Scratch 1.4: Beginner’s Guide — Save 50%
Learn to program while creating interactive stories, games, and multimedia projects using Scratch
In Scratch it is easy to create projects that incorporate dynamic information using variables. However, variables have a limitation; they store only one value at a time. Sometimes, we want a variable to store multiple values.
Welcome to lists. In Scratch, a list allows us to associate one list (a variable) with multiple items or values in much the same way we create a list before going to the grocery store. In this article by Michael Badger, we will take a trip to the fortune-teller to demonstrate lists, and you'll learn how to:
- Store and retrieve information in lists
- Add and remove items from the lists
- Keep track of items in a list by using a counter
- Identify intervals using the mod block
Most of us enjoy a good circus, carnival, or county fair. There's fun, food, and fortunes. Aah, yes, what would a fair be without the fortune-teller's tent? By the end of this article, you'll know everything you need to spin your fortunes and amaze your friends with your wisdom.
Before we start the first exercise, create a new project and add two sprites. The first sprite will be the seeker. The second sprite will be the teller. Choose any sprites you want. My seeker will be a clam and my teller will be a snowman. If you want to add a background, go ahead.
Time for action – create a list of questions
In order to have a successful fortune-telling, we need two things: a question and an answer. Let's start by defining some questions and answers:
- Select the seeker from the list of sprites.
- From the Variables palette, click the Make a list button.
- In the list name dialog box, type questions and select For this sprite only.
- Click OK to create the list. Several new blocks display in the Variables palette, and an empty block titled seeker questions displays on the stage.
- Let's think about a couple of questions we may be tempted to ask, such as the following:
- Will my hair fall out?
- How many children will I have?
- Let's add our proposed questions to the questions list. Click the plus sign located in the bottom-left corner of the seeker questions box (on the stage) to display a text input field. Type Will my hair fall out?
- Press the plus sign again and enter the second question: How many children will I have? We now have two questions in our list.
To automatically add the next item in the list, press enter.
- Let's add a say for 2 secs block to the scripts area of the seeker sprite so that we can start the dialog.
- From the Variables palette, drag the item of questions block to the input value of the say for 2 secs block.
- Double-click on the block and the seeker asks, "Will my hair fall out?"
- Change the value on the item block to last and double-click the block again. This time the seeker asks, "How many children will I have?"
What just happened?
I'm certain you could come up with a hundred different questions to ask a fortune-teller. Don't worry, you'll get your chance to ask more questions later.
Did you notice that the new list we created behaved a lot like a variable? We were able to make the questions list private; we don't want our teller to peek at our questions, after all. Also, the list became visible on the screen allowing us to edit the contents.
The most notable difference is that we added more than one item, and each item corresponds to a number. We essentially created a numbered list.
If you work with other programming languages, then you might refer to lists as arrays.
Because the seeker's questions were contained in a list, we used the item block to provide special instructions to the say block in order to ask the question. The first value of the item block was position, which defaulted to one. The second value was the name of the list, which defaulted to questions.
In contrast, if we used a variable to store a question, we would only need to supply the name of the variable to the say block.
Have a go hero
Create an answers list for the teller sprite, and add several items to the list. Remember, there are no wrong answers in this exercise.
Work with an item in a list
We can use lists to group related items, but accessing the items in the list requires an extra level of specificity. We need to know the name of the list and the position of the item within the list before we can do anything with the values.
The following table shows the available ways to access a specific item in a list.
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Identifies the first item in the list.
Insert, delete, replace, or retrieve the first item in the list.
Selects a random item in the list.
Insert, replace, or retrieve a random item in the list.
Selects the last item in the list.
Insert, delete, replace, or retrieve the last item in the list.
Specifies a variable that contains a number instead of the default first, any, or last values.
Use the variable to store the position of an item in the list, then insert, delete, replace, retrieve the item that corresponds to the value.
Enters a specific item number.
Insert, delete, replace, or retrieve a constant item number, such as item 5.
Import a list
Entering one item at a time via the Scratch interface is functional, but the small size of the list box can be difficult to use when we need to add a large number of items. Fortunately, we can create a text file outside of Scratch and then import it into our list.
Before you continue with the exercise, build your own text file with the fortunes you want to use in response to the seeker's questions. Enter one fortune per line in a text editor, such as Notepad.
