The EventBus Class

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by Bill Bejeck | September 2013 | Java Open Source

In this article by Bill Bejeck, the author of Getting started with Google Guava, discusses Guava that will give Java developers a boost in their productivity and the introduction of the functional programming idioms provided by Guava.

In this article, we are going to cover the following things:

  • The EventBus and AsyncEventBus classes
  • Subscribing to events and registering with EventBus to be notified of events
  • Publishing events with EventBus
  • Writing event handlers and choosing between coarse-grained or fine-grained event handlers depending on our needs
  • Using a dependency injection framework in conjunction with EventBus

(For more resources related to this topic, see here.)

When developing software, the idea of objects sharing information or collaborating with each other is a must. The difficulty lies in ensuring that communication between objects is done effectively, but not at the cost of having highly coupled components. Objects are considered highly coupled when they have too much detail about other components' responsibilities. When we have high coupling in an application, maintenance becomes very challenging, as any change can have a rippling effect. To help us cope with this software design issue; we have event-based programming. In event-based programming, objects can either subscribe/listen for specific events, or publish events to be consumed. In Java, we have had the idea of event listeners for some time. An event listener is an object whose purpose is to be notified when a specific event occurs. In this article, we are going to discuss the Guava EventBus class and how it facilitates the publishing and subscribing of events. The EventBus class will allow us to achieve the level of collaboration we desire, while doing so in a manner that results in virtually no coupling between objects. It's worth noting that the EventBus is a lightweight, in-process publish/subscribe style of communication, and is not meant for inter-process communication.

We are going to cover several classes in this article that have an @Beta annotation indicating that the functionality of the class may be subject to change in future releases of Guava.

EventBus

The EventBus class (found in the com.google.common.eventbus package) is the focal point for establishing the publish/subscribe-programming paradigm with Guava. At a very high level, subscribers will register with EventBus to be notified of particular events, and publishers will send events to EventBus for distribution to interested subscribers. All the subscribers are notified serially, so it's important that any code performed in the event-handling method executes quickly.

Creating an EventBus instance

Creating an EventBus instance is accomplished by merely making a call to the EventBus constructor:

EventBus eventBus = new EventBus();

We could also provide an optional string argument to create an identifier (for logging purposes) for EventBus:

EventBus eventBus = new EventBus(TradeAccountEvent.class.getName());

Subscribing to events

The following three steps are required by an object to receive notifications from EventBus,:

  1. The object needs to define a public method that accepts only one argument. The argument should be of the event type for which the object is interested in receiving notifications.
  2. The method exposed for an event notification is annotated with an @Subscribe annotation.
  3. Finally, the object registers with an instance of EventBus, passing itself as an argument to the EventBus.register method.

Posting the events

To post an event, we need to pass an event object to the EventBus.post method. EventBus will call the registered subscriber handler methods, taking arguments those are assignable to the event object type. This is a very powerful concept because interfaces, superclasses, and interfaces implemented by superclasses are included, meaning we can easily make our event handlers as course- or fine-grained as we want, simply by changing the type accepted by the event-handling method.

Defining handler methods

Methods used as event handlers must accept only one argument, the event object. As mentioned before, EventBus will call event-handling methods serially, so it's important that those methods complete quickly. If any extended processing needs to be done as a result of receiving an event, it's best to run that code in a separate thread.

Concurrency

EventBus will not call the handler methods from multiple threads, unless the handler method is marked with the @AllowConcurrentEvent annotation. By marking a handler method with the @AllowConcurrentEvent annotation, we are asserting that our handler method is thread-safe. Annotating a handler method with the @AllowConcurrentEvent annotation by itself will not register a method with EventBus.

Now that we have defined how we can use EventBus, let's look at some examples.

