Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design

Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design
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Table of Contents
Sample Chapters

Successfully deploy a Microsoft Hyper-V Server cluster use the right tools for building and maintaining a Hyper-V cluster Master the intricacies of Hyper-V Server in a clustered environment.

Book Details

Language : English
Paperback : 462 pages [ 235mm x 191mm ]
Release Date : October 2013
ISBN : 178217768X
ISBN 13 : 9781782177685
Author(s) : Eric Siron
Topics and Technologies : All Books, Microsoft Servers, Virtualization and Cloud, Enterprise, Microsoft, Virtualisation

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Hyper-V Cluster Orientation
Chapter 2: Cluster Design and Planning
Chapter 3: Constructing a Hyper-V Server Cluster
Chapter 4: Storage Design
Chapter 5: Network Design
Chapter 6: Network Traffic Shaping and Performance Enhancements
Chapter 7: Memory Planning and Management
Chapter 8: Performance Testing and Load Balancing
Chapter 9: Special Cases
Chapter 10: Maintaining and Monitoring a Hyper-V Server Cluster
Chapter 11: High Availability
Chapter 12: Backup and Disaster Recovery
  • Chapter 1: Hyper-V Cluster Orientation
    • Terminology
    • Clustering in a Microsoft environment
    • Create a project document
    • Purposes of a Hyper-V Server cluster
      • High availability
      • High Availability Printing
      • Balancing resources
      • Geographic dispersion
      • Natural replacement for aging infrastructure
      • Test, development, and training systems
      • Cloud hosting
      • Resource metering
      • VDI and RemoteFX
      • Be open to other purposes
    • Goals for a Hyper-V Server cluster
      • Identify the resources that cannot be virtualized
      • Consult with application vendors
      • Involve internal stakeholders
      • Define phases and timelines
      • Perform further research
      • Define success metrics
      • Measure and predict your workload
      • Only allow changes during the planning phase
    • Looking forward to the Design phase
      • Host computers
      • Storage
      • Cluster Shared Volumes
      • SMB shares
      • Mixing SMB 3.0 and CSV
      • Networking
        • Management
        • Cluster and Cluster Shared Volumes
        • Live Migration
        • Subnetting
        • Virtual machine traffic
        • Storage traffic
        • Physical adapter considerations
        • Adapter teaming
      • Active Directory
      • Virtualized domain controllers
      • Supporting software
        • Management tools
        • Backup
      • Training
    • A sample Hyper-V Cluster planning document
      • Sample project title – Techstra Hyper-V Cluster Project
        • Sample project – purposes
        • Sample project – goals
    • Review the sample project
    • Summary
  • Chapter 2: Cluster Design and Planning
    • Starting the design phase
    • Planning for existing systems
      • Deciding how you will virtualize physical systems
      • Determining requirements for existing systems
        • Microsoft Assessment and Planning Toolkit
        • Performance Monitor
        • General approaches to reading the metrics
        • Memory measurements
        • Network measurements
        • Disk measurements
        • Processor measurements
    • Host computer components
      • Hyper-V Server requirements
      • CPU
      • Memory
      • Host networking
      • Host storage
      • Management operating system
        • Hyper-V Server
        • Windows Server
        • Deciding on a management operating system
    • Networking
      • Advanced networking hardware
    • Shared storage
      • Storage area network devices
      • Network-attached storage devices
      • General purpose computers
      • Shared storage performance characteristics
      • Designing shared storage
    • Software licensing
      • Windows Server and guest virtualization rights
        • Software Assurance
        • Client access licenses
      • Other software licenses
    • Hyper-V and cluster-related software planning
      • Remote software applications
      • Local software applications
    • Blade hardware
    • Physical placement
    • Security
      • Domain separation
      • Hyper-V isolation
      • Network isolation
    • Complete the planning phase
      • Sample project – planning and design
      • Sample project – hardware
    • Summary
  • Chapter 3: Constructing a Hyper-V Server Cluster
    • Documenting the initial setup phase
    • Build steps not covered in this book
    • Auxiliary built-in tools
    • Acquiring and enabling the GUI tools
      • Enabling the tools on Windows 8/8.1 from the GUI
      • Enabling the tools on Windows Server 2012/R2 in the GUI
      • Enabling the tools using PowerShell
    • Configuring nodes
      • Initial node configuration using GUI tools
        • Using the GUI to configure networking
      • Initial node configuration using PowerShell
        • Basic configuration
        • Using PowerShell to configure networking
      • Optional node configuration steps
    • Prepare other nodes
    • Building the cluster
      • Cluster validation
        • Running cluster validation in the GUI
        • Using PowerShell for cluster validation
