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Building Microservices with Node.js
Building Microservices with Node.js

Building Microservices with Node.js: Explore microservices applications and migrate from a monolith architecture to microservices

By Daniel Kapexhiu
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Book May 2024 324 pages 1st Edition
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Publication date : May 3, 2024
Length 324 pages
Edition : 1st Edition
Language : English
ISBN-13 : 9781838985936
Category :
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Building Microservices with Node.js

Introducing Microservices

Microservices, or microservices architecture, is an architectural style for designing and building software applications as a collection of small, independent, and loosely coupled services. Microservices offer benefits such as scalability, agility, independent development, and improved fault tolerance. However, they also introduce challenges such as service orchestration, distributed data management, and increased complexity in system design and testing. The successful implementation of microservices requires careful consideration of the specific application requirements and a well-defined architectural strategy.

In this book, we are going to learn about microservices in general and how to architect and develop microservices in Node.js. The book is suitable for backend developers, full-stack developers, software architects, and frontend developers who want to get into the world of backend development and extend their capabilities. You will learn, in an in-depth manner, the major tips and tricks to learn how to build microservices architecture using Node.js. At the end of this book, you will be able to conceptualize, plan, and architect microservices using Node.js, as well as develop and debug them. These are the major skills that companies want their employees to have in order to design the perfect solution for every problem every time.

We’ll start this chapter with an introduction to microservices and decentralized architectures. We’ll also learn about some key concepts in microservices, such as service boundaries, loose coupling, scalability, resilience, and independent data management. Finally, we’ll overview some important abilities in microservices, including independent development and deployment, polyglot architecture, APIs, and continuous integration (CI).

By the end of this chapter, you’ll have learned the fundamentals of microservices and why they are so useful.

In this chapter, we’re going to cover the following main topics:

  • Introduction to the microservices and decentralized architecture concepts
  • Service boundaries and loose coupling
  • Independent development and deployment and polyglot architecture
  • Scalability and resilience and independent data management
  • APIs and communication and CI

Introduction to the microservices and decentralized architecture concepts

In this section, we’ll learn about two important concepts: microservices and decentralized architecture.

Microservices is an architectural style and approach to building software applications as a collection of small, loosely coupled, and independently deployable services. Meanwhile, in decentralized architecture, components or services are distributed across multiple nodes or entities.

Both microservices architecture and decentralized architecture promote modularity, scalability, fault tolerance, and autonomy. While microservices focus on building applications as a collection of small services, decentralized architecture focuses on distributing processing and decision making across multiple nodes. These architectural approaches can be combined to build highly scalable, resilient, and flexible systems that can adapt to changing requirements and handle complex workloads.

Let’s start with the microservices architecture.

Microservices architecture

In a microservices architecture, the application is broken down into multiple small services, each responsible for a specific business capability. These services are developed, deployed, and managed independently, communicating with one another through well-defined application programming interfaces (APIs) or message-based protocols.

Figure 1.1 shows a typical microservices architecture compared to a typical monolithic architecture.

Figure 1.1: A typical microservices architecture

Figure 1.1: A typical microservices architecture

In Node.js, microservices are typically developed using lightweight frameworks such as Express.js or Fastify. Each microservice is a separate application with its own code base and can be developed, deployed, and scaled independently. Microservices can be written in different programming languages such as Java and Python, but Node.js is often chosen due to its efficiency, event-driven nature, and large ecosystem of modules.

The key characteristics of microservices include the following:

  • Modularity: Microservices promote a modular approach, where each service is self-contained and focuses on a specific business functionality. Services can be developed, updated, and scaled independently, allowing for flexibility and easy maintenance.
  • Loose coupling: Microservices are loosely coupled, meaning they have minimal dependencies on one another. They communicate through well-defined interfaces, typically using lightweight protocols such as RESTful APIs or messaging systems. This loose coupling enables services to evolve and scale independently without affecting the entire system.
  • Independently deployable: Each microservice can be deployed independently of other services. This allows for rapid deployment and reduces the risk of system-wide failures. It also enables teams to work on different services simultaneously, promoting faster development cycles and continuous deployment practices.
  • Polyglot architecture: Microservices architecture allows for the use of different technologies, programming languages, and frameworks for each service. This flexibility allows teams to select the most appropriate technology stack for a specific service, based on its requirements and characteristics.
  • Resilience and fault isolation: Failure in one microservice does not bring down the entire system. Faults or errors in one service are isolated and do not propagate to other services. This enhances the overall resilience and fault tolerance of the system.

