some POJO models, we can bootstrap the application and start listening to and producing messages.

KafkaTemplate is a central class of this project. It enables us to send messages to Apache Kafka with a high-level API. Asynchronous programming is supported as well.

This module offers support for transactions via annotations. This feature is enabled via standard transactional annotations used in Spring-based applications, such as @Transactional.

We also learned about Spring AMQP. This project adds the Spring concept of creating applications based on this broker. The dependency injection features are supported as well.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableKafka and @KafkaListener.

 

 

 

 

Spring JMS

The idea of this project provides a JMS integration with ideas of Spring Framework projects and supplies a high-level API to interact with brokers. The worst part of a JMS specification is that it has a lot of boilerplate code to manage and close connections.

The JmsTemplate is a central class for this module, and it enables us to send messages to the broker. The JMS specification has a lot of intrinsic behaviors to handle the creation and releases resources, for instance, the JmsTemplate class do this tasks automatically for developers.

The module also supports transactional requirements. The JmsTransactionManager is the class that handles the transactional behavior of the Spring JMS module.

Spring removes the boilerplate code with a couple of annotations. The framework increases the readability of the code and makes the code more intuitive as well.

Note

Some common annotations are @JmsListener and @EnableJms.

Spring Web MVC

This module is the first one built by the Spring Team to support the web applications in Spring Framework. This module uses the Servlet API as its foundation, and then these web applications must follow the Servlet Specification and be deployed into servlet containers. In version 5.0, the Spring Team created a Reactive web framework, which will be covered later in this book.

The Spring Web MVC module was developed using the front controller pattern. When the framework was created, this pattern was a common choice for many frameworks, such as Struts and JSF, among others. Under the hood, there is the main servlet in Spring called DispatcherServlet. This servlet will redirect through an algorithm to do the desired work.

It enables developers to create amazing web applications on the Java platform. This portion of the framework provides full support to develop this kind of application. There are some interesting features for this purpose, such as support for internationalization and support for handling cookies. Also, multipart requests are an exciting feature for when the application needs to handle upload files and support routing requests. 

These characteristics are common for most web applications, and the framework has excellent support for these features. This support makes the framework a good choice for this kind of application. In Chapter 2, Starting in the Spring World - The CMS Application, we will create an application using this module and the main features will be explored in depth.

The module has full support for annotation programming since to declare HTTP endpoints until to wrap the request attribute in an HTTP request. It makes the application extremely readable without the boilerplate code to get the request parameter, for example.

Web application-wise, it enables developers to work with robust template engines such as Thymeleaf and Freemarker. It is entirely integrated with routing features and bean validation.

Also, the framework allows developers to build REST APIs with this module. Given all of this support, the module has become a favorite in the Spring ecosystem. Developers have started to create APIs with this stack, and some important companies have started to use it, especially given that the framework provides an easy way to navigate through the annotations. Because of this, the Spring Team added the new annotation @RestController in version 4.0.

We will work a lot with this module. Chapter by chapter, we will learn interesting things about this part of the framework.

Note

Some common annotations are @RequestMapping, @Controller, @Model, @RestController, and @RequestBody.

Spring WebFlux

A new module introduced in Spring 5.0, Spring WebFlux, can be used to implement web applications built with Reactive Streams. These systems have nonblocking characteristics and are deployed in servers built on top of Netty, such as Undertown and servlet containers that support + 3.1.

Note

Netty is an open source framework that helps developers to create network applications—that is, servers and clients using the asynchronous, event-driven pattern. Netty provides some interesting advantages, such as lower latency, high throughput, and less resource consumption. You can find more information at https://netty.io.

This module supports annotations based on Spring MVC modules, such as @GetMapping, @PostMapping, and others. This is an important feature that enables us to migrate to this new version. Of course, some adjustments are necessary, such as adding Reactor classes (Mono or Flux).

This module meets the modern web requirements to handle a lot of concurrent channels where the thread-per-request model is not an option.

We will learn about this module in Chapter 3, Adding Persistence with Spring Data and Putting it into Reactive Fashion and implement a fully Reactive application based on Reactive Streams.

Note

Some common annotations are @RequestMapping, @RestController, and @RequestBody.

Spring Data

Spring Data is an interesting module that provides the easiest way to manage application data with Spring-based programming. The project is an umbrella project, with subprojects to support different databases technologies, even relational and nonrelational databases. The Spring Team supports some databases technologies, such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Solr, Redis, and JPA Specification, and the community maintains the other exciting projects, such as ElasticSearch, Aerospike, DynamoDb, and Couchbase. The full list of projects can be found at http://projects.spring.io/spring-data.

