Layout in Dojo: Part 1

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by Peter Svensson | July 2009 | Open Source

The layout widgets in Dojo can often be alternatives to complicated CSS rules. Many times it is necessary to create pages with a two- or three-column layout, sometimes with a header and/or footer as well.

The layout manager widgets let you create powerful layouts without using more than a minimum of custom CSS styling. The layout managers have a lot of carefully laid-out styling that you can benefit from without having to interact with it. The BorderContainer makes sure that it has a proper margin to the widget it contains, as well as adding (removable) ‘gutter’ border lines for default clarity, for example. The TabContainer lets you programmatically choose if you want the tabs on top, bottom, left, or right without using any custom CSS, and so on.

This two-part article by Peter Svensson will list a large number of layout widgets. Some are fully 'official', with accessibility support and internationalization. In this part, we will look at basic Dojo layout facts, ContentPane, container functions, DragPane, ExpandoPane, FloatingPane.

One of the biggest challenges in learning Dojo is the sheer volume of the framework. The layout managers are too important and too complicated to be reduced to a mere sentence or two, which explains the volume of this article.

After the near-exhaustive expose of different layout managers and supporting acts, there will be a couple of longer examples which, with some luck, will give you some good practical points to elaborate upon.

Basic Dojo layout facts

The Layout widgets in Dojo are varied in nature, but their most common use is as 'windows' or areas which organize and present other widgets or information. Several use the same kind of child elements the ContentPane.

The ContentPane is a widget which can contain other widgets and plain HTML, reload content using Ajax and so on. The ContentPane can also be used stand-alone in a page, but is more usable inside a layout container of some sort.

And what is a layout container? Well, it's a widget which contains ContentPanes, of course. A layout container can often contain other widgets as well, but most containers work very well with a different configuration of ContentPanes, which properly insulates the further contents.

Take the TabContainer, for example. It is used to organize two or more ContentPanes, where each gets its own tab. When a user clicks on one of the tabs, the ContentPane inside it is shown and all others are hidden.

Using BorderManager can bring the necessary CSS styling down to a minimum, while giving a simple interface for managing dynamic changes of child widgets and elements.

ContentPane

A ContentPane can look like anything of course, so it doesn't really help putting a screen-dump of one on the page. However, the interface is very good to know.

The following arguments are detected by ContentPane and can be used when creating one either programmatically or by markup:

// href: String
//The href of the content that displays now.
//Set this at construction if you want to load
data externally
//when the pane is shown.(Set preload=true to
load it immediately.)
//Changing href after creation doesn't have any effect;
//see setHref();
href: "",
//extractContent: Boolean
//Extract visible content from inside of
<body> .... </body>
extractContent: false,
//parseOnLoad: Boolean
//parse content and create the widgets, if any
parseOnLoad:true,
//preventCache: Boolean
//Cache content retreived externally
preventCache:false,
//preload: Boolean
//Force load of data even if pane is hidden.
preload: false,
//refreshOnShow: Boolean
//Refresh (re-download) content when pane goes
from hidden to shown
refreshOnShow: false,
//loadingMessage: String
//Message that shows while downloading
loadingMessage: "<span class='dijitContentPaneLoading'>$
{loadingState}</span>",
//errorMessage: String
//Message that shows if an error occurs
errorMessage: "<span class='dijitContentPaneError'>$
{errorState}
</span>",

You don't need any of those, of course. A simple way to create a ContentPane would be:

var pane = new dojo.layout.ContentPane({});

And a more common example would be the following:

var panediv = dojo.byId('panediv');
var pane = new dojo.layout.ContentPane({ href:
"/foo/content.html", preload: true}, panediv);

where we would have an element already in the page with the id 'panediv'.

As you see, there are also a couple of properties that manage caching and parsing of contents. At times, you want your ContentPane to parse and render any content inside it (if it contains other widgets), whereas other times you might not (if it contains a source code listing, for instance).