Understanding these key characteristics is essential for designing, developing, and maintaining successful microservices architectures. Embracing these principles can lead to more scalable, resilient, and agile software systems that meet the demands of modern application development.

Now that you’ve been introduced to the concept of microservices architecture and learned about its key characteristics, let’s dive into the next concept: decentralized architecture.

Decentralized architecture

Decentralized architecture, also known as distributed architecture, refers to an architectural approach where components or services are distributed across multiple nodes or entities rather than being centrally managed. This promotes autonomy, scalability, and fault tolerance by distributing processing, data, and decision making across multiple nodes.

Centralized architectures have a single point of control, making them easier to manage but potentially less scalable and more vulnerable to failures. Decentralized architectures distribute control and data, offering better scalability, fault tolerance, and performance, especially in large and dynamic systems.

Examples of centralized architectures include traditional client-server architectures, where clients communicate with a central server. Mainframes and many early computing systems followed centralized architectures.

Examples of decentralized architectures include blockchain networks, peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, and certain types of distributed databases. Also, some modern microservices architectures follow decentralized principles where services can function independently.

Figure 1.2 shows a typical decentralized architecture:

Figure 1.2: A typical decentralized architecture

Figure 1.2: A typical decentralized architecture

The key aspects of a decentralized architecture include the following:

  • Distribution of responsibilities: In a decentralized architecture, responsibilities and tasks are distributed across multiple nodes or entities. Each node operates independently and is responsible for specific functions or services. This distribution allows for better resource utilization and can improve fault tolerance and performance.
  • Autonomy and independence: Nodes in a decentralized architecture have a certain degree of autonomy and can operate independently. They can make decisions, process data, and provide services without relying on central coordination. This autonomy allows the system to function even if connectivity to other nodes is disrupted.
  • Peer-to-peer communication: Decentralized architectures often rely on peer-to-peer communication between nodes. Nodes can interact directly with each other, exchanging messages, data, or resources without the need for a centralized intermediary. Peer-to-peer communication enables decentralized decision making, data sharing, and collaboration.
  • Scalability and load distribution: Decentralized architectures can scale horizontally by adding more nodes to handle increased workloads. As the system grows, new nodes can be added, distributing the load and allowing for improved scalability and performance. This scalability makes decentralized architectures well suited for handling large-scale applications or systems with dynamic resource demands.
  • Resilience and fault tolerance: Decentralized architectures offer better resilience and fault tolerance compared to centralized architectures. If one node fails or becomes unavailable, the system can continue to function by routing requests or tasks to other available nodes. Nodes can recover independently, and failures are less likely to affect the entire system.
  • Security and privacy: Decentralized architectures can provide enhanced security and privacy compared to centralized architectures. Distributed data storage and communication patterns make it more challenging for attackers to compromise the system or gain unauthorized access to sensitive information. Additionally, decentralized systems can allow users to maintain more control over their data and identities.

Understanding these key aspects is crucial when designing and implementing decentralized architectures. By leveraging the benefits of distribution, autonomy, and scalability, organizations can build robust and flexible systems capable of handling modern computing challenges.

In the next section, we’ll explore the principles of service boundaries and loose coupling.

Service boundaries and loose coupling

Service boundaries and loose coupling are key principles in software architecture, especially in the context of microservices. Let’s explore these concepts in more detail.

Service boundaries

Service boundaries refer to the logical or functional divisions within a software system, where each boundary represents a separate and independent service. In a microservices architecture, services are designed around specific business capabilities or bounded contexts. Each service is responsible for a well-defined set of functions, operations, or data.

The concept of service boundaries offers several benefits, such as the following:

  • Modularity and maintainability: Service boundaries help break down a complex system into smaller, more manageable parts. Each service can be developed, deployed, and maintained independently, allowing for better modularity and ease of maintenance.
  • Scalability and performance: By dividing the system into services based on specific business capabilities, it becomes easier to scale individual services horizontally or vertically to meet varying demands. Services can be independently scaled to optimize resource utilization and improve overall system performance.
  • Autonomy and team independence: Service boundaries enable cross-functional teams to work independently on different services. Each team can focus on its service requirements, technologies, and development practices, leading to faster development cycles and improved team autonomy.
  • Flexibility and technological diversity: With clear service boundaries, teams can select the most suitable technologies, programming languages, or frameworks for each service based on their specific needs. This promotes technological diversity and allows for the use of the right tool for each job.
  • Fault isolation and resilience: Service boundaries help contain failures within individual services. If a service encounters an issue or fails, it does not impact the entire system. Other services can continue to function independently, promoting fault isolation and overall system resilience.