      • Cluster creation
        • Creating a cluster using the GUI
        • Creating a cluster using PowerShell
      • Handling cluster creation errors
    • Cluster post-creation steps
      • Prepare storage
      • Add prepared storage
      • Configure quorum
      • Configure networks
        • Set Live Migration network preferences
    • Summary
  • Chapter 4: Storage Design
    • Early storage planning
      • Physical storage characteristics
        • Physical disks
        • Drive bus
        • Traditional RAID
        • Storage Spaces
        • Shared storage connectivity
    • Hyper-V Server storage space utilization
      • Management operating system
      • BIN files
      • VSV files
      • XML files
      • SLP files
      • VFD files
      • VHD and VHDX files
        • IDE and SCSI virtual controllers
        • VHD versus VHDX
        • VHD and VHDX types
        • Fixed
        • Dynamic
        • Differencing
      • Fixed versus dynamic disks
      • Pass-through disks
      • Other storage usage considerations
    • Hyper-V Server storage performance
      • Pass-through disks
      • Expansion
      • Fragmentation
        • Fragmentation and dynamic VHDX performance
    • Working with storage
      • Connecting to iSCSI storage
      • Connecting to Fibre Channel storage
      • Connecting to SMB 3.0 shares
      • Enabling and using Multipath IO
      • Managing disks
      • Cluster Shared Volumes
        • Finding and renaming Cluster Shared Volumes
        • CSV cache
    • Placing virtual machines on storage
      • Storage deduplication
    • Storage QoS (2012 R2 Only)
    • Enhanced features
    • Summary
  • Chapter 5: Network Design
    • The Hyper-V virtual switch
      • Network virtualization
      • Redundancy and load balancing for the virtual switch
      • Assign virtual adapters to VLANs
    • Hyper-V Server networking in a cluster
      • Management
        • Redundancy and load balancing for management traffic
      • Cluster communications
        • Redundancy and load balancing for cluster communications
        • SMB multichannel configuration
      • Live Migration
        • Redundancy and load balancing for Live Migration traffic
        • Setting the Live Migration mode in 2012 R2
    • Storage connectivity
    • The virtual switch in a cluster
    • Adapter teaming
      • Teaming fundamentals
      • Teaming modes
        • Switch Independent teaming
        • Static teaming
        • LACP teaming
      • Load balancing algorithms
        • Address Hash techniques
        • Hyper-V Port balancing
        • Dynamic (R2 only)
      • The effects of teaming selections
        • Switch Independent with hash
        • Switch Dependent (static or LACP) with hash
        • Switch Independent with Hyper-V Ports
        • Switch Dependent (static or LACP) with Hyper-V Ports
        • Understanding the change brought by R2's Dynamic algorithm
        • Effect of teaming on other technologies
        • Practical teaming guidance
    • Converged fabric
      • Practical converged fabric guidance
    • Planning the physical layout
    • Firewall settings
      • Remote desktop
      • PowerShell
      • Firewall rules
      • Summary
  • Chapter 6: Network Traffic Shaping and Performance Enhancements
    • Windows Server Quality of Service
      • Policy-based QoS
      • Hyper-V QoS
      • Data Center Bridging
        • 802.1p tagging
        • Assigning applications and traffic types to QoS classes
        • Setting bandwidth on DCB QoS classes
        • The default class
    • Changing advanced settings on network adapters
      • Advanced adapter settings in the GUI
      • Advanced adapter settings in the registry
      • Advanced adapter settings in PowerShell
      • Jumbo frames
    • VMQ
      • VMQ and adapter teaming
      • VMQ interrupt coalescing
    • RSS
      • vRSS (R2 only)
      • RSS tuning
    • RDMA
    • SR-IOV
      • SR-IOV tuning
    • Other hardware-assisted offloading technologies
    • Virtual adapter networking control
    • Practical advice for network performance design
    • Further possibilities
    • Summary
  • Chapter 7: Memory Planning and Management
    • Understanding physical memory characteristics
      • Memory types
        • U-DIMM
        • R-DIMM
        • FB-DIMM
        • LR-DIMM
      • Memory speed
        • Practical guidance on memory speeds
      • Memory ranks
      • Mirroring, sparing, ECC, and other options
        • Practical memory protection
      • Memory channels
        • Practical multi-channel memory implementation
      • NUMA
        • Practical NUMA configuration
    • Physical memory installation
    • How Hyper-V Server uses memory
      • Host memory
      • Hypervisor memory usage
    • Hyper-V Server and NUMA
    • Virtual machine memory
      • Practical virtual machine memory sizing
      • Virtual machines and NUMA
        • NUMA in a cluster
        • Practical virtual machine NUMA configuration
      • Dynamic Memory
        • Dynamic Memory requirements and restrictions
        • Startup RAM, Minimum RAM, and Smart Paging
    • Practical virtual machine memory implementation
    • Cluster memory shortages
    • Summary
  • Chapter 8: Performance Testing and Load Balancing
    • Initial and on-going performance measurement