You can use any fortunes you want, but I'm going to use a list of common Magic 8 ball responses that I found on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_8_ball. My list will contain 19 items to start.
Time for action – import a list of fortunes
If you haven't already done so, create a new list and name it answers.
- To import the list, right-click on the answers list and choose import... Note: This will erase any items you previously added to the answers list.
- In the Import List dialog box, browse to the fortunes file you saved on your computer prior to starting this exercise and import it.
- Think of a new fortune that is not yet in your answers list. We are going to add it to the list. I'll use "No comment" as my new fortune.
- Now, let's add the new fortune to our list. From the Variables palette, find the add block. Replace the default value thing with your new fortune. Make sure the answers list is selected.
- Double-click on the add block to add the new item to the end of the answers list.
What just happened?
I don't know about you, but I had a much easier time typing in a text editor than I did typing in the list monitor. Actually, if you took my lead, you copied the Magic 8 ball responses from Wikipedia and pasted them into a text file. That way, all you had to do was to clean up some formatting.
We did add a new fortune to the list via the add block. The add block always places the new value at the end of the list. Now, my list contains 20 items. As an alternative, we could have updated the original fortunes text file and then re-imported the list.
Reasons to import
It's true that importing a list makes list creation easy. However, we can use the Import List functionality in other creative ways. For example, we could create a game that instructs the player to create a unique list that he or she can import into Scratch. That way, each player can customize the game.
If we create a math game, we could ask the player for a varied set of numbers to make the problems different. You get the idea.
Export a list
Sometimes, we may want to export a list from Scratch to a file. For example, as people play a game, we may want to collect all the scores into a separate list that we can later export to a text file on our computer.
As we create our projects, the contents of a list may change from the original list we imported. In that case, we may want to export the new list.
To export a list, right-click on the list monitor and click export. The file automatically saves to the root installation directory for Scratch. In Windows, that is C:Program FilesScratch.
- If you wanted to group ten related items together, you would create a new:
- Numbers block
- Forever loop
- If you want to add many items to a list at one time, how would you do it?
- Type each item one at a time into the add block
- Type each item into the list monitor that displays on the stage
- Export the list from Scratch
- Create a list in a text file and import it via Scratch
Your fortune is …
Take a moment to add more questions to the seeker sprite's question list. Now that we have a list of several questions for our seeker to ask and a list of fortunes for our teller to answer, let's create the script that randomly selects a question.
Time for action – tell me a fortune
Before we begin, hide the lists from the stage by right-clicking on each list and selecting hide so that they are out of the way. Let's start with the seeker sprite. We should have a say block in the scripts area from our earlier exercise:
- We need a way to control our seeker. From the Control palette, drag the when space key pressed block and attach it to the say block.
- From the position drop-down list in the item block, select any. Press the space key to ask a question. Each time you press the space key, a random question from the list displays.
- We need to let the teller know we've asked a question, and that we expect an answer. From the Control palette, add the broadcast block.
- Add a new broadcast message titled fortune.
- Every question deserves an answer. Select the teller sprite so that we can create the script to provide an answer.
- From the Control palette, drag the when I receive block into the scripts area, and make sure fortune displays as the message value.
- From the Looks palette, add the say for 2 secs block to the when I receive block.
- Let's pick a random item from the answers list. From the Variables palette, add the item block as the input to the say block.
- For the seeker sprite, we pick a random question using the any position of the item block. This time, we're going to take a slightly different approach to build a more flexible, but slightly more complicated script. From the Numbers palette, add the pick random block as the position value of the item block.
- From the Variables palette, add the length of block to the second value of the pick random block. Make sure the answers list is selected for the value in the length of block. The following screenshot shows the script for the teller sprite:
- Press the Space bar to make the seeker ask a question. The teller will respond with a fortune.
Every item in a list is represented by a number, and when we want to manipulate a certain value in the list, it's the number we refer to. The list length block gives us a way to always know how many items are in a list. In our example, our list of answers contains 20 items.
What just happened?
You are now prepared for a life in the carnival. Based on our script, we can answer any question that may come our way, and our response will seem profound. At least that's what we'll choose to believe.
