Understanding jQuery and WordPress Together

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WordPress 3.0 jQuery

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Enhance your WordPress website with the captivating effects of jQuery.

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by Tessa Blakeley Silver | September 2010 | Open Source WordPress

In this article by Tessa Blakeley Silver, author of Wordpress 3.0 jQuery, we will understand the following:

  • What WordPress themes are and do
  • The basics of creating your own WordPress themes

 

WordPress 3.0 jQuery

WordPress 3.0 jQuery

Enhance your WordPress website with the captivating effects of jQuery.

  • Enhance the usability and increase visual interest in your WordPress 3.0 site with easy-to-implement jQuery techniques
  • Create advanced animations, use the UI plugin to your advantage within WordPress, and create custom jQuery plugins for your site
  • Turn your jQuery plugins into WordPress plugins and share with the world
  • Implement all of the above jQuery enhancements without ever having to make a WordPress content editor switch over into HTML view

 

Read more about this book

(For more resources on WordPress and jQuery, see here.)

Two ways to "plugin" jQuery into a WordPress site

You're aware that WordPress is an impressive publishing platform. Its core strength lies in its near perfect separation of content, display, and functionality. Likewise, jQuery is an impressive JavaScript library with a lot of effort spent on making it work across platforms, be very flexible and extensible, and yet, elegantly degradable (if a user doesn't have JavaScript enabled for some reason).

You're aware that WordPress themes control the look and feel of your site and that WordPress plugins can help your site do more, but we're going to take a look at exactly how those two components work within the WordPress system and how to use jQuery from either a theme or a WordPress plugin. In doing so, you'll be better able to take advantage of them when developing your jQuery enhancements.

Speaking of jQuery enhancements, jQuery scripts can be turned into their own type of plugins, not to be confused with WordPress plugins. This makes the work you do in jQuery easily portable to different projects and uses.

Between these three components, themes, WordPress plugins, and jQuery plugins, you'll find that just about anything you can dream of creating is at your fingertips. Even better, you'll realize that most of the work is already done. All three of these component types have extensive libraries of already developed third-party creations. Most are free! If they aren't free, you'll be prepared to determine if they're worth their price.

By understanding the basics of editing themes and creating your own WordPress and jQuery plugins, you'll be ready to traverse the world of third-party creations and find the best solutions for your projects. You'll also be able to determine if it's better or faster to work with another developer's themes, plugins, or jQuery plugins, versus creating your own from scratch.

WordPress themes overview

A WordPress theme is, according to the WordPress codex, a collection of files that work together to produce a graphical interface with an underlying unifying design for a weblog. Themes comprise a collection of template files and web collateral such as images, CSS stylesheets, and JavaScript. Themes are what allow you to modify the way your WordPress site looks, without having to know much about how WordPress works, much less change how it works. There are plenty of sites that host free themes and or sell premium WordPress themes. A quick Google search for "wordpress themes" will give you an idea of the enormity of options available. However, when first looking for or researching themes, a good place to start is always WordPress' free theme gallery where you can easily review and demo different themes and styles: http://wordpress.org/extend/themes/. The next screenshot shows the main page of the WordPress theme's directory:

(Move the mouse over the image to enlarge.)

Once you've selected a theme to use or work with, you'll activate the theme by navigating to Administration | Appearance | Themes in the left-hand side panel of your WordPress installation's administration panel. The next screenshot displays the Manage Themes panel:

That's the minimum you need to know about themes as a WordPress user.

The basics of a WordPress theme

The WordPress theme essentially contains the HTML and CSS that wrap and style your WordPress content. Thus, it's usually the first place you'll start when incorporating jQuery into a site. Most of the time, this is a good approach. Understanding a bit more about how themes work can only make your jQuery development go a little smoother. Let's take a look at how themes are structured and best practices for editing them.