Understanding and defining clear service boundaries are critical for successful microservices architectures. By focusing on modular and independent services, organizations can build scalable, maintainable, and adaptable systems that align with their business needs and support effective teamwork.

Loose coupling

Loose coupling is a design principle that emphasizes reducing dependencies between software components or services. It allows components to interact with one another with minimal knowledge of one another’s internal workings. Loose coupling promotes independence, flexibility, and adaptability within a system.

Here are some key aspects of loose coupling:

  • Well-defined interfaces: Components communicate through well-defined interfaces or contracts, such as APIs, message formats, or events. The interfaces abstract away implementation details, allowing components to interact based on agreed-upon contracts rather than tight integration.
  • Minimal dependencies: Components have minimal dependencies on other components or services. They rely only on the specific data or functionality required for their operations, reducing interdependencies.
  • Decoupled development and deployment: Loose coupling enables independent development and deployment of components or services. Changes in one component have minimal impact on others, allowing for faster iterations, easier updates, and more frequent deployments.
  • Replaceability and extensibility: With loose coupling, components can be easily replaced or extended without affecting the entire system. New components can be introduced, and existing components can be modified or upgraded with minimal disruption.
  • Testability and isolation: Loose coupling promotes testability by enabling the testing of components in isolation. Dependencies can be mocked or stubbed, allowing for focused unit testing and validation of individual components.

By achieving loose coupling, systems become more modular, maintainable, and adaptable. This enables independent development and deployment, enhances scalability and resilience, and supports the seamless evolution of the software architecture over time.

Figure 1.3 shows the architecture of loosely coupled services:

Figure 1.3: Loosely coupled services

Figure 1.3: Loosely coupled services

In Figure 1.3, each circle represents a component.

Service boundaries and loose coupling are closely related concepts in the context of building scalable and maintainable software systems. By defining clear service boundaries and ensuring loose coupling between services and components, organizations can create flexible, modular architectures that enable agility, scalability, and independent development.

In the next section, we’ll dive into independent development and deployment and polyglot architecture.

Independent development and deployment and polyglot architecture

Independent development and deployment and polyglot architecture are some of the crucial abilities to succeed with microservices. Independent development and deployment allows teams to do the work autonomously. With a polyglot architecture, teams can use the best programming languages, frameworks, and so on, to deliver the software in its best quality.

Independent development and deployment

Independent development and deployment refers to the ability to develop and deploy individual components or services of a software system independently, without tightly coupling them to other components. This approach is a fundamental principle in microservices and allows teams to work autonomously, focusing on specific services or functionalities.

Here are some key aspects and benefits of independent development and deployment:

  • Team autonomy: Independent development and deployment empower cross-functional teams to work autonomously, allowing for making decisions and implementing changes without excessive coordination with other teams. Each team can focus on their specific service or functionality, leading to faster development cycles and improved productivity.
  • Faster iterations and releases: Independent development allows teams to work on their own release schedules, enabling faster iterations and frequent releases. Teams can deploy updates and new features to their respective services without waiting for the entire system to be released. This promotes agility, enables rapid experimentation, and allows for faster response to user feedback.
  • Reduced interdependencies: Independent development reduces the interdependencies between teams and components. Teams can make changes, updates, or fixes to their services without impacting other services or the overall system. This isolation helps minimize the risk of regression and makes it easier to identify and resolve issues.
  • Improved fault isolation: When components are developed and deployed independently, failures or issues in one component are isolated and do not cascade to other components. This improves fault isolation and resilience, as failures are contained within the affected service, minimizing the impact on the rest of the system.
  • Scalability and resource optimization: Independent development and deployment allow teams to scale individual services independently based on their specific needs. Resources can be allocated to high-demand services, while less resource-intensive services can operate with minimal resources. This fine-grained scalability optimizes resource utilization and improves overall system performance.

Understanding the significance of independent development and deployment is crucial for embracing agile development practices and building scalable, adaptable, and maintainable software systems. Empowering teams to work independently enhances productivity, innovation, and collaboration, ultimately leading to successful outcomes in a rapidly evolving technological landscape.