    • General performance measurement
      • Server Performance Advisor
      • Performance Monitor
      • Real-time monitoring with Performance Monitor
      • Trend tracking with Performance Monitor
      • Selecting counters practically
      • Alternative ways to read performance logs
    • Subsystem testing
      • Disk I/O testing
        • Practical IOMeter usage for disk analysis
      • Network testing
        • IOMeter for network testing
        • Practical IOMeter usage for network analysis
        • NTttcp for network testing
      • Memory testing
    • Baseline and comparative performance measures
    • Cluster load balancing
      • Preferred owners
        • Setting preferred owners using Failover Cluster Manager
        • Setting preferred owners using PowerShell
      • Possible owners
        • Setting possible owners using Failover Cluster Manager
        • Setting possible owners using PowerShell
      • Anti-affinity
    • Summary
  • Chapter 9: Special Cases
    • Non-highly-available virtual machines in a cluster
      • Local virtual machines
      • Switching to or from high availability mode
        • Converting a local virtual machine to high availability
      • Restricted highly available virtual machines
    • A cluster with only one virtual machine
      • Single-VM cluster in a small environment
    • A cluster with a single host
    • Virtualized domain controllers in a Hyper-V Cluster
      • Discomfort with virtualization of a vital infrastructure role
      • Concern that Hyper-V Server will not start
      • Concern that domain controllers will be unavailable
      • Concern over clock drift in a virtual environment
      • Concern over effects of snapshots on domain controllers
      • Concerns over Saved States of domain controllers
      • Security concerns for virtualized domain controllers
      • Implementing virtualized domain controllers in a cluster
        • Windows domain time synchronization
    • Storing a single virtual machine's files in different locations
    • Geographically distributed clusters
      • Cluster networking with multiple subnets
        • Cluster name object in a multiple subnet cluster
        • Configuring subnet traffic handling
        • Virtual machine networking in a multiple subnet cluster
    • Using non-virtualized hardware in a cluster
    • Pass-through disks in a cluster
    • Summary
  • Chapter 10: Maintaining and Monitoring a Hyper-V Server Cluster
    • Cluster validation
      • When to perform validation
      • Running the validation wizard in Failover Cluster Manager
      • Validating a cluster in PowerShell
      • Reading the validation report
      • Other cluster reports
    • Best Practices Analyzer for Hyper-V
      • Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer in Server Manager
      • Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer in PowerShell
    • Updating Hyper-V Server hosts
      • Cluster-Aware Updating
        • Configuring Cluster-Aware Updating
        • Enabling CAU using the GUI
        • Enabling CAU using PowerShell
      • Windows Update and Windows Server Update Services
      • Hotfixes
    • Monitoring Hyper-V Server
      • Event logs
      • Services
      • Metering
    • Summary
  • Chapter 11: High Availability
    • What does high availabilty mean?
      • Service level agreements
      • Fault tolerance
    • Creating a highly available virtual machine
      • Using Failover Cluster Manager to create a highly available virtual machine
      • Using Failover Cluster Manager to make an existing virtual machine highly available
      • Using PowerShell to create and convert a highly available virtual machine
      • Removing high availability from a virtual machine
    • High availability beyond Hyper-V
      • Cluster within a cluster
        • Shared VHDX in R2
        • Network adapter configurations for guest clusters
    • Migrations
      • Practical high availability migration guidance
    • Cluster responses to failures
      • Automatic Stop Action
      • Automatic Start Action
      • Failback
      • Failover limits
      • Network protection in R2
    • Quorum
      • Configuring quorum using Failover Cluster Manager
      • Configuring quorum using PowerShell
        • R2-only quorum PowerShell operations
    • Practical quorum guidance
      • Recovering from quorum loss
    • Snapshots or checkpoints
      • Practical snapshot guidance
    • Summary
  • Chapter 12: Backup and Disaster Recovery
    • Knowing your risks
      • Physical loss
      • Data loss
      • Data corruption
      • Risk analysis
      • Risk mitigation
    • Planning for disaster recovery
    • Backup
      • Choosing a backup solution
      • Architecting a backup solution
        • Choosing what to back up
        • Choosing when to back up
        • Deciding how long to keep backup data
        • Hybrid solutions
        • Storage for backup
      • Deploying a backup solution
        • Windows Server Backup
    • Hyper-V Replica
      • Architecting a Hyper-V Replica solution
        • Choosing where to send replicas
        • Choosing what to replicate
        • Deciding how many recovery points to keep
      • Deploying Hyper-V Replica
        • Practical Hyper-V Replica guidance
    • Verifying your disaster recovery plan
    • Summary