Want to know more about WordPress theme design?
This title focuses on what you most need to know to work with jQuery in WordPress. If you're interested in WordPress theme development I highly recommend April Hodge Silver and Hasin Hayer's WordPress 2.7 Complete. Along with covering the complete core competencies for managing a WordPress site, it has an overview on editing and creating standard themes for WordPress.
If you want to really dig deep into theme design, my title WordPress 2.8 Theme Design will walk you through creating a working HTML and CSS design mockup and coding it up from scratch.

Understanding the template's hierarchy

We've discussed that a WordPress theme comprises many file types including template pages. Template pages have a structure or hierarchy to them. That means, if one template type is not present, then the WordPress system will call up the next level template type. This allows developers to create themes that are fantastically detailed, which take full advantage of all of the hierarchy's available template page types, to make the setup unbelievably simple. It's possible to have a fully functioning WordPress theme that consists of no more than an index.php file!

To really leverage a theme for jQuery enhancement (not to mention help you with general WordPress troubleshooting), it's good to start with an understanding of the theme's hierarchy.

In addition to these template files, themes of course also include image files, stylesheets, and even custom template pages, and PHP code files. Essentially, you can have 14 different default page templates in your WordPress theme, not including your style.css sheet or includes such as header.php, sidebar.php, and searchform.php. You can have more template pages than that if you take advantage of WordPress' capability for individual custom page, category, and tag templates.

If you open up the default theme's directory that we've been working with, you'll see most of these template files as well as an image directory, style.css and the js directory with the custom-jquery.js file. The following screenshot shows you the main files in WordPress 3.0's new default theme, Twenty Ten:

Understanding jQuery and WordPress Together

The next list contains the general template hierarchy rules. The absolute simplest theme you can have must contain an index.php page. If no other specific template pages exist, then index.php is the default.

You can then begin expanding your theme by adding the following pages:

  • archive.php trumps index.php when a category, tag, date, or author page is viewed.
  • home.php trumps index.php when the home page is viewed.
  • single.php trumps index.php when an individual post is viewed.
  • search.php trumps index.php when the results from a search are viewed.
  • 404.php trumps index.php when the URI address finds no existing content.
  • page.php trumps index.php when looking at a static page.
    • A custom template page, such as: page_about.php, when selected through the page's Administration panel, trumps page.php, which trumps index.php when that particular page is viewed.
  • category.php trumps archive.php, which then trumps index.php when a category is viewed.
    • A custom category-ID page, such as: category-12.php trumps category.php. This then trumps archive.php, which trumps index.php.
  • tag.php trumps archive.php. This in turn trumps index.php when a tag page is viewed.
    • A custom tag-tagname page, such as: tag-reviews.php trumps tag.php. This trumps archive.php, which trumps index.php.
  • author.php trumps archive.php. This in turn trumps index.php, when an author page is viewed.
  • date.php trumps archive.php. This trumps index.php when a date page is viewed.

You can learn more about the WordPress theme template hierarchy here:http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Hierarchy.

A whole new theme

If you wanted to create a new theme or if you'll be modifying a theme considerably, you'll want to create a directory with a file structure similar to the hierarchy explained previously. Again, because it's hierarchal, you don't have to create every single page suggested, higher up pages will assume the role unless you decide otherwise. As I've mentioned, it is possible to have a working theme with nothing but an index.php file.

I'll be modifying the default theme, yet would like the original default theme available for reference. I'll make a copy of the default theme's directory and rename it to: twentyten-wp-jq. WordPress depends on the theme directories namespace. Meaning, each theme requires a uniquely named folder! Otherwise, you'll copy over another theme. The next screenshot shows this directory's creation:

Understanding jQuery and WordPress Together

I'll then open up the style.css file and modify the information at the beginning of the CSS file:

/*
Theme Name: Twenty Ten - <b>edited for Chapter 3
of WordPress & jQuery</b>
Theme URI: http://wordpress.org/
Description: The 2010 default theme for WordPress.
Author: the WordPress team <b>& Tessa Silver</b>
Version: 1.0
Tags: black, blue, white, two-columns, fixed-width,
custom-header, custom-background, threaded-comments,
sticky-post, translation-ready, microformats, rtl-language-support,
editor-style
*/
...