You will see additional properties being passed in the creation of a ContentPane which are not part of the ContentPane itself, but are properties that give information specific to the surrounding Container. For example, the TabContainer wants to know which tab this is, and so on.

Container functions

All container widgets arrange other widgets, and so have a lot of common functionality defined in the dijit._Container class. The following functions are provided for all Container widgets:

  • addChild: Adds a child widget to the container.
  • removeChild: Removes a child widget from the container.
  • destroyDescendants: Iterates over all children, calling destroy on each.
  • getChildren: Returns an array containing references to all children.
  • hasChildren: Returns a boolean.

LayoutContainer

The LayoutContainer is a widget which lays out children widgets according to one of five alignments: right, left, top, bottom, or client. Client means "whatever is left", basically.

The widgets being organized need not be ContentPanes, but this is normally the case. Each widget then gets to set a layoutAlign property, like this:

layoutAlign = "left".

The normal way to use LayoutContainer is to define it using markup in the page, and then define the widgets to be laid out inside it.

LayoutContainer has been superceeded by BorderContainer, and will be removed in Dojo version 2.0.

SplitContainer

The SplitContainer creates a horizontal or vertical split bar between two or more child widgets.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

A markup declaration of a SplitContainer can look like this:

<div dojoType="dijit.layout.SplitContainer"
orientation="vertical"
sizerWidth="7"
activeSizing="false"
style="border: 1px solid #bfbfbf; float: left;
margin-right: 30px; width: 400px; height: 300px;">

The SplitContainer must have a defined height and width. The orientation property is self-explanatory, as is sizerWidth. The property activeSizing means, if set to true, that the child widgets will be continually resized when the user changes the position of the sizer.

This can be bad if the child widgets are complex or access remote information to render themselves, in which case the setting can be set to false, as in the above example. Then the resize event will only be sent to the child widgets when the user stops.

Each child widget needs to define the sizeMin and sizeShare attributes. The sizeMin attribute defines the minimum size for the widget in pixels, but the sizeShare attribute is a relative value for the share of space this widget takes in relation to the other widget's sizeShare values.

If we have three widgets inside the SplitPane with sizeShare values of 10, 40 and 50, they will have the same ratios in size as if the values had been 1:4:5.

StackContainer

The StackContainer hides all children widgets but only one at any given time, and is one of the base classes for both the Accordion and TabContainers.

StackContainer exists as a separate widget to allow you to define how and when the child widgets are shown. Maybe you would like to define a special kind of control for changing between child widget views, or maybe you want other events in your application to make the Container show specific widgets.

Either way, the StackContainer is one of the most versatile Containers, along with the BorderContainer.

The following functions are provided for interacting with the StackContainer:

  • back - Selects and shows the previous child widget.
  • forward - Selects and shows the next child widget.
  • getNextSibling - Returns a reference to the next child widget.
  • getPreviousSibling - Returns a reference to the previous child widget.
  • selectChild - Takes a reference to the child widget to select and show.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

 

Here is the slightly abbreviated markup for the test shown above (test_StackContainer.html):

<div id="myStackContainer" dojoType="dijit.layout.StackContainer"
style="width: 90%; border: 1px solid #9b9b9b; height: 20em;
margin: 0.5em 0 0.5em 0; padding: 0.5em;">
<p id="page1" dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" title=
"page 1">IT WAS the best of times, ....</p>
<p id="page2" dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" title=
"page 2">There were a king with a large jaw ...</p>
<p id="page3" dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" title=
"page 3">It was the year of Our Lord one thousand seven
hundred and seventy- five. .../p>
</div>

The StackContainer also publishes topics on certain events which can be caught using the messaging system. The topics are:

  • [widgetId]-addChild
  • [widgetId]-removeChild
  • [widgetId]-selectChild
  • [widgetId]-containerKeyPress

Where [widgetId] is the id of this widget. So if you had a StackContainer defined in the following manner:

<div id="myStackContainer" dojoType="dijit.layout.
StackContainer">
...
</div>

You can use the following code to listen to events from your StackContainer:

dojo.subscribe("myStackContainer-addChild", this, 
function(arg)
{
var child = arg[0];
var index = arg[1];
});

Compare with the following code from the StackContainer class itself:

addChild: function(/*Widget*/ child, /*Integer?*/ insertIndex)
{
// summary: Adds a widget to the stack
this.inherited(arguments);
if(this._started)
{
// in case the tab titles have overflowed from one line
// to two lines
this.layout();
dojo.publish(this.id+"-addChild", [child, insertIndex]);
// if this is the first child, then select it
if(!this.selectedChildWidget)
{
this.selectChild(child);
}
}
},

Also declared in the class file for the StackContainer is the dijit.layout.StackController. This is a sample implementation of a separate widget which presents user controls for stepping forward, backward, and so on in the widget stack.

What differentiates this widget from the Tabs in the TabContainer, for example, is that the widget is completely separate and uses the message bus to listen to events from the StackContainer. You can use it as-is, or subclass it as a base for you own controllers.

But naturally, you can build whatever you want and connect the events to the forward() and back() function on the StackContainer.

It's interesting to note that at the end of the files that define StackContainer, the _Widget base class for all widgets is extended in the following way:

//These arguments can be specified for the children of a
//StackContainer.
//Since any widget can be specified as a StackContainer child,
//mix them into the base widget class. (This is a hack, but it's
//effective.)
dojo.extend(dijit._Widget, {
//title: String
//Title of this widget.Used by TabContainer to the name the tab, etc.
title: "",
//selected: Boolean
//Is this child currently selected?
selected: false,
//closable: Boolean
//True if user can close (destroy) this child, such as
//(for example) clicking the X on the tab.
closable: false, //true if user can close this tab pane
onClose: function(){
//summary: Callback if someone tries to close the child, child
//will be closed if func returns true
return true;
}
});

This means that all child widgets inside a StackContainer (or Tab or AccordionContainer) can define the above properties, which will be respected and used accordingly. However, since the properties are applied to the _Widget superclass they are of course now generic to all widgets, even those not used inside any containers at all.

The most commonly used property is the closable property, which adds a close icon to the widget and title, which defines a title for the tab.

A lot of Dijits respond to keypress events, according to WAI rules. Let's look at the code that is responsible for managing key events in StackContainer and all its descendants:

onkeypress: function(/*Event*/ e){
//summary:
//Handle keystrokes on the page list, for advancing to
next/previous button
//and closing the current page if the page is closable.
if(this.disabled || e.altKey ){ return; }
var forward = null;
if(e.ctrlKey || !e._djpage){
var k = dojo.keys;
switch(e.charOrCode){
case k.LEFT_ARROW:
case k.UP_ARROW:
if(!e._djpage){ forward = false; }
break;
case k.PAGE_UP:
if(e.ctrlKey){ forward = false; }
break;
case k.RIGHT_ARROW:
case k.DOWN_ARROW:
if(!e._djpage){ forward = true; }
break;
case k.PAGE_DOWN:
if(e.ctrlKey){ forward = true; }
break;
case k.DELETE:
if(this._currentChild.closable)
{
this.onCloseButtonClick(this._currentChild);
}
dojo.stopEvent(e);
break;
default:
if(e.ctrlKey){
if(e.charOrCode == k.TAB)
{
this.adjacent(!.shiftKey).onClick();
dojo.stopEvent(e);
}
else if(e.charOrCode == "w")
{
if(this._currentChild.closable)
{
this.onCloseButtonClick(this._currentChild);
}
dojo.stopEvent(e); // avoid browser tab closing.
}
}
}
// handle page navigation
if(forward !== null)
{
this.adjacent(forward).onClick();
dojo.stopEvent(e);
}
}
},

The code is a very good example on how to handle key press events in Dojo in its own right, but for our purposes we can summarize in the following way:

  • If UP, LEFT, or SHIFT+TAB is pressed, forward is set to false, and the last block of code will use that as an argument to the adjacent function which returns the prior child widget if false and the next child widget if true. In this case, the former.
  • If DOWN, RIGHT, or TAB is pressed, forward will be set to true, which will declare the next child widget to be activated and shown.
  • If DELETE or w is pressed and the current child widget is closable, it will be destroyed.