The goal is to remove the boilerplate code from the persistence code. In general, the data access layer is quite similar, even in different projects, differing only in the project model, and Spring Data provides a powerful way to map the domain model and repository abstraction.

 

There are some central interfaces; they're a kind of marker to instruct the framework to choose the correct implementation. Under the hood, Spring will create a proxy and delegate the correct implementation. The amazing thing here is that developers don't have to write any persistence code and then take care of this code; they simply choose the required technology and Spring takes care of the rest.

The central interfaces are CrudRepository and PagingAndSortingRepository, and their names are self-explanatory. CrudRepository implements the CRUD behaviors, such as create, retrieval, update, and delete. PagingAndSortingRepository is an extension of CrudRepository and adds some features such as paging and sorting. Usually, we will find derivations of these interfaces such as MongoRepository, which interacts with MongoDB database technology.

Note

Some common annotations are @Query, @Id, and @EnableJpaRepositories.

Spring Security

Security for Java applications was always a pain for developers, especially in Java Enterprise Edition. There was a lot of boilerplate code to look up objects in the application servers, and the security layer was often heavily customized for the application.

In that chaotic scenario, the Spring Team decided to create a Spring Security project to help developers handle the security layer on the Java application.

In the beginning, the project had extensive support for Java Enterprise Edition and integration with EJB 3 security annotations. Nowadays, the project supports many different ways to handle authorization and authentication for Java applications.

Spring Security provides a comprehensive model to add authorization and authentication for Java applications. The framework can be configured with a couple of annotations, which makes the task of adding a security layer extremely easy. The other important characteristics concern how the framework can be extended. There are some interfaces that enable developers to customize the default framework behaviors, and it makes the framework customized for different application requirements.

It is an umbrella project, and it is subdivided into these modules:

  • spring-security-core
  • spring-security-remoting
  • spring-security-web
  • spring-security-config
  • spring-security-ldap
  • spring-security-acl
  • spring-security-cas
  • spring-security-openid
  • spring-security-test

These are the main modules, and there are many other projects to support a wide range of types of authentication. The module covers the following authentication and authorization types:

  • LDAP
  • HTTP Basic
  • OAuth
  • OAuth2
  • OpenID
  • CAAS
  • JAAS

The module also offers a domain-specific language (DSL) to provide an easy configuration. Let's see a simple example:

http
  .formLogin()
    .loginPage("/login")
     .failureUrl("/login?error")
      .and()
    .authorizeRequests()
      .antMatchers("/signup","/about").permitAll()
      .antMatchers("/admin/**").hasRole("ADMIN")
      .anyRequest().authenticated();

Note

The example was extracted from the spring.io blog. For more details, go to https://spring.io/blog/2013/07/11/spring-security-java-config-preview-readability/.

 

As we can see, the DSL makes the configuration task extremely easy and very understandable.

Spring Security's main features are as follows:

  • Session management
  • Protection against attacks (CSRF, session fixation, and others)
  • Servlet API integration
  • Authentication and authorization

We will learn more about Spring Security in Chapter 8, Circuit Breakers and Security. We will also put it into practice.

Note

@EnableWebSecurity is a common annotation.

Spring Cloud

Spring Cloud is another umbrella project. The primary goal of this project is to help developers create distributed systems. Distributed systems have some common problems to solve and, of course, a set of patterns to help us, such as service discovery, circuit breakers, configuration management, intelligent route systems, and distributed sessions. Spring Cloud tools have all these implementations and well-documented projects.

The main projects are as follows:

  • Spring Cloud Netflix
  • Spring Cloud Config
  • Spring Cloud Consul
  • Spring Cloud Security
  • Spring Cloud Bus
  • Spring Cloud Stream

 

 

Spring Cloud Netflix

Spring Cloud Netflix is perhaps the most popular Spring module nowadays. This fantastic project allows us to integrate the Spring ecosystem with the Netflix OSS via Spring Boot AutoConfiguration features. The supported Netflix OSS libraries are Eureka for service discovery, Ribbon to enable client-side load balancing, circuit breaker via Hystrix to protect our application from external outages and make the system resilient, the Zuul component provides an intelligent routing and can act as an edge service. Finally, the Feign component can help developers to create HTTP clients for REST APIs with a couple of annotations.