Our seeker asked a question, and our teller doled out a random fortune using items from their respective lists. The script we used for the teller sprite was decidedly more complex than the script for the seeker sprite.
In the seeker's script, we used the default any value to select a random item from the list. For the teller, we replaced the any value with a pick random block. The length of questions block gave the pick random block the maximum number of items to choose from. In my example, the script selected a number between 1 and 20 because my questions list contained 20 items.
You're probably asking yourself why we would write the more complex code when we can achieve the same result with less. If you are asking that question, good for you.
The answer, naturally, depends on what we want to accomplish. If we only want to select a random item from our list, then the simple script for the seeker suffices. However, let's say we want to instruct our teller to answer every fifth question with a positive response, and all other questions get a random response.
Let's see how we can modify the teller's script to guarantee a positive fortune for every fifth question.
ime for action – force a positive fortune
Before we begin this exercise, re-order your answers list so that all the positive responses are at the end. Edit the list items in your text editor and then re-import the list. Make a note of where the first positive response begins:
- Our first task is to set up a variable to count how many questions the seeker asks so that we can calculate whether or not it's time to answer positively. Select the stage from the sprites list and create a new variable named question_number.
- Add the when flag clicked block to the scripts area.
- From the Variables palette, add the set question_number to 0 block to the when flag clicked block. Now, we have a way to reset our calculation.
- Next, we need to assign the question_number variable a value when the seeker asks a question. Click on the seeker sprite to display the scripts area
- From the Variables palette, snap the change question_number by 1 block in place between the when space key pressed and the say blocks.
- Next, make the teller sprite give a specific range of answers based on the question. Select the teller sprite to display the scripts area.
- From the Control palette, add the if/else block to the when I receive block. Snap the current say block in place after the if block.
- Change the first input value on the pick random block to reflect the item number that begins your positive responses. In my example, that value is 11.
- Now, we need to supply a condition to the if statement to test whether or not we should issue a positive response. From the Numbers palette, add the = block to the if block.
- Drag the mod block into the value to the left of the = sign. Change the value to the right of the equals sign to 0.
- We're going to use the mod block to divide question_number by 5 so that we can calculate the remainder. Add the question_number block to the first value of the mod block.
- Change the second value of the mod block to 5 so that the block reads question_number mod 5.
- Test your script by pressing the Space bar. With our current setup, the teller responds only on the fifth question, and it's always a positive response.
If you double-click on the variable monitor block on the stage, a slider will display. Use the slider to assign a number to the variable before you run the script as a way to test.
What just happened?
We asked our teller to issue only a positive response every fifth question, but we needed a way to let our teller sprite determine when the fifth question was asked. We set up the question_number variable as a way to count the question, and the seeker script updated the value of the question_number variable each time we pressed the space key. We call that a counter variable.
The mod block gave us the logic we needed to let the teller calculate whether or not to issue a positive response. The mod block divided the first number (question_number) by the second(5) and returned the remainder.
The teller sprite used the if block to compare the remainder to zero. We chose zero because when question_number is a multiple of 5, the remainder was zero. When the remainder was zero, we executed the code in the if block; otherwise, the code in the else block ran.
Let's evaluate some mod calculations using a divisor of 5:
- 25 mod 5 is 0
- 32 mod 5 is 2
- 67 mod 5 is 3
In our script, question 25 guarantees a positive response, while questions 32 and 67 do not.
When we need to know how many items we've processed like we did in our "force a positive fortune" exercise, we use a counter variable. A counter variable is just an arbitrary name I chose so that we can easily associate that we are using a variable to count the steps in some process.
For example, iterating through each item in a list is a common example of using a variable to count the current list item's position. Consider the block of code in the following screenshot:
The sample code in the screenshot uses the counter variable in several ways. It sets the value to 1 prior to checking the condition in the forever if block. It uses the number assigned to counter to determine if we've processed all the items in the list. If counter is less than the number of items in the list, the block runs. At the end of the block, we increment counter's value by 1, and the forever if block checks the new value of counter
Keep track of intervals with mod
If we identify an interval, then we can create a pattern of events based on the interval. We already saw an example where we look for the fifth occurrence of an event, but what if we wanted to make our sprite dance after 100 seconds elapse? A mod calculation helps us identify the interval. Assuming our timer starts at zero, the expression "current_time mod 100 is 0" becomes a check to identify every 100th second.