Now, let’s take a look at the concept and key aspects of polyglot architecture.

Polyglot architecture

Polyglot architecture refers to the practice of using multiple programming languages, technologies, and frameworks within a software system. In a polyglot architecture, different services or components may be implemented using different languages or technologies that best fit their specific requirements.

Here are some key aspects and benefits of polyglot architecture:

  • Technology fit: Different services or components may have varying requirements, such as performance, scalability, or integration with external systems. Polyglot architecture allows teams to select the most appropriate technology stack for each service, leveraging the strengths of different languages or frameworks. This technology fit can result in more efficient and optimized solutions.
  • Specialization: Polyglot architecture enables teams to leverage the expertise and strengths of individual team members. If a team has expertise in a particular language or framework, they can use it for their service, promoting specialization and maximizing the team’s productivity and efficiency.
  • Flexibility and innovation: By embracing a polyglot architecture, organizations can explore and adopt new technologies, frameworks, or programming languages. This fosters a culture of innovation and keeps the development team up to date with the latest advancements in the tech industry.
  • Reuse and integration: Polyglot architecture allows for the integration of existing systems or services developed using different technologies. It facilitates the reuse of legacy systems or external components, enabling seamless integration within the overall architecture.
  • Avoiding vendor lock-in: Using multiple technologies helps reduce reliance on a single vendor or technology stack. It mitigates the risks associated with vendor lock-in and provides the flexibility to switch technologies or vendors if needed.

However, adopting a polyglot architecture also comes with challenges, such as increased complexity in terms of deployment, maintenance, and collaboration across teams with diverse technology stacks. Proper governance, documentation, and knowledge-sharing practices are necessary to ensure effective coordination and mitigate potential drawbacks.

Figure 1.4 shows a simple polyglot architecture:

Figure 1.4: A simple polyglot architecture

Figure 1.4: A simple polyglot architecture

Overall, independent development and deployment, along with a polyglot architecture, empowers teams to work autonomously, leverage the best-fit technologies, and deliver software systems that are scalable, efficient, and aligned with the specific requirements of each component or service.

In the next section, we look at some additional crucial aspects: scalability, resilience, and independent data management.

Scalability and resilience and independent data management

Scalability and resilience are some key concepts in microservices to keep in mind while building robust and high-performing software. Also, in microservices, every service has its own database, so every data storage is independent.

Scalability and resilience

Scalability and resilience are crucial aspects of building robust and high-performing software systems. Let’s explore these concepts in more detail.

Scalability refers to the ability of a system to handle increased workloads and accommodate growing demands without sacrificing performance. It involves the capability to scale up or scale out the system to ensure optimal resource utilization and responsiveness.

Here are key considerations for achieving scalability:

  • Horizontal scaling: Horizontal scaling involves adding more instances or nodes to distribute the workload across multiple servers or machines. It allows for increased throughput and improved performance by handling requests in parallel.
  • Vertical scaling: Vertical scaling, also known as scaling up, involves increasing the resources (such as CPU, memory, or storage) of individual instances to handle higher workloads. Vertical scaling can be achieved by upgrading hardware or utilizing cloud-based services that offer scalable resource provisioning.
  • Load balancing: Load balancing mechanisms distribute incoming requests across multiple instances to ensure an even distribution of workloads and prevent overload on any single component. Load balancers intelligently route requests based on factors such as server health, capacity, or response time.
  • Caching: Implementing caching mechanisms, such as in-memory caches or content delivery networks (CDNs), can significantly improve scalability. Caching reduces the load on backend services by storing frequently accessed data or computed results closer to the users, thereby reducing the need for repeated processing.
  • Asynchronous processing: Offloading long-running or resource-intensive tasks to asynchronous processing systems, such as message queues or background workers, helps improve scalability. By processing tasks asynchronously, the system can handle a larger number of concurrent requests and optimize resource utilization.
  • Resilience: Resilience refers to the system’s ability to recover from failures, adapt to changing conditions, and continue to operate reliably. Resilient systems are designed to minimize the impact of failures and maintain essential functionality. Consider the following factors for building resilient systems:
    • Redundancy and replication: Replicating critical components or data across multiple instances or nodes ensures redundancy and fault tolerance. If one instance fails, others can seamlessly take over to maintain system availability and prevent data loss.
    • Fault isolation: Designing systems with well-defined service boundaries and loose coupling ensures that failures or issues in one component do not propagate to others. Fault isolation prevents the entire system from being affected by localized failures.
    • Failure handling and recovery: Implementing robust error handling and recovery mechanisms is essential for resilience. Systems should be able to detect failures, recover automatically if possible, and provide clear feedback to users or downstream components.
    • Monitoring and alerting: Continuous monitoring of system health, performance, and error rates helps identify issues or potential failures in real time. Proactive alerting mechanisms can notify appropriate personnel when anomalies or critical events occur, allowing for timely intervention and mitigation.
    • Graceful degradation and circuit breakers: Systems should be designed to gracefully degrade functionality when facing high loads or failure conditions. Circuit breakers can be implemented to automatically stop sending requests to a failing component or service, reducing the impact on the system and allowing it to recover.