Eric Siron

Eric Siron is currently a senior systems administrator at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics where, among other things, he maintains the Hyper-V environment. Prior to that, he was the lead administrator at a medium-sized business and oversaw the conversion from physical deployments to virtualization on the Hyper-V platform. In addition to his normal daily duties, he has been writing blogs for Altaro Software's Hyper-V Portal, viewable at Eric is also the author of Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design, Packt Publishing.
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Please let us know if you have found any errors not listed on this list by completing our errata submission form. Our editors will check them and add them to this list. Thank you.


- 3 submitted: last submission 17 Jul 2014

Errata type: Typo | Page No: 40


It is: Not urgent to remove, but this was mentioned in the previous paragraph.

Please ignore this sentence.

Errata type: Typo | Page No: 68


It is: If it doesn't mess up pagination, I would 

recommend a paragraph break here as we are moving to a new topic.


Please ignore this statement



Errata type: Typo | Page No: 397

The following sentence is incomplete:
"High availability features go a long way toward mitigating the negative impacts of small and simple failures, but they do not offer"

It should read:
"High availability features go a long way toward mitigating the negative impacts of small and simple failures, but they do not offer complete protection".

Sample chapters

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What you will learn from this book

Practical and efficient Hyper-V Server clustering planning and design Deployment and maintenance with PowerShell and graphical tools Proper selection of shared storage systems Proper design and configuration of networking for Hyper-V clusters Automate maintenance strategies without service interruptions Advanced network design for clustered virtual environments Balance and measure our cluster’s performance Correct disaster planning and recovery Understanding the new Hyper-V and cluster features in 2012 R2

In Detail

Hyper-V Server offers an inexpensive and simple way to consolidate your existing server applications. Failover Clustering adds convenience and protections to keep those systems running. A well-designed cluster requires understanding many topics, but the time invested in learning pays off with a system that all but takes care of itself.Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design is a comprehensive look at the technologies that comprise a cluster of Microsoft Hyper-V Servers. This book will take you through planning your deployment, selecting the appropriate components, building and testing your cluster, and maintaining it for optimal performance.If you want to Master Hyper-V cluster design and create scalable, fault-tolerant Hyper-V Servers, then this book is for you!Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design tackles the common stumbling blocks in cluster design and deployment. You’ll learn the intricacies of shared storage design as well as how to exploit networking hardware for optimal Hyper-V cluster performance. You’ll learn how to design systems that match your actual workload instead of the theoretical environment of a test lab. By the end of this book you will know how to plan, deploy and maintain a high available, high performance Hyper-V cluster.  


This book is written in a friendly and practical style with numerous tutorials centred on common as well as atypical Hyper-V cluster designs. This book also features a sample cluster design throughout to help you learn how to design a Hyper-V in a real-world scenario.

Who this book is for

Microsoft Hyper-V Cluster Design is perfect for the systems administrator who has a good understanding of Windows Server in an Active Directory domain and is ready to expand into a highly available virtualized environment. It only expects that you will be familiar with basic hypervisor terminology.

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