In our project example, we used the mod block to select certain items from our list, but we could program any number of events based on our interval, such as select items from a totally different list, change backgrounds or costumes, or we could use the mod calculation to do nothing at all.
Have a go hero
Give mod a try. Make the seeker sprite do something on every fifth response. Examples of things you might try include issuing a response to the teller, applying a graphical transformation, or jumping for joy.
The forever, forever if, and if concepts checks a condition and then runs if the condition is met. We don't define what happens when the condition is not met.
In contrast, the if/else control block evaluates a condition, and if the evaluation is true, the code in the if block executes. If the if condition evaluates to false, then the code in the else block executes.
Think of the ultimatums you give your children, or your parents gave you. If you clean your room, you get ice cream. Or else, you go to bed without a snack.
- The mod block:
- Modifies a number in the list
- Creates a variable that tracks an interval
- Transforms the sprite into a leprechaun
- Divides two numbers and returns the remainder
- We use a counter variable to:
- Track how many times an event occurs
- Identify how many sprites we have in the project
- Select a random item from a list
- Add a new item to a specific position in the list
Repeat the fortune
Up to this point, we've only stored numeric values in our variables, but variables can store text too. Let's add a script to our teller sprite to repeat the question.
Time for action – my fortune is what?
What if we get distracted and miss our fortune? That would be tragic, so let's add some code to the teller sprite that repeats the last fortune told:
- Create a private variable for the teller sprite named your_fortune. We'll use this variable to keep track of the fortune.
- We'll start with the blocks inside the if statement. From the Variables palette, snap the set to block in place between the if block and the say block. Select your_fortune as the variable so that the block reads set your_fortune to 0.
- We need to replace the 0 value in the set to block with the code that selects a random item from the answers list. Remember, we're working with the if block right now. Click on the item block and drag the entire block into the to value of the set to block.
- From the Variables palette, drag the your_fortune block into the value of the say block. Refer to the following screenshot for the new script:
- Apply the same changes to the else block. Refer to the following screenshot for help:
- Get a fortune by pressing the Space bar. Notice that the your_fortune monitor reports the teller's fortune.
- Now, we need a way to prompt the teller to repeat the message. We'll add a when clicked control block to the teller sprite. From the Control palette, add the when teller clicked block to the scripts area.
- From the Looks palette, add the say for 2 secs block to the when teller clicked block.
- From the Variables palette, add the your_fortune block as the message value for the say block.
- Click the teller sprite to repeat the last fortune.
What just happened?
Like thoughts, fortunes can be fleeting. That's why we captured our fortune in the your_fortune variable. We replaced where in our script we selected the fortune. Our logic to pick a random item from the answers list became the input to the set to block. And for the say block, we replaced the message value with the your_fortune variable.
Now, if we get a fortune we like, we can make the teller repeat it over and over.
Holding text in a variable
We can type text directly into the say block. This means that if we want to change what the sprite says, we have to find the say block in the script and change the message.
When we work with dynamic data, we sometimes want to capture that data so that we can use it later. We already learned how we can use variables to store numeric data, but having the ability to store text adds a whole new level of functionality to our projects, such as simulating dynamic conversations.
Other programming languages often refer to a text phrase as a string.
Variables are one of the most important programming concepts we can use. A majority of the projects you create will need a variable, especially as the projects become more interactive and complex.
Text entry limitations
Now, it is a logical time for us to build a way that prompts the user to type a question for the teller. However, the current version of Scratch (1.3) doesn't allow us to prompt the user for text input that we can use in our scripts.
Our focus has been on using lists and variables to drive the action in our game. If you wanted to expand on this game, try adding graphical effects to the sprites and creating a background to begin to tell a story.
Using the concepts in this article, you could create other games of chance, such as blackjack, bingo, or a lottery number predictor.
We have seen the power that lists and variables give us to create dynamic, flexible, and fun projects. We learned how to manipulate lists, a special kind of variable, to collect a group of related items. We continued to explore variables by using them to store text. The mod block helped us identify intervals as we iterated through our list. We used a variable to keep track of the interval so that we could program specific events based on when an interval occurred.
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