Let's look at each of these:

  • Spring Cloud Netflix Eureka: The focus of this project is to provide service discovery for applications while conforming to Netflix standards. Service discovery is an important feature and enables us to remove hardcoded configurations to supply a hostname and ports; it is more important in cloud environments because the machine is ephemeral, and thus it is hard to maintain names and IPs. The functionality is quite simple, the Eureka server provides a service registry, and Eureka clients will contact its registers themselves.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableEurekaServerand@EnableEurekaClient.

  • Spring Cloud Feign: The Netflix team created the Feign project. It's a great project that makes the configuration of HTTP clients for REST applications significantly easier than before. These implementations are based on annotations. The project supplies a couple of annotations for HTTP paths, HTTP headers, and much more,and of course, Spring Cloud Feign integrates it with the Spring Cloud ecosystem through the annotations and autoconfiguration. Also, Spring Cloud Feign can be combined with the Eureka server.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableFeignClients and @FeignClient.

 

  • Spring Cloud Ribbon: Ribbon is a client-side load balancer. The configuration should mainly provide a list of servers for the specific client. It must be named. In Ribbon terms, it is called the named client. The project also provides a range of load-balancing rules, such as Round Robin and Availability Filtering, among others. Of course, the framework allows developers to create custom rules. Ribbon has an API that works, integrated with the Eureka server, to enable service discovery, which is included in the framework. Also, essential features such as fault tolerance are supported because the API can recognize the running servers at runtime.

Note

Some common annotations are @RibbonClient and @LoadBalanced.

  • Spring Cloud Hystrix: An acclaimed Netflix project, this project provides a circuit breaker pattern implementation. The concept is similar to an electrical circuit breaker. The framework will watch the method marked with @HystrixCommand and watch for failing calls. If the failed calls number more than a figure permitted in configuration, the circuit breaker will open. While the circuit is open, the fallback method will be called until the circuit is closed and operates normally. It will provide resilience and fault-tolerant characteristics for our systems. The Spring ecosystem is fully integrated with Hystrix, but it works only on the @Component and @Service beans.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableCircuitBreakerand@HystrixCommand.

Spring Cloud Config

This exciting project provides an easy way to manage system configurations for distributed systems, and this is a critical issue in cloud environments because the file system is ephemeral. It also helps us to maintain different stages of the deployment pipeline. Spring profiles are fully integrated with this module.

 

We will need an application that will provide the configuration for other applications. We can understand its workings by thinking of the concepts of the server and the client, the server will provide some configurations through HTTP and the client will look up the configuration on the server. Also, it is possible to encrypt and decrypt property values.

There are some storage implementations to provide these property files, and the default implementation is Git. It enables us to store our property files in Git, or we can use the file system as well. The important thing here is that the source does not matter.

Note

Git is a distributed version control. The tool is commonly used for development purposes, especially in the open-source community. The main advantage, when you compare it to some market players, such as SVN, is the distributed architecture.

There is an interesting integration between Spring Cloud Bus and this module. If they are integrated, it is possible to broadcast the configuration changes on the cluster. This is an important feature if the application configuration changes with frequency. There are two annotations that tell Spring to apply changes at runtime: @RefreshScope and @ConfigurationProperties.

In Chapter 7, Airline Ticket System, we will implement an exciting service to provide external configurations for our microservices using this module. Server concepts will be explained in more detail. The client details will be presented as well.

Note

  @EnableConfigServer is a common annotation.

Spring Cloud Consul

Spring Cloud Consul provides integrations with Hashicorp's Consul. This tool addresses problems in the same way as service discovery, a distributed configuration, and control bus. This module allows us to configure Spring applications and Consul with a few annotations in a Spring-based programming model. Autoconfiguration is supported as well. The amazing thing here is that this module can be integrated with some Netflix OSS libraries, such as Zuul and Ribbon, via Spring Cloud Zuul and Spring Cloud Ribbon respectively (for example).

 

Note

@EnableDiscoveryClient is a common annotation. 

Spring Cloud Security

This module is like an extension from Spring Security. However, distributed systems have different requirements for security. Normally, they have central identity management, or the authentication lies with the clients in the case of REST APIs. Normally, in distributed systems, we have microservices, and these services might have more than one instance in the runtime environment whose characteristics make the authentication module slightly different from monolithic applications. The module can be used together with Spring Boot applications and makes the OAuth2 implementation very easy with a couple of annotations and a few configurations. Also, some common patterns are supported, such as single sign-on, token relay, and token exchange.