TabContainer

The TabContainer, which derives from StackContainer, organizes all its children into tabs, which are shown one at a time.

As you can see in the picture below, the TabContainer can also manage hierarchical versions of itself.

The TabContainer takes an argument property called tabPosition, which controls where the tab icons are displayed for each tab. Possible values are "top", "bottom", "left-h", "right-h", with "top" as default.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

There are no special functions provided for TabContainer, which adds very little logic to that provided from the StackContainer superclass.

AccordionContainer

The AccorionContainer shows a horizontal bar for each added child widget, which represents its collapsed state. The bar acts as a tab and also holds the title defined for the child widget.

When the bar is clicked, an animation hides the current widget, and also animates in the widget whose bar was clicked.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

The abbreviated code for the test case above (test_accordionContainer.html) is here:

<div dojoType="dijit.layout.AccordionContainer" 
style="width: 400px; height: 300px; overflow: hidden">
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.AccordionPane" title="a">
Hello World
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.AccordionPane" title="b">
<p>
Nunc consequat nisi ...
</p>
<p>
Sed arcu magna...
</p>
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.AccordionPane" title="c">
<p>The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick
brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. The quick brown fox
jumps over the lazy dog.</p>
</div>
</div> 

A funny thing about the AccordionContainer is that it requires not any old widget as a child node, but its own AccordionPane, as you see in the code above.

However, the AccordionPane has ContentPane as superclass, and defines itself slightly differently due to the special looks of an accordion.

Also, the AccordionPane does not currently support nested Layout widgets, even though single-level widgets are supported.

BorderContainer

The BorderContainer has replaced the functionality of both LayoutContainer and SplitContainer.

Note that the outermost BorderContainer widget does not carry any layout information. This is instead delegated to each individual widget.

As each child gets added to the BorderContainer, the layout is recalculated. Using the BorderContainer is a very good alternative to using CSS-based "tableless tables". For using the BorderContainer, you don't need any other rules, and the Container recalculates positioning automatically, without the need for additional CSS rules (except for the height/width case below) each time you add an element or widget to the area.

Since BorderContainer widget replaces both SplitContainer and LayoutContainer, it both lets its child widgets declare where they are in relation to each other. Optionally, add resizing splitter between children.

Also, instead of optionally declaring one child as "client", one child must now always be declared as "center". For some reason, the child widget now use region, instead of layoutAlign, so a child widget which would have been defined like this in LayoutContainer:

<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" 
layoutAlign="top">...</div>

is now defined like this instead:

<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="top">...</div>

All "side" widgets must define a width, in style, by CSS class or otherwise, and the same applies for top/bottom widgets, but with height. Center widgets must not declare either height or width, since they use whatever is left over from the other widgets.

You can also use leading and trailing instead of right and left. The only difference is that when you change locale to a region that has text going from right to left (like Arabic and many others), this will arrange the widgets appropriate to the locale.

The BorderContainer also takes an optional design property, which defines if the BorderContainer is a headline or sidebar. The headline is the default and looks like the picture below. headline means that the top and bottom widgets extend the full length of the container, whereas sidebar means the the right and left (or leading and trailing) widgets extend top to bottom.

The sizeShare attribute for the ContentPanes used in the SplitContainer is deprecated in BorderContainer. All ContentPanes sizes are defined using regular techniques (direct stylin, classes, and so on).