Scalability and resilience are closely interconnected. Scalable systems are often designed with resilience in mind, and resilient systems can better handle increased workloads through scalable architecture. By incorporating these characteristics into their designs, developers can create robust and reliable software systems capable of adapting to changing demands and providing a positive user experience even in challenging conditions.

Independent data management

Independent data management refers to the practice of managing data within individual services or components in a decentralized manner. In a microservices architecture, each service typically has its own data store or database, and the responsibility for data management lies within the service boundary.

Here are key considerations for independent data management:

  • Data ownership and autonomy: Each service is responsible for managing its own data, including data storage, retrieval, and modification. This promotes autonomy and allows teams to make independent decisions regarding data models, storage technologies, and data access patterns.
  • Decentralized data stores: Services may use different types of databases or storage technologies based on their specific needs. For example, one service may use a relational database, while another may use a NoSQL database (see Chapter 9) or a specialized data store optimized for specific use cases.
  • Data consistency and synchronization: When data is distributed across multiple services, ensuring data consistency can be challenging. Techniques such as eventual consistency, distributed transactions, or event-driven architectures can be employed to synchronize data across services and maintain data integrity.
  • Data access and communication: Services communicate with each other through well-defined APIs or message-based protocols to access and exchange data. Service boundaries should have clear contracts and APIs for data exchange, enabling services to interact while maintaining loose coupling.
  • Data security and access control: Each service should enforce appropriate security measures and access controls to protect its data. Implementing authentication, authorization, and encryption mechanisms ensures data privacy and security within the service boundaries.
  • Data integration and aggregation: While services manage their own data, there may be situations where data from multiple services needs to be aggregated or integrated for specific use cases. Techniques such as data pipelines, data warehouses, or event-driven architectures can facilitate data integration and aggregation across services.

Independent data management allows services to evolve and scale independently, promotes team autonomy, and reduces interdependencies between services.

Figure 1.5 shows the data management process:

Figure 1.5: Data management process

Figure 1.5: Data management process

However, the data management process also introduces challenges related to data consistency, synchronization, and overall system-wide data coherence. Organizations should carefully design data management strategies and employ appropriate patterns and technologies to address these challenges while maintaining the benefits of independent data management.

In the next section, we’ll learn about APIs, communication, and CI.

APIs and communication and CI

API stands for application programming interface. It is a set of rules and protocols that allows different software applications to communicate and interact with one another. APIs define how different software components should interact, what data they can exchange, and what operations they can perform. CI is a common software practice that allows contributors from all over the world to contribute to one shared code repository.

APIs and communication

APIs play a vital role in enabling communication and interaction between different components, services, or systems within a software architecture. APIs define how different entities can interact with one another, exchange data, and invoke functionalities.

Here are the key considerations related to APIs and communication:

  • API design and documentation: Well-designed APIs follow standards and best practices (see Chapter 10), ensuring clarity, consistency, and ease of use for developers. Comprehensive API documentation, including endpoint details, request/response formats, authentication requirements, and error handling, helps developers understand and utilize APIs effectively.
  • API gateway: An API gateway acts as an entry point for client applications to access multiple APIs. It provides a centralized interface, handles authentication, security, request routing, and rate limiting, and can perform tasks such as caching, logging, and monitoring. API gateways simplify client-side interactions and improve overall API management.
  • API versioning: As APIs evolve over time, it’s essential to implement versioning strategies to maintain backward compatibility. Versioning allows clients to use the desired API version while ensuring existing clients remain unaffected by changes.
  • Authentication and authorization: APIs often require authentication and authorization mechanisms to ensure secure access. Common approaches include API keys, tokens (such as JWT), OAuth, or integration with identity and access management systems. Proper authentication and authorization prevent unauthorized access and protect sensitive data.
  • Data formats and protocols: APIs can utilize various data formats, such as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), Extensible Markup Language (XML), or protocol buffers, based on the requirements and compatibility with client applications. Similarly, communication protocols such as representational state transfer (REST), GraphQL, or message queues (e.g., RabbitMQ, Apache Kafka) (see Chapter 10) can be chosen depending on the use case. For instance, the most common use cases for REST APIs are web APIs.
  • Asynchronous communication: Asynchronous communication patterns, such as message queues or publish-subscribe systems, can be employed to enable loose coupling and decoupled communication between components or services. These patterns support event-driven architectures and improve scalability, responsiveness, and fault tolerance.