For the microservice applications based on the Spring Cloud Netflix, it is particularly interesting because it enables downstream authentication to work with a Zuul proxy and offers support from Feign clients. An interceptor is used to fetch tokens.

Note

Some commons annotations are @EnableOAuth2Sso and @EnableResourceServer.

Spring Cloud Bus

The main goal of this project is to provide an easy way to broadcast changes spread throughout the cluster. The applications can connect the distributed system nodes through the message broker.

It provides an easy way for developers to create a publish and subscribe mechanism using the ApplicationContext provided by Spring Container. It enables the possibility to create applications using the event-driven architecture style with the Spring Ecosystem.

To create custom events, we need to create a child class from RemoteApplicationEvent and mark the class to be scanned via @RemoteApplicationEventScan.

The projects support three message brokers as the transport layer:

  • AMQP
  • Apache Kafka
  • Redis

Note

@RemoteApplicationEventScan is a common annotation. 

Spring Cloud Stream

The idea behind this module is to provide an easy way to build message-driven microservices. The module has an opinionated way of configuration. It means we need to follow some rules to create these configurations. In general, the application is configured by the yaml|properties file.

The module supports annotations as well. This means that a couple of annotations are enough to create consumers, producers, and bindings; it decouples the application and makes it easy to understand. It supplies some abstractions around the message brokers and channels, and it makes the developer's life more comfortable and productive as well.

Spring Cloud Stream has Binder implementations for RabbitMQ and Kafka.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableBinding, @Input, and @Output.

Spring Integration

This module supports a lot of Enterprise Application patterns and brings the Spring programming model to this topic. The Spring programming model enables extensive dependence injection support and is annotations programming-centric. The annotations instruct us as to how the framework needs to be configured and defines framework behaviors.

The POJO model is suggested because it is simple and widely known in the Java development world.

This project has some intersections with the other modules. Some other projects use these module concepts to do their work. There is a project called Spring Cloud Stream, for instance.

The Enterprise Integration patterns are based on a wide range of communication channels, protocols, and patterns. This project supports some of these.

The modules support a variety of features and channels, such as the following:

  • Aggregators
  • Filters
  • Transformers
  • JMS
  • RabbitMQ
  • TCP/UDP
  • Web services
  • Twitter
  • Email
  • And much more

There are three main concepts of Enterprise application integration:

  • Messages
  • Message channel
  • Message endpoint

Finally, the Spring Integration module offers a comprehensive way to create application integration and enables developers to do it using amazing support.

Note

Some common annotations are @EnableIntegration, @IntegrationComponentScan , and @EnablePublisher.

Spring Boot

Spring Boot was released in 2014. The idea behind this project was to present a way to deploy the web application outside of any container, such as Apache Tomcat, Jetty, and so on. The benefit of this kind of deployment is the independence from any external service. It allows us to run the web applications with one JAR file. Nowadays, this is an excellent approach because this forms the most natural way to adopt DevOps culture.

Spring Boot provides embedded servlet containers, such as Apache Tomcat, Jetty, and Undertow. It makes the development process more productive and comfortable when testing our web applications. Also, customizations during configuration are allowed via a configuration file, or by providing some beans.

There are some advantages when adopting the Spring Boot framework. The framework does not require any XML for configuration. This is a fantastic thing because we will find all the dependencies in the Java files. This helps the IDEs to assist developers, and it improves the traceability of the code. Another important advantage is that the project tries to keep the configuration as automatic as possible. Some annotations make the magic happen. The interesting thing here is that Spring will inject the implementation of any code that is generated at runtime.

The Spring Boot framework also provides interesting features to help developers and operations, such as health checks, metrics, security, and configuration. This is indispensable for modern applications where the modules are decomposed in a microservices architecture.

There are some other interesting features that can help the developers DevOps-wise. We can use the application-{profile}.properties or application.yaml files to configure different runtime profiles, such as development, testing, and production. It is a really useful Spring Boot feature.

Also, the project has full support for the tests, since the web layer up to the repository layer.

The framework provides a high-level API to work with unit and integration tests. Also, the framework supplies many annotations and helpers classes for developers.

The Spring Boot project is a production-ready framework with default optimized configurations for the web servers, metrics, and monitoring features to help the development team deliver high-quality software.