From the BorderContainer test located in dijit/tests/layout/test_BorderContainer_nested.html, we find the following layout:

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

The (abbreviated) source code for the example is here:

<div dojoType="dijit.layout.BorderContainer"
style="border: 2px solid black; width: 90%; height: 500px;
padding: 10px;">
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="left"
style="background-color: #acb386; width: 100px;">
left
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="right"
style="background-color: #acb386; width: 100px;">
right
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="top"
style="background-color: #b39b86; height: 100px;">
top bar
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="bottom"
style="background-color: #b39b86; height: 100px;">
bottom bar
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="center"
style="background-color: #f5ffbf; padding: 0px;">
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.BorderContainer" design="sidebar"
style="border: 2px solid black; height: 300px;">
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="left"
style="background-color: #acb386; width: 100px;">
left
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="right"
style="background-color: #acb386; width: 100px;">
right
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="top"
style="background-color: #b39b86; height: 100px;">
top bar
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="bottom"
style="background-color: #b39b86; height: 100px;">
bottom bar
</div>
<div dojoType="dijit.layout.ContentPane" region="center"
style="background-color: #f5ffbf; padding: 10px;">
main panel with <a href="http://www.dojotoolkit.org/">
a link</a>.<br />
(to check we're copying children around properly).
<br />
<select dojoType="dijit.form.FilteringSelect">
<option value="1">foo</option>
<option value="2">bar</option>
<option value="3">baz</option>
</select>
Here's some text that comes AFTER the combo box.
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

You see here the recurring theme of using ContentPanes inside Containers. Also, the innermost "center" ContentPane wraps a new BorderContainer which has its own internal top/left layout widgets.

Depending on what kind of application you are building, the BorderContainer might be a good starting point. Since you already know that you can change and reload the contents of individual ContentPanes, you are left with a layout in which each element can function as a lightweight Iframe with none of the negative side effects.

DragPane

The DragPane is a very simple idea. You have a very large area of elements to display, and want to let the user 'drag' the underlying pane around using the mouse.

The DragPane can be used in instances where you have a lot of pictures to present. It can also be used to present text or other widgets that are too numerous to fit in your current designated area of screen real estate.

The only property of DragPane is invert, which if set to true, inverts the axis of the drag of the mouse.

Example:

<div class="hugetext" id="container" invert="false" dojoType="dojox.
layout.DragPane">
<p style="color:#666; padding:8px; margin:0;">
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.
In porta. Etiam mattis libero nec ante. Nam
porta lacus eu ligula. Cras mauris. Suspendisse vel augue.
Vivamus aliquam orci ut eros. Nunc eleifend
sagittis turpis. purus purus in nibh. Phasellus in nunc.
</p>
</div>
Learning Dojo A practical, comprehensive tutorial to building beautiful, scalable interactive interfaces for your Web 2.0 applications with Dijits
Published: November 2008
eBook Price: $20.99
Book Price: $34.99
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ExpandoPane

The ExpandoPane is an experimental (in 1.2) dynamic version of the ContentPane for use in BorderContainers.

It can expand or collapse on command, like an AccordionPane, but supports LayoutManagers as children widgets, and can be put anywhere a ContentPane would be inside the BorderContainer. It supports the resize bars that come with the BorderContainer and remembers the position of each after a minimize/maximize animation.

In the example below, the top-level BorderContainer has been populated by a number of normal ContentPanes, and a number of ExpandoPanes. To the right and left are panes which have the tell tale icons of the ExpandoPanes, which inform the user that they can be minimized.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

On pressing the icon of the right pane, the ExpandoPane will animate a minimize action, and come to rest like this:

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

The ExpandoPane can be declared in the following way:

<div dojoType="dojox.layout.ExpandoPane"
splitter="true"
duration="125"
region="left"
title="Left Section"
id="leftPane"
maxWidth="275"
style="width: 275px;">
</div>

The properties you can pass to an ExpandoPane shows some interesting stuff:

maxHeight: "",
maxWidth: "",
splitter: "",
_showing: true,
//easeOut: String|Function
//easing function used to hide pane
easeOut: "dojo._DefaultEasing",
//easeIn: String|Function
//easing function use to show pane
easeIn: "dojo._DefaultEasing",
//duration: Integer
//duration to run show/hide animations
duration: 420,
startExpanded: true,

The maxHeight, maxWidth, and splitter (true/false) are fairly self-explanatory. The duration variable means the duration of the max/min animations.