My "new" theme will then show up in the administration panel's Manage Themes page. You can take a new screenshot to update your new or modified theme. If there is no screenshot, the frame will display a grey box. As the look of the theme is going to change a little, I've removed the screenshot.png file from the directory for now, as you can see in the next screenshot:

The Loop

We know how useful it is when jQuery "loops" through selected elements in a wrapper for you. WordPress does a little looping of its own; in fact, it's important enough to be named "The Loop". The Loop is an essential part of your WordPress theme. It displays your posts in chronological order and lets you define custom display properties with various WordPress template tags wrapped in HTML markup.

The Loop in WordPress is a while loop and therefore starts with the PHP code: while (have_posts()): followed by the template tag the_post(). All the markup and additional template tags are then applied to each post that gets looped through for display. The Loop is then ended with the PHP endwhile statement.

Every template page view can have its own loop so that you can modify and change the look and layout of each type of post sort. Every template page is essentially, just sorting your posts in different ways. For example, different category or tag template pages sort and refine your posts down to meet specific criteria. Those sorted posts can appear different from posts on your main page, or in your archive lists, and so on. The next example is a very simple loop taken from WordPress 2.9.2's default Kubrick theme:

...

<?php while (have_posts()) : the_post(); ?>
<div <?php post_class() ?> id="post-<?php the_ID(); ?>">
<h2>
<a href="<?php the_permalink() ?>"
rel="bookmark" title="Permanent Link to
<?php the_title_attribute(); ?>">
<?php the_title(); ?>
</a>
</h2>
<small><?php the_time('F jS, Y') ?>
<!-- by <?php the_author() ?> -->
</small>

<div class="entry">
<?php the_content('Read the rest of this entry &raquo;'); ?>
</div>

<p class="postmetadata">
<?php the_tags('Tags: ', ', ', '<br />'); ?>
Posted in <?php the_category(', ') ?> |
<?php edit_post_link('Edit', '', ' | '); ?>
<?php comments_popup_link('No Comments &#187;',
'1 Comment &#187;', '% Comments &#187;'); ?>
</p>
</div>
<?php endwhile; ?>

...

The loop is tucked into a large if/else statement that most importantly checks if there are posts to sort. If there are no matching posts to display, a "Sorry" message is displayed, and the searchform.php file is included with the get_search_form() include tag.

The new WordPress 3.0 Twenty Ten theme has its loop separated out into its own template page called loop.php, and it has quite a few more if/else statements within it so that the same loop code can handle many different situations, instead of writing individual loops for different template pages. On the whole, the same basic template tags as well as conditional and include tags are used in the new theme as they were before in the previous default theme. There are now just a few new template and include tags that help you streamline your theme.

Let's take a closer look at some of these template tags, include and conditional tags, and the API hooks available to us in a WordPress theme.

WordPress 3.0 jQuery Enhance your WordPress website with the captivating effects of jQuery.
Published: September 2010
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(For more resources on WordPress and jQuery, see here.)

Tags and hooks

Within The Loop, you probably noticed some interesting bits of code wrapped in PHP tags. The code isn't pure PHP, most of them are WordPress-specific tags and functions such as template tags, which only work within a WordPress system. The most obviously important template tags in The Loop are the_title(), and the_content(). You'll notice that most tags and functions can have various parameters passed through them. You'll notice that in the previous code snippet, the_content tag has a parameter 'Read the rest of this entry &raquo;' passed to it. That string of text with a right angle quote, will appear if the <!--more--> tag is placed into a post.

Not all WordPress tags and functions go inside the loop. If you poked around the header.php file, you probably noticed things such as blog_info() and body_class(), and of course the wp_enqueue_script() that we used to register jQuery in our installation.