We can develop applications by coding in the Groovy and Java languages. Both are JVM languages. In version 5.0, the Spring Team announced the full support for Kotlin, the new language for JVM. It enables us to develop consistent and readable codes. We will look at this feature in depth in Chapter 7, Airline Ticket System.

 

Setting up our development environment


Before we start, we need to set up our development environment. Our development environment consists of the following four tools:

  • JDK
  • Build tool
  • IDE 
  • Docker

We will install JDK version 8.0. This version is fully supported in Spring Framework 5. We will present the steps to install Maven 3.3.9, the most famous build tool for Java development, and in the last part, we will show you some detailed instructions on how to install IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition. We will use Ubuntu 16.04, but you can use your favorite OS. The installation steps are easy.

Installing OpenJDK

OpenJDK is a stable, free, and open source Java development kit. This package will be required for everything related to code compilation and runtime environments. 

Also, it is possible to use an Oracle JDK, but you should pay attention to the License and Agreements. 

To install OpenJDK, we will open a terminal and run the following command:

sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jdk -y

Note

We can find more information on how to install Java 8 JDK in the installation section (http://openjdk.java.net/install/) of the OpenJDK page.

Check the installation using the following command:

java -version

You should see the OpenJDK version and its relevant details displayed as follows:

Now that we have installed the Java development kit, we are ready for the next step. In the real world, we must have a build tool to help developers to compile, package, and test the Java applications.

Let's install Maven in the next section.

Installing Maven

Maven is a popular build tool for Java development. Some important open source projects were built using this tool. There are features that facilitate the build process, standardize the project structure, and provide some guidelines for best practices development.

We will install Maven, but the installation step should be executed after the OpenJDK installation.

Open a terminal and execute the following:

sudo apt-get install maven -y

Check the installation using this command:

mvn -version

You should see the following output, although the version may be different for you:

Well done. Now we have Maven installed. Maven has a vibrant community that produces many plugins to help developers with important tasks. There are plugins to execute a unit test and plugins to prepare the project for the release event that can be integrated with SCM software.

We will use the spring boot maven plugin and docker maven plugin. The first converts our application to a JAR file and the second enables us to integrate with Docker Engine to create images, run containers, and much more. In the next few chapters, we will learn how to configure and interact with these plugins.

Installing IDE

The IDE is an important tool to help developers. In this book, we will use the IntelliJ IDEA as an official tool for developing our projects. There are no restrictions for other IDEs because the project will be developed using Maven as a build tool. 

The IDE is a personal choice for developers, and in general, it involves passion; what some people love, other developers hate. Please feel free to use your favorite.

IntelliJ IDEA

IntelliJ IDEA is a JetBrains product. We will use the Community Edition, which is open source and a fantastic tool with which to code Java and Kotlin. The tool offers a fantastic autocomplete feature, and also fully supports Java 8 features.

Go to https://www.jetbrains.com/idea/download/#section=linux and download the Community Edition. We can extract the tar.gz and execute it.

 

Spring Tools Suite

The Spring Tools Suite is based on Eclipse IDE, provided by the Eclipse Foundation, of course. The goal is to provide support for the Spring ecosystem and make the developer's life easier. Interesting features such as Beans Explorer are supported in this tool.

Download the tool at the following link:http://download.springsource.com/release/STS/3.6.4.RELEASE/dist/e4.4/groovy-grails-tool-suite-3.6.4.RELEASE-e4.4.2-linux-gtk-x86_64.tar.gz

Installing Docker

Docker is an open source project that helps people to run and manage containers. For developers, Docker helps in different stages of the development lifecycle.

During the development phase, Docker enables developers to spin up different infrastructure services such as databases and service discoveries like Consul without installation in the current system operational. It helps the developers because developers do not need to install these kinds of systems in the operating system layer. Usually, this task can cause conflicts with the libraries during the installation process and consumes a lot of time.

Sometimes, developers need to install the exact version. In this case, it is necessary to reinstall the whole application on the expected version. It is not a good thing because the developer machine during this time becomes slow. The reason is quite simple, there are many applications that are used during software development.

Docker helps developers at this stage. It is quite simple to run a container with MongoDB. There is no installation and it enables developers to start the database with one line. Docker supports the image tag. This feature helps to work with different versions of the software; this is awesome for developers who need to change the software version every time.

Another advantage is that when the developers need to deliver the artifacts for test or production purposes, Docker enables these tasks via Docker images.