APIs provide a way for developers to access the functionality of a system or service without having to understand its internal implementation details. They abstract the underlying complexity and provide a standardized interface that allows applications to request and exchange data in a consistent and predictable manner.

Figure 1.6 shows an example of a REST API:

Figure 1.6: A REST API

Figure 1.6: A REST API

APIs play a fundamental role in modern software development, enabling seamless integration and collaboration between different systems. They provide a way to access data and services from external sources, allowing applications to extend their functionality and interact with a wide range of services and resources.

CI

CI is a software development practice that involves frequently integrating code changes from multiple developers into a shared code repository. The key goal of CI is to automate the integration process and detect integration issues early.

Here are the key aspects of CI:

  • Version control system (VCS): CI relies on a robust VCS (such as Git) to manage code changes, branches, and version history. Developers commit their code changes to the repository frequently, ensuring a reliable source of code for integration.
  • Automated builds: CI involves setting up automated build processes that compile, test, and package the software based on triggers, such as code commits. Automated build systems, such as Jenkins, Travis CI, or GitLab CI/CD (see Chapter 11), pull the latest code from the repository and build the application in a consistent and repeatable manner.
  • Automated testing: CI encourages automated testing practices, such as unit testing, integration testing, and functional testing. Test suites are executed as part of the build process to ensure that code changes do not introduce regressions and maintain the overall quality of the software.
  • CI server: A CI server or CI/CD platform orchestrates the CI process, monitors code changes, triggers builds, runs tests, and provides feedback to the development team. It generates reports, alerts, and notifications for build failures or test errors.
  • Code quality checks: CI can incorporate static code analysis tools to identify code smells, maintain code style consistency, and enforce best practices. These tools analyze the code base for potential issues, including code complexity, security vulnerabilities, and adherence to coding guidelines.
  • Artifact management: CI involves generating deployable artifacts, such as binaries, container images, or deployment packages, that can be easily deployed to various environments. Artifact management systems, such as Nexus or JFrog Artifactory, help manage and store these artifacts.
  • CI pipelines: CI pipelines define the stages and steps of the CI process, including building, testing, code analysis, and artifact generation. CI pipelines can be customized based on project requirements, incorporating specific build, test, and release steps.

Additional reading

Jenkins: https://www.jenkins.io/doc/

Travis CI: https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/for-beginners/

GitLab CI/CD: https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/

Figure 1.7 shows CI in action:

Figure 1.7: CI in action

Figure 1.7: CI in action

The benefits of CI include early detection of integration issues, faster feedback cycles, improved collaboration, and reduced integration complexities. CI ensures that the software remains in a releasable state at all times, enabling teams to deliver high-quality software with speed, reliability, and reduced risks.

Summary

Microservices and Node.js are two powerful concepts that can greatly impact the development of modern software systems. Here is a summary of the key points to consider when exploring the combination of microservices and Node.js:

  • Microservices: Microservices is an architectural approach where complex applications are built as a collection of small, independent services. Each service focuses on a specific business capability, can be developed and deployed independently, and communicates with other services through well-defined APIs or messaging protocols. Microservices offer benefits such as modularity, scalability, fault isolation, and autonomy, allowing for faster development cycles, easier maintenance, and flexibility in technology selection.
  • Node.js: Node.js is a JavaScript runtime built on the V8 engine, designed for server-side development. It provides an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that allows for highly scalable and performant applications. Node.js is well-suited for microservices due to its lightweight, asynchronous nature, which enables handling multiple concurrent requests efficiently. Its rich ecosystem of packages and frameworks, along with its support for JavaScript on both the client and server sides, make it a popular choice for microservices development.
  • Combining microservices and Node.js: When combining microservices with Node.js, developers can take advantage of Node.js’s event-driven architecture and ecosystem to build scalable and responsive microservices. Node.js’s non-blocking I/O model allows services to handle high levels of concurrency, making it well-suited for microservices communication and interactions. Its extensive package manager, npm, provides a wide range of libraries and tools to facilitate the development of microservices architectures.
  • Working with microservices and Node.js: When working with microservices and Node.js, it is important to consider various aspects, including service boundaries, loose coupling, API design, data management, scalability, resilience, monitoring, and security. Properly defining service boundaries, ensuring loose coupling between services, designing robust APIs, and managing data independently are crucial for building scalable and maintainable microservices architectures. Implementing strategies for scalability, resilience, monitoring, and security enhances the performance, reliability, and security of the overall system.

In summary, leveraging the power of microservices and Node.js can enable the development of flexible, scalable, and maintainable software systems. By embracing the modular nature of microservices and harnessing the asynchronous capabilities of Node.js, developers can build highly responsive, distributed applications that can adapt to changing requirements and handle complex workloads effectively.

In the next chapter, we’ll cover the core principles of microservices. We’ll dive into more details about microservices and its best practices while developing in Node.js.

Quiz time

  • What are the key characteristics of microservices?
  • What are some key aspects and benefits of independent development and deployment?
  • What is a polyglot architecture?
  • What are APIs?
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Description

Do you want to immerse yourself in the world of microservices? Building Microservices with Node.js will guide you through migration from a monolithic architecture to microservices. With this book, you’ll acquire a deep understanding of microservices architecture and apply it confidently in your web application projects. As you progress, you’ll be guided through the process of creating a simple application and incorporating the Node.js framework into it, along with its commonly used libraries. You’ll learn how the framework operates, how to configure it, and how to develop handlers for the web framework. Furthermore, you’ll explore how to deploy your application to a production server while going through the intricacies of JavaScript and Node.js. Later chapters will show you how to approach microservices in Node.js, implement them effectively, and integrate RESTful APIs. Additionally, you’ll gain insights into service-to-service authentication and authorization and learn how to work with databases and caching. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of the topic, you’ll get to grips with monitoring and logging in microservices with Node.js. By the end of this microservices book, you’ll be able to develop a web app using the Node.js framework, configure it, extend it using libraries available for this framework, and launch it using best practices.

What you will learn

Design domain-oriented microservices using domain-driven design (DDD) Understand collaboration techniques for inter-microservice communication and learn how to design an API gateway Automate microservice integration and deployment Split a monolith safely into microservices and understand how to test microservices effectively Use and implement microservices in Kubernetes and Docker environments Get to grips with best practices for maintaining microservices at scale

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Product Details


Publication date : May 3, 2024
Length 324 pages
Edition : 1st Edition
Language : English
ISBN-13 : 9781838985936
Category :

Table of Contents

23 Chapters
Preface Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
1. Part 1: Understanding Microservices and Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
2. Chapter 1: Introducing Microservices Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
3. Chapter 2: Exploring the Core Principles of Microservices Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
4. Chapter 3: Understanding Node.js Fundamentals: Building Blocks and Key Concepts Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
5. Chapter 4: Leveraging the JavaScript and Node.js Ecosystem for Microservices Development Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
6. Part 2: Building and Integrating Microservices with Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
7. Chapter 5: Knowing the Infrastructure of Microservices in Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
8. Chapter 6: Designing Microservices Architecture in Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
9. Chapter 7: Integrating Microservices in Node.js Applications Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
10. Chapter 8: Debugging Microservices in Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
11. Part 3: Data Management in Microservices Using Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
12. Chapter 9: Database Manipulation in Microservices with Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
13. Chapter 10: API Communication and Data Contracts in Microservices Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
14. Chapter 11: Caching and Asynchronous Messaging in Microservices Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
15. Chapter 12: Ensuring Data Security with the Saga Pattern, Encryption, and Security Measures Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
16. Part 4: Monitoring and Logging in Microservices with Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
17. Chapter 13: Monitoring Microservices in Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
18. Chapter 14: Logging in Microservices with Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
19. Chapter 15: Interpreting Monitoring Data in Microservices Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
20. Chapter 16: Analyzing Log Data in Microservices with Node.js Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
21. Index Chevron down icon Chevron up icon
22. Other Books You May Enjoy Chevron down icon Chevron up icon

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