When having to work with theme template files for development and enhancement, I've found that the following template tags and functions are useful to recognize and know:

  • bloginfo()—this tag can be passed parameters to retrieve all sorts of information about your blog. In the header.php file, you'll note it's most commonly used to find your stylesheet directory bloginfo('stylesheet_directory') and stylesheet URL bloginfo('stylesheet_url'). It can also display your RSS URL, what version of WordPress your site is running, and quite a few other details. For more details, have a look at: http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/bloginfo.
  • wp_title()—this tag can be outside the loop and it displays the title of a page or single post (not a sorted list of several posts). You can pass it a few options such as what text separator to use in the title, and if the separator text should show up on the left or the right. You can also pass this tag a Boolean true or false to display the title. wp_title("--",true,"right"). For more details, have a look at http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/wp_title.
  • the_title()—this tag goes inside the loop. It displays the title of the current post and you can pass it any text characters you'd like the title to be wrapped in: the_title("<h2>", "</h2>"). For more details, have a look at http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/the_title.
  • the_content()—this tag goes inside the loop and it displays the post's content. If you don't pass it any params, it will display a generic Read More link if the <!--more--> tag is used in the post. Otherwise, you can pass it what you'd like the 'read more' instructions to say (I've even found passing an existing tag works here. the_content("Continue Reading".the_title()). For more details, have a look at http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/the_content.
  • the_category()—this tag also has to go into the loop and it displays a link or links to the categories assigned to the post. You can pass it the text separators of your choice if there's more than one category. the_category(", "). For more details, have a look at http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/the_category.
  • the_author_meta()—this tag also has to go into the loop. It has a wealth of parameters that can be passed to it. You'll be most familiar with the_author_meta("nickname"), or the_author_meta("first_name"), or the_author_meta("last_name"). You can also get the author's bio, the_author_meta("description"), as well as e-mail and website URLs. Your best bet is to review the codex for all that you can do with this tag: http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags/the_author_meta.

The WordPress template tag library is extensive and the creative ways you can use the tags in your themes can just stretch to infinity. I've included the tags that make a template useful and great, but by all means, do check out the codex:
http://codex.wordpress.org/Template_Tags.

Conditional tags

The conditional tags can be used in your template files to change what content is displayed and how that content is displayed on a particular page depending on what conditions that page matches. For example, you might want to display a snippet of text above the series of posts, but only on the main page of your blog. With the is_home() conditional tag, that task is made easy.

There are conditional tags for just about everything; out of all of them, these are the few that I find I need most in my theme development:

  • is_page()
  • is_home() or is_front_page()
  • is_single()
  • is_sticky()

All of those functions can take the following parameters: the post ID or page ID number, the post or page title, or the post or page slug. As great as themes are, I'm sure you've run into the conundrum that you or your client doesn't want the exact same sidebar on every single page or post.

I use these conditional tags to ensure specific pages can have particular styles or divs of content turned on and off and display or not display specific content. These tags really help give project sites a true, custom website feel.

The conditional tag fun doesn't end there. There are many more that you may find invaluable in aiding your theme's customization:
http://codex.wordpress.org/Conditional_Tags.

Template include tags

In the index.php template page and other template pages like single.php or page.php and so on, you probably noticed these include tags. They let you include standard page includes into the other template pages:

  • get_header()
  • get_footer()
  • get_sidebar()
  • comments_template()
  • custom include:include(TEMPLATEPATH."/file-name.php")

Creating custom header, footer, sidebar includes

A while back, WordPress 2.7 introduced the ability to create custom headers, footers, and sidebar templates for a theme. You simply create your custom header, footer, or sidebar and call it using the standard include template tag. Be sure to add a file prefix of header-, footer-, or sidebar-, and your own file name. You can then call your custom template file as follows:

  • get_header('customHeader') will include header-customHeader.php
  • get_footer('customFooter') will include footer-customFooter.php
  • get_sidebar('customSidebar') will include sidebar-customSidebar.php

Plugin hooks

In general, unless you're a plugin developer, you probably don't have much need to pour over the plugin API. There are, however, a few hooks that should be placed into themes in order for plugins to work effectively with your theme. If you're editing a theme, be sure to not remove these hook tags, or if you're creating a custom theme, be sure to include them:

  • wp_head: Place within the <head> tags of a header.php template:

    <?php wp_head(); ?>

  • wp_footer: Place within the footer.php template:

    <?php wp_footer(); ?>

  • wp_meta: You'll most likely place this hook within the sidebar.php template. However, it's best to add this hook wherever you intend plugins and widgets to appear:

    <?php wp_meta(); ?>

  • comment_form: Goes in comments.php and comments-popup.php before the </form> closing tag:

    <?php do_action('comment_form'); ?>

Project: Editing the main loop and sidebar in the default theme

Alright! That may seem like a lot to know about themes! As someone just looking to enhance a WordPress site with jQuery, you may be asking: "Is it really necessary to know all that?" Even if you have no interest in creating custom themes, from time to time, when working with jQuery, you'll find it very useful to be able to understand how WordPress themes work, what HTML markup the theme is outputting, and what most of the different tags and functions do.

Granted, I strongly advocated that you learn how to handle jQuery's selectors, inside and out, specifically so that you would be able to enhance any WordPress site without having to edit its theme. While you should know your jQuery selectors and filters like the back of your hand, it's not always the quickest or easiest approach. Sometimes, while you can select and edit anything that you want on the page, the jQuery selection process and statement chain is bloated; it could be cleaned up and trimmed down if only some element just had a specific HTML tag, class or id attribute. There will be lots of situations where being able to edit the theme directly will allow you to create your jQuery enhancements faster and with less code. Not to mention, many themes are great, but can usually be made a little better and more customized to your site with just the simplest theme tweaks. Let's do that now and take what we've just learned about themes and put it to use.

Now, the new Twenty Ten default theme we're using is great, but it would be better if the date was a bit more prominent in the posts and if the Sidebar was cleaned up to look more like "official" links, instead of just lists of bullets.

Changing the loop

Since we're touching up the theme, I want to change what the loop displays. We're going to assume this is a site for a client, and I know the client will eventually want to focus on the post's authors (there are many authors on this "hypothetical" site) and while the date is important, it shouldn't be on the same line as the author's name. I'm sure you've seen some blogs that have a little calendar or iCal-ish icons next to the post. I think that's a visually appealing way to display information like that, and not have the date take up a lot of room.

Using the free open source vector editor Inkscape (http://inkscape.org), I made a calendar background icon that can have the day's date up top in red and the three letter month below it. The icon is about 32 pixels square. You can use whichever graphic program you prefer, GIMP, Photoshop, Illustrator, and so on, to create a similar icon, or you can probably find a royalty-free image on the Web.

To get our calendar background behind our date and formatted properly, let's dig into the loop. The default theme's loop is located inside the template file called loop.php. This is a much longer loop than you may be used to if this is your first time working with the Twenty Ten default theme. Ultimately, we're interested in the "normal" or "everything else" view that is displayed on the site's "home" or default blog page. You'll find this code around line 127 starting with <div class="entry-meta">.

To start, comment out the custom PHP function twentyten_posted_on (it references a custom function in the theme's function.php file), and then add the following HTML markup and PHP template tags in bold:

...
<div class="entry-meta">
<?php //twentyten_posted_on();//comment this out ?>
<small class="date">
<?php the_time('d') ?><br/>
<span><?php the_time('M') ?></span>
</small>
</div><!-- .entry-meta -->
...

What we're focusing on is the date display. The date is displayed with a template tag called the_time which has parameters set to display the full month, the day "as said", and the year; for example; February 4, 2010.

I just want to display the date's number and the three-letter abbreviation of the month underneath that. the_time tag's parameters don't really let me add HTML break tags, so I'll separate my date into two separate the_time tag calls so that I can control the HTML a little better. I'll also want to ensure my style only applies to this loop and not the <small> date and content that's wrapped in other template page's loops, so I'll be sure to add a custom date class to the <small> tag. I'll also wrap the year date display inside some <span> tags so that I can have some additional style control over it. My date display and classes end up looking like this:

...
<small class="date">
<?php the_time('d') ?><br/>
<span><?php the_time('M') ?></span>
<!-- by <?php the_author() ?>-->
</small>
...