Docker helps people to adopt the DevOps culture and delivers amazing features to improve the performance of the whole process.

 

Let's install Docker.

The easiest way to install Docker is to download the script found at https://get.docker.com:

curl -fsSL get.docker.com -o get-docker.sh

After the download is completed, we will execute the script as follows:

sh get-docker.sh

Wait for the script execution and then check the Docker installation using the following command:

docker -v

The output needs to look like the following:

Note

Sometimes, the version of Docker can be increased, and the version should be at least 17.10.0-ce.

Finally, we will add the current user to the Docker group, and this enables us to use the Docker command line without the sudo keyword. Type the following command:

sudo usermod -aG docker $USER

We need to log out to effect these changes. Confirm whether the command works as expected by typing the following. Make sure that the sudo keyword is not present:

docker ps

The output should be as follows:

 

 

Introducing Docker concepts

Now, we will introduce some Docker concepts. This book is not about Docker, but some basic instructions on how to use Docker are necessary to interact with our containers during the next few chapters. Docker is a de facto tool that is used to manage containers.

Docker images

The Docker image is like a template for a Docker container. It contains a set of folders and files that are necessary to start the Docker container. We will never have an image in execution mode. The image provides a template for Docker Engine to start up the container. We can create an analogy with object orientation to understand the process better. The image is like a class that provides an infrastructure to instantiate some objects, and instances are like a container.

Also, we have a Docker registry to store our images. These registries can be public or private. Some cloud vendors provide these private registries. The most famous is Docker Hub. It can be free, but if you choose this option, the image should be public. Of course, Docker Hub supports private images, but in this case, you have to pay for the service.

Containers

Docker containers are a lightweight virtualization. The term lightweight means that Docker uses the SO functionalities to cage the system process and manager memory, processors, and folders. This is different from virtualization with VMs because, in this mode, the technology needs to simulate the whole SO, drivers, and storage. This task consumes a lot of computational power and can sometimes be inefficient.

Docker networks

A Docker network is a layer that provides runtime isolation for containers. It is a kind of sandbox in which to run containers that are isolated from other containers. When the Docker is installed, by default it creates three networks that should not be removed. These three networks are as follows:

  • bridge
  • none
  • host

 

Also, Docker provides the user with an easy way to create your network. For this purpose, Docker offers two drivers—bridge and overlay.

Bridge can be used for the local environment, and it means this kind of network is allowed on a single host. It will be useful for our applications because it promotes isolation between containers regarding security. This is a good practice. The name of the container attached to this kind of network can be used as a DNS for the container. Internally, Docker will associate the container name with the container IP.

The overlay network provides the ability to connect containers to different machines. This kind of network is used by Docker Swarm to manage the container in a clustered environment. In the newest version, the Docker Compose tool natively supports Docker Swarm.

Docker volumes

Docker volumes are the suggested way to persist data outside of a container. These volumes are fully managed by Docker Engine, and these volumes can be writable and readable depending on the configuration when they are used with a Docker command line. The data of these volumes is persisted on a directory path on a host machine.

There is a command-line tool to interact with volumes. The base of this tool is the docker volume command; the--help argument on the end shows the help instructions.

Docker commands

Now we will take a look at Docker commands. These commands are used mainly in the development life cycle, commands such as spin up container, stop containers, remove, and inspect.

Docker run

docker run is the most common Docker command. This command should be used to start the containers. The basic structure of a command is as follows:

docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE[:TAG|@DIGEST] [COMMAND] [ARG...]

 

The options arguments enable some configurations for the container, for instance, the      --name argument permits you to configure a name for a container. It is important for DNS when the container is running in a bridge network.

The network settings can be configured on the run command as well, and the parameter is  -- net. This enables us to configure the network to which the container will be attached. 

Another important option is detached. It indicates whether the container will run in the background. The -d parameter instructs Docker to run a container in the background.

Docker container

The docker container command permits you to manage the containers. There are many commands, as shown in the following list:

  • docker container attach
  • docker container commit
  • docker container cp
  • docker container create
  • docker container diff
  • docker container exec
  • docker container export
  • docker container inspect
  • docker container kill
  • docker container logs
  • docker container ls
  • docker container pause
  • docker container port
  • docker container prune
  • docker container rename
  • docker container restart
  • docker container rm
  • docker container run
  • docker container start
  • docker container stats

 

  • docker container stop
  • docker container top
  • docker container unpause
  • docker container update
  • docker container wait

There are some important commands here. The docker container exec permits you to run commands on a running container. This is an important task to debug or look inside the container files. The docker container prune removes the stopped containers. It is helpful in the development cycle. There are some known commands, such as docker container rm, docker container start, docker container stop, and docker container restart. These commands are self-explanatory and have similar behaviors.