Subscribe – An example

Let's assume we have defined the following TradeAccountEvent class as follows:

public class TradeAccountEvent { private double amount; private Date tradeExecutionTime; private TradeType tradeType; private TradeAccount tradeAccount; public TradeAccountEvent(TradeAccount account, double amount,
Date tradeExecutionTime, TradeType tradeType) { checkArgument(amount > 0.0, "Trade can't be less than zero"); this.amount = amount; this.tradeExecutionTime = checkNotNull(tradeExecutionTime,
"ExecutionTime can't be null"); this.tradeAccount = checkNotNull(account,"Account can't be null"); this.tradeType = checkNotNull(tradeType,"TradeType can't be null"); } //Details left out for clarity

So whenever a buy or sell transaction is executed, we will create an instance of the TradeAccountEvent class. Now let's assume we have a need to audit the trades as they are being executed, so we have the SimpleTradeAuditor class as follows:

public class SimpleTradeAuditor { private List<TradeAccountEvent> tradeEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); public SimpleTradeAuditor(EventBus eventBus){ eventBus.register(this); } @Subscribe public void auditTrade(TradeAccountEvent tradeAccountEvent){ tradeEvents.add(tradeAccountEvent); System.out.println("Received trade "+tradeAccountEvent); } }

Let's quickly walk through what is happening here. In the constructor, we are receiving an instance of an EventBus class and immediately register the SimpleTradeAuditor class with the EventBus instance to receive notifications on TradeAccountEvents. We have designated auditTrade as the event-handling method by placing the @Subscribe annotation on the method. In this case, we are simply adding the TradeAccountEvent object to a list and printing out to the console acknowledgement that we received the trade.

Event Publishing – An example

Now let's take a look at a simple event publishing example. For executing our trades, we have the following class:

public class SimpleTradeExecutor { private EventBus eventBus; public SimpleTradeExecutor(EventBus eventBus) { this.eventBus = eventBus; } public void executeTrade(TradeAccount tradeAccount, double amount,
TradeType tradeType){ TradeAccountEvent tradeAccountEvent = processTrade(tradeAccount,
amount, tradeType); eventBus.post(tradeAccountEvent); } private TradeAccountEvent processTrade(TradeAccount tradeAccount,
double amount, TradeType tradeType){ Date executionTime = new Date(); String message = String.format("Processed trade for %s of amount
%n type %s @ %s",tradeAccount,amount,tradeType,executionTime); TradeAccountEvent tradeAccountEvent = new TradeAccountEvent
(tradeAccount,amount,executionTime,tradeType); System.out.println(message); return tradeAccountEvent; } }

Like the SimpleTradeAuditor class, we are taking an instance of the EventBus class in the SimpleTradeExecutor constructor. But unlike the SimpleTradeAuditor class, we are storing a reference to the EventBus for later use. While this may seem obvious to most, it is critical for the same instance to be passed to both classes. We will see in future examples how to use multiple EventBus instances, but in this case, we are using a single instance. Our SimpleTradeExecutor class has one public method, executeTrade, which accepts all of the required information to process a trade in our simple example. In this case, we call the processTrade method, passing along the required information and printing to the console that our trade was executed, then returning a TradeAccountEvent instance. Once the processTrade method completes, we make a call to EventBus.post with the returned TradeAccountEvent instance, which will notify any subscribers of the TradeAccountEvent object. If we take a quick view of both our publishing and subscribing examples, we see that although both classes participate in the sharing of required information, neither has any knowledge of the other.

Finer-grained subscribing

We have just seen examples on publishing and subscribing using the EventBus class. If we recall, EventBus publishes events based on the type accepted by the subscribed method. This gives us some flexibility to send events to different subscribers by type. For example, let's say we want to audit the buy and sell trades separately. First, let's create two separate types of events:

public class SellEvent extends TradeAccountEvent { public SellEvent(TradeAccount tradeAccount, double amount,
Date tradExecutionTime) { super(tradeAccount, amount, tradExecutionTime, TradeType.SELL); } } public class BuyEvent extends TradeAccountEvent { public BuyEvent(TradeAccount tradeAccount, double amount,
Date tradExecutionTime) { super(tradeAccount, amount, tradExecutionTime, TradeType.BUY); } }

Now we have created two discrete event classes, SellEvent and BuyEvent, both of which extend the TradeAccountEvent class. To enable separate auditing, we will first create a class for auditing SellEvent instances:

public class TradeSellAuditor { private List<SellEvent> sellEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); public TradeSellAuditor(EventBus eventBus) { eventBus.register(this); } @Subscribe public void auditSell(SellEvent sellEvent){ sellEvents.add(sellEvent); System.out.println("Received SellEvent "+sellEvent); } public List<SellEvent> getSellEvents() { return sellEvents; } }