We'll then open up the CSS style.css stylesheet and add the rules for the special class name that we added to the date display, and modify the header display. I simply add my modifications to the very bottom of the style.css stylesheet. If on the odd chance, any of my style names are the same as anything already defined in the stylesheet, my rules will inherit from the previous rule and amend it (Either that, or make it blatantly clear that I need a more unique style name.)

First, I'll move the h2 headers on the home page itself that are inside the .post class over 40 pixels, in order to make room for my date. Next, I'll move my date inside the .post class up about 25 pixels to have it sit next to the header. Within this rule, I also assign the dateBackground.png that I created in Inkscape and tweak the date number's size, color, and a few other properties a bit. Lastly, I set my month display size and color inside the span tag as follows:

...
/*----------twentyten chapter 3 customizations------------*/
.home .post .entry-title{
padding-left: 40px;
}
.post small.date{
display:block;
background: url(images/dateBackground.png) no-repeat;
margin-top: -25px;
padding-top: 4px;
width: 32px;
height: 32px;
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 12px;
text-align: center;
color: #eee;
}

.post small.date span{
font-size: 10px;
color: #666;
}
...

And with that, the next screenshot shows what our post's headers and dates appear like now:

Understanding jQuery and WordPress Together

Not bad! Now, let's tackle the sidebar.

Changing the sidebar

The sidebar will be easy. The whole thing in the Twenty Ten default theme is widgetized, so any reordering that we want to do can be done through the administration panel. However, we do want to adjust the CSS of the sidebar's bulleted lists a bit. When amending a theme you didn't create yourself from scratch, it's always best to add new classes to the markup and stylesheet, rather than change or edit any of the original styles that the author put in. This just makes it easier to revert for various reasons. As you must have noticed earlier, I always add my new custom styles to the bottom of the style.css stylesheet.

Let's start off by opening up sidebar.php in our editor and just adding in a new class name that we can use to style any widgets that get loaded up into any of the widget areas. Wherever I find a <ul class="xoxo"> tag, I'll just add an additional class called .currentsidebar after the .xoxo class. This appears twice in the sidebar.php file approximately around line 12, and again, approximately around line 51.

...
<ul class="xoxo currentsidebar">
...
<ul class="xoxo currentsidebar">
...

Next, we'll now simply open up our style.css stylesheet, and again at its bottom, let's write up our new .currentsidebar CSS rules to affect the list items:

...
.currentsidebar li{
padding: 0;
margin: 15px 0 20px 0;
}

.currentsidebar li ul li{
list-style: none;
padding: 5px 0; margin: 0 0 0 -15px; border-bottom: 1px solid #ddd;
font-size: 105%;
}
...

As you can see in the next screenshot, our page and sidebar navigation now look like this:

As you can see, touching up a WordPress theme is easy. Not only can you customize your theme to look and work the way you want, you can imagine how easy it is to tweak the theme's HTML markup so that your jQuery enhancements are easier to add in.

Summary

In this article we understood what WordPress themes are and how to edit a theme.

In the next article, The Basics of WordPress and jQuery Plugin, we will take a look at WordPress and jQuery Plugins


Further resources on this subject:


WordPress 3.0 jQuery Enhance your WordPress website with the captivating effects of jQuery.
Published: September 2010
eBook Price: $26.99
Book Price: $44.99
See more
Select your format and quantity:

About the Author :


Tessa Blakeley Silver

Tessa Blakeley Silver's background is in print design and traditional illustration. She evolved over the years into web and multi-media development, where she focuses on usability and interface design. Prior to starting her consulting and development company hyper3media (pronounced hyper-cube media) http://hyper3media.com, Tessa was the VP of Interactive Technologies at eHigherEducation, an online learning and technology company developing compelling multimedia simulations, interactions, and games that met online educational requirements like 508, AICC, and SCORM. She has also worked as a consultant and freelancer for J. Walter Thompson and The Diamond Trading Company (formerly known as DeBeers) and was a Design Specialist and Senior Associate for PricewaterhouseCoopers' East Region Marketing department. Tessa authors several design and web technology blogs. Joomla! Template Design is her first book.

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