The fun part here is that Dojo has a very rich animation system that can be used for a variety of purposes. There's a default 'easing' animation which provides a smooth extrapolation between start and stop coordinates.

If you want, you could change the easeIn or easeOut animation to something quicker or quirkier.

Further down in the code for ExpandoPane.js, we see the following:

if(dojo.isString(this.easeOut))
{
this.easeOut = dojo.getObject(this.easeOut);
}
if(dojo.isString(this.easeIn))
{
this.easeIn = dojo.getObject(this.easeIn);
}

This means that the animations will be left alone if they are not strings. If they are, the objects they represent will be loaded instead.

So what kind of easing animations exist, and how do we roll our own? If you're curious, take a sneak peek at the file dojo/fx/easing.js, which contains functions such as linear, quartInOut, SineIn, elasticOut, and others.

FloatingPane

The FloatingPane is the obligatory 'window' widget, which can be dragged around like a desktop window and expanded or minimized.

Layout in Dojo: Part 1

As you can see, it supports complex child widgets, which makes it great for hiding complex layouts in an efficient manner. Not all applications fit into the 'desktop' template, but if you can or want to use that metaphor, the FloatingPane is what you want.

The basic example above shows only a 'close' icon, but more are supported. You can set the following properties when defining a FloatingPane:

//closable: Boolean
//Allow closure of this Node
closable: true,
//dockable: Boolean
//Allow minimizing of pane if true
dockable: true,
//resizable: Boolean
//Allow resizing of pane true if true
resizable: false,
//maxable: Boolean
//Horrible param name for "Can you maximize this floating pane?"
maxable: false,
//resizeAxis: String
//One of: x | xy | y to limit pane's sizing direction
resizeAxis: "xy",
//title: String
//Title to use in the header
title: "",
//dockTo: DomNode?
//if empty, will create private layout.Dock that scrolls with
//viewport
//on bottom span of viewport.
dockTo: "",
//duration: Integer
//Time is MS to spend toggling in/out node
duration: 400,

Setting Boolean to the closable property gives rise to the close icon, as dockable and maxable creates minimize and maximize icons respectively. You also see a dockTo property which makes it possible for you to define an element of your own where the pane minimizes and iconifies when the minimize icon is clicked.

The resizable property adds, if true, a ResizeHandle to the pane, which is more or less expected of windows in this day and age. And the resizeAxis, as the name implies, can restrict resizing to one or none of the two axes.

The duration property is, as you can see in the comments, the time spent in in/out animations for docking operations.

Summary

In this part, we covered:

  • Dojo has a variety of Layout Containers for arranging other components and markup.
  • Most Layout Containers use ContentPanes which demarcate markup into content parcels, which are then arranged and rearranged in different manners.
  • The content of a ContentPane can be static, loaded from a URL, or reloaded.
  • Using Layout Containers make it simpler to arrange elements on the page.
  • The FloatingPane acts as a classical "window" which can be resized, closed, dragged around, and even collapsed to a ‘docking’ element, for later expansion.

In the next part, we will focus on GridContainer, RadioGroup, RotatorContainer, ScrollPane, compound example using layout,and creating a widget.

Learning Dojo A practical, comprehensive tutorial to building beautiful, scalable interactive interfaces for your Web 2.0 applications with Dijits
Published: November 2008
eBook Price: $20.99
Book Price: $34.99
See more
Select your format and quantity:

About the Author :


Peter Svensson

Peter Svensson is an Ajax evangelist and front-end architect at Nethouse AB. He is
the instigator of the Thin Server Architecture Working Group and a Dojo contributor.
He's an avid JavaScript aficionado who really likes dynamic languages and would
very much appreciate if the rest of the world would catch up really soon.

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