Here we see functionality that is very similar to the SimpleTradeAuditor class with the exception that this class will only receive the SellEvent instances. Then we will create a class for auditing only the BuyEvent instances:

public class TradeBuyAuditor { private List<BuyEvent> buyEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); public TradeBuyAuditor(EventBus eventBus) { eventBus.register(this); } @Subscribe public void auditBuy(BuyEvent buyEvent){ buyEvents.add(buyEvent); System.out.println("Received TradeBuyEvent "+buyEvent); } public List<BuyEvent> getBuyEvents() { return buyEvents; } }

Now we just need to refactor our SimpleTradeExecutor class to create the correct TradeAccountEvent instance class based on whether it's a buy or sell transaction:

public class BuySellTradeExecutor { … deatails left out for clarity same as SimpleTradeExecutor //The executeTrade() method is unchanged from SimpleTradeExecutor private TradeAccountEvent processTrade(TradeAccount tradeAccount,
double amount, TradeType tradeType) { Date executionTime = new Date(); String message = String.format("Processed trade for %s of amount %n
type %s @ %s", tradeAccount, amount, tradeType, executionTime); TradeAccountEvent tradeAccountEvent; if (tradeType.equals(TradeType.BUY)) { tradeAccountEvent = new BuyEvent(tradeAccount, amount,
executionTime); } else { tradeAccountEvent = new SellEvent(tradeAccount, amount,
executionTime); } System.out.println(message); return tradeAccountEvent; } }

Here we've created a new BuySellTradeExecutor class that behaves in the exact same manner as our SimpleTradeExecutor class, with the exception that depending on the type of transaction, we create either a BuyEvent or SellEvent instance. However, the EventBus class is completely unaware of any of these changes. We have registered different subscribers and we are posting different events, but these changes are transparent to the EventBus instance. Also, take note that we did not have to create separate classes for the notification of events. Our SimpleTradeAuditor class would have continued to receive the events as they occurred. If we wanted to do separate processing depending on the type of event, we could simply add a check for the type of event. Finally, if needed, we could also have a class that has multiple subscribe methods defined:

public class AllTradesAuditor { private List<BuyEvent> buyEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); private List<SellEvent> sellEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); public AllTradesAuditor(EventBus eventBus) { eventBus.register(this); } @Subscribe public void auditSell(SellEvent sellEvent){ sellEvents.add(sellEvent); System.out.println("Received TradeSellEvent "+sellEvent); } @Subscribe public void auditBuy(BuyEvent buyEvent){ buyEvents.add(buyEvent); System.out.println("Received TradeBuyEvent "+buyEvent); } }

Here we've created a class with two event-handling methods. The AllTradesAuditor method will receive notifications about all trade events; it's just a matter of which method gets called by EventBus depending on the type of event. Taken to an extreme, we could create an event handling method that accepts a type of Object, as Object is an actual class (the base class for all other objects in Java), and we could receive notifications on any and all events processed by EventBus. Finally, there is nothing preventing us from having more than one EventBus instance. If we were to refactor the BuySellTradeExecutor class into two separate classes, we could inject a separate EventBus instance into each class. Then it would be a matter of injecting the correct EventBus instance into the auditing classes, and we could have complete event publishing-subscribing independence.

Unsubscribing to events

Just as we want to subscribe to events, it may be desirable at some point to turn off the receiving of events. This is accomplished by passing the subscribed object to the eventBus.unregister method. For example, if we know at some point that we would want to stop processing events, we could add the following method to our subscribing class:

public void unregister(){ this.eventBus.unregister(this); }

Once this method is called, that particular instance will stop receiving events for whatever it had previously registered for. Other instances that are registered for the same event will continue to receive notifications.

AsyncEventBus

We stated earlier the importance of ensuring that our event-handling methods keep the processing light due to the fact that the EventBus processes all events in a serial fashion. However, we have another option with the AsyncEventBus class. The AsyncEventBus class offers the exact same functionality as the EventBus, but uses a provided java.util.concurrent.Executor instance to execute handler methods asynchronously.