Docker network

The docker network commands enable you to manage the Docker network stuff via the command line. There are six basic commands, and the commands are self-explanatory:

  • docker network create
  • docker network connect
  • docker network ls
  • docker network rm
  • docker network disconnect
  • docker network inspect

docker network create, docker network ls, and docker network rm are the main commands. It is possible to compare them with the Linux commands, where the rm command is used to remove things and the ls command is usually used to list things such as folders. The create command should be used to create networks.

The docker network connect and docker network disconnect commands allow you to connect the running container to the desired network. They may be useful in some scenarios.

Finally, the docker network inspect command provides detailed information on the requested network.

 

Docker volume

The docker volume command permits you to manage the Docker volumes via the command-line interface. There are five commands:

  • docker volume create
  • docker volume inspect
  • docker volume ls
  • docker volume prune
  • docker volume rm

The docker volume create, docker volume rm and docker volume ls commands are effectively used to manage the docker volume by Docker Engine. The behaviors are quite similar to those of the networks, but for volumes. The create command will create a new volume with some options allowed. The ls command lists all volumes and the rm command will remove the requested volume.

 

Summary


In this chapter, we looked at the main concepts of Spring Framework. We understood the main modules of the framework and how these modules can help developers to build applications in different kinds of architecture, such as messaging applications, REST APIs, and web portals.

We also spent some time preparing our development environment by installing essential tools, such as Java JDK, Maven, and IDE. This was a critical step to take before we continue to the next chapters. 

We used Docker to help us to set up a development environment, such as containers for databases and delivery for our application in Docker images. We installed Docker and looked at the main commands for managing containers, networks, and volumes.

In the next chapter, we will create our first Spring application and put it into practice!

About the Authors

  • Claudio Eduardo de Oliveira

    Claudio Eduardo de Oliveira has been active in software development since 2007, in small, medium, and large companies in Brazil. He has built cloud-centric applications where elasticity, resilience, fault tolerance, and monitoring were necessary for business success. His experience also includes Java and frameworks such as Spring Ecosystem, Guice, and Node.js, among others. Claudio is also a Docker enthusiast and believes it is an important aspect for developers to learn.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Greg L. Turnquist

    Greg L. Turnquist has been a software professional since 1997. In 2002, he joined the senior software team that worked on Harris' $3.5 billion FAA telco program, architecting mission-critical enterprise apps while managing a software team. He provided after-hours support to a nation-wide system and is no stranger to midnight failures and software triages. In 2010, he joined the SpringSource division of VMware, which was spun off into Pivotal in 2013.

    As a test-bitten script junky, Java geek, and JavaScript Padawan, he is a member of the Spring Data team and the lead for Spring Session MongoDB. He has made key contributions to Spring Boot, Spring HATEOAS, and Spring Data REST while also serving as editor-at-large for Spring's Getting Started Guides.

    Greg wrote technical best sellers Python Testing Cookbook and Learning Spring Boot, First Edition, for Packt Publishing. When he isn't slinging code, Greg enters the world of magic and cross swords, having written the speculative fiction action and adventure novel, Darklight.

    He completed his Master's degree in computer engineering at Auburn University and lives in the United States with his family.

    Browse publications by this author
  • Alex Antonov

    Alex Antonov is a very passionate technologist with a hunger to learn new tools, languages, techniques, and concepts behind enterprise application design. His specialty lies in designing highly scalable distributed large-scale enterprise systems. He is also a frequent presenter on the topics of architecture and design at conferences such as UberConference, JavaOne, and SpringOne 2GX.

    Alex joined Orbitz Worldwide in 2004 and in his current role of senior principal engineer, he is responsible for providing technical leadership and guidance in the development of foundational technologies, core libraries, and APIs for enterprise-wide use, as well as being responsible for web application frameworks and developing common practices.

    Alex has been a long-time Spring user, starting with Spring 2.0.8 all the way to the latest and greatest—Spring Boot. Besides Java, he is also proficient in Ruby/Rails, PHP, and Groovy, and is currently learning Erlang and Go.

    Browse publications by this author

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