Creating an AsyncEventBus instance

We create an AsyncEventBus instance in a manner similar to the EventBus instance:

AsyncEventBus asyncEventBus = new AsyncEventBus(executorService);

Here we are creating an AsyncEventBus instance by providing a previously created ExecutorService instance. We also have the option of providing a String identifier in addition to the ExecutorService instance. AsyncEventBus is very helpful to use in situations where we suspect the subscribers are performing heavy processing when events are received.

DeadEvents

When EventBus receives a notification of an event through the post method, and there are no registered subscribers, the event is wrapped in an instance of a DeadEvent class. Having a class that subscribes for DeadEvent instances can be very helpful when trying to ensure that all events have registered subscribers. The DeadEvent class exposes a getEvent method that can be used to inspect the original event that was undelivered. For example, we could provide a very simple class, which is shown as follows:

public class DeadEventSubscriber { private static final Logger logger =
Logger.getLogger(DeadEventSubscriber.class); public DeadEventSubscriber(EventBus eventBus) { eventBus.register(this); } @Subscribe public void handleUnsubscribedEvent(DeadEvent deadEvent){ logger.warn("No subscribers for "+deadEvent.getEvent()); } }

Here we are simply registering for any DeadEvent instances and logging a warning for the original unclaimed event.

Dependency injection

To ensure we have registered our subscribers and publishers with the same instance of an EventBus class, using a dependency injection framework (Spring or Guice) makes a lot of sense. In the following example, we will show how to use the Spring Framework Java configuration with the SimpleTradeAuditor and SimpleTradeExecutor classes. First, we need to make the following changes to the SimpleTradeAuditor and SimpleTradeExecutor classes:

@Component public class SimpleTradeExecutor { private EventBus eventBus; @Autowired public SimpleTradeExecutor(EventBus eventBus) { this.eventBus = checkNotNull(eventBus, "EventBus can't be null"); } @Component public class SimpleTradeAuditor { private List<TradeAccountEvent> tradeEvents = Lists.newArrayList(); @Autowired public SimpleTradeAuditor(EventBus eventBus){ checkNotNull(eventBus,"EventBus can't be null"); eventBus.register(this); }

Here we've simply added an @Component annotation at the class level for both the classes. This is done to enable Spring to pick these classes as beans, which we want to inject. In this case, we want to use constructor injection, so we added an @Autowired annotation to the constructor for each class. Having the @Autowired annotation tells Spring to inject an instance of an EventBus class into the constructor for both objects. Finally, we have our configuration class that instructs the Spring Framework where to look for components to wire up with the beans defined in the configuration class.

@Configuration @ComponentScan(basePackages = {"bbejeck.guava.article7.publisher", "bbejeck.guava.article7.subscriber"}) public class EventBusConfig { @Bean public EventBus eventBus() { return new EventBus(); } }

Here we have the @Configuration annotation, which identifies this class to Spring as a Context that contains the beans to be created and injected if need be. We defined the eventBus method that constructs and returns an instance of an EventBus class, which is injected into other objects. In this case, since we placed the @Autowired annotation on the constructors of the SimpleTradeAuditor and SimpleTradeExecutor classes, Spring will inject the same EventBus instance into both classes, which is exactly what we want to do. While a full discussion of how the Spring Framework functions is beyond the scope of this book, it is worth noting that Spring creates singletons by default, which is exactly what we want here. As we can see, using a dependency injection framework can go a long way in ensuring that our event-based system is configured properly.

Summary

In this article, we have covered how to use event-based programing to reduce coupling in our code by using the Guava EventBus class. We covered how to create an EventBus instance and register subscribers and publishers. We also explored the powerful concept of using types to register what events we are interested in receiving. We learned about the AsyncEventBus class, which allows us to dispatch events asynchronously. We saw how we can use the DeadEvent class to ensure we have subscribers for all of our events. Finally, we saw how we can use dependency injection to ease the setup of our event-based system. In the next article, we will take a look at working with files in Guava.

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Getting Started with Google Guava Write better, more efficient Java, and have fun doing so! with this book and ebook
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About the Author :


Bill Bejeck

Bill Bejeck is a senior software engineer with 10 years experience across a wide range of projects. Currently he is working on the storage and analysis of financial data using Hadoop. He has a B.A in Economics from the University of Maryland and an M.S in Information Systems from Johns Hopkins University. Bill also enjoys blogging at http://codingjunkie.net.

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