Cameras are Rolling

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Cinema 4D R14 Cookbook, Second Edition

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by Michael Szabo Simon Russell | August 2013 | Cookbooks Web Graphics & Video

This article by Simon Russell and Michael Szabo the authors of Cinema 4D R14 Cookbook gives a brief description about the camera in Cinema 4D which ultimately controls how people will see and interpret the final image, target cameras, calibration of cameras, and so on. By the end of this article, you will be aware of the camera in Cinema 4D.

In this article, we will cover the following topics:

  • Keyframing cameras
  • Moving a camera along a path
  • Locking cameras down with the Protection tag
  • Using target cameras
  • Adjusting focal lengths
  • Matching your camera to footage
  • The Physical tab
  • Creating a handheld-style camera
  • Setting up stereoscopic cameras
  • Camera calibration
  • Using the Motion Camera tag
  • Simulating a chase scene
  • Getting to grips with the Camera Morph tag
  • Complex camera moving with the Multi Morph tag

(For more resources related to this topic, see here.)

Keyframing cameras

If you create a diverse and interesting 3D scene, the odds are you are going to want your camera to navigate through it and not just sit in one spot. We are going to start off this article by learning how to keyframe our cameras and have them change their position and angles over the course of our timeline. This is a basic technique you'll use constantly in Cinema 4D.

Getting ready

Open the Keyframing_Cameras.c4d file in your C4D Content Pack and use it with this recipe.

How to do it…

  1. Our scene is a simple setup with a Figure object in the middle of the scene posing for us. Start by placing a Camera in your scene, found in the Create menu under the Camera tab, or inside the Command Palette indicated by the icon of the movie camera. Click on its name in the Object Manager and label it something descriptive called Keyframe Camera
  2. Select the Cameras menu in the Viewer, and mouse over to the Use Camera option and click on the Keyframe Camera object that you created so that it is checked. The view will not change, but now the Viewer will represent the changes in position and rotation made to your camera, and not the Default Camera. You can also click on the small square box with the plus sign on it in the Object Manager; it's next to the traffic light, and when it turns white it means that the camera is the active camera in the Viewer.
  3. Set the position and rotation properties of the camera to zero in the Coordinates tab of the Attribute Manager. You can just enter zero values manually or use the Reset PSR command we learned earlier, found in the Character menu under Commands. Hence, we are starting with a camera that has no tilt to it, and it's positioned exactly at our origin. You should have noticed by now that the Viewer has shifted with these new values, because we have changed the position of our camera.
  4. Take a look at the Animation toolbar and take note of the icons inside the three red circles. These icons can control the keyframing of our cameras (and any objects for that matter) when we change our views and move along in the timeline.
  5. Move the camera up in the Viewer, so that the camera is framing our subject just above the waist. Now, with the playhead at the very beginning of the timeline, click on the red icon farthest to the left of the three with the image of the key inside it; this is the Record Active Objects command and it will set a keyframe for all our important coordinate properties in the Attribute Manager. Look at how all have a red dot filled in next to their values, meaning that they are keyframed. Now, scrub the playhead forward to frame 60 and then move your Viewer back, so we can see more of our subject and then hit the red keyframe icon once again. If you play your animation in the timeline from the beginning, you'll see that you have created a camera move; the camera moves backwards and reveals more of your subject over time.

How it works…

The Record Active Objects button in the Animation toolbar is a quick way to set the keyframe information for your camera and in whichever frame your playhead is currently positioned at. Setting two keyframes moves our camera from one point to another in our scene over time. You could also set the keyframes manually in the Attribute Manager, and similarly, the set keyframe button works for other objects too, not just cameras.

There's more…

There are cleverer camera setups to be made.

Automatic keyframing…do it at your own risk

The middle button in that red group of three enables automatic keyframing. Some people choose to use this, but it also tends to cause headaches if you forget whether it's active or not. Basically, it will set new keyframe values whenever you change your camera view; you can move to new positions in the timeline and change the view, and the keyframes will automatically be set for you. Try it out and see if you like working with it—just remember to turn it on and off when you want to use it.

Moving a camera along a path

You have the ability to draw a spline that represents the path you want your camera to travel, and then dictate the amount of time it takes to complete the movement. This is what you want to do when you want to travel through your scene and focus on multiple objects or alter the perspective throughout your timeline. This recipe shows how to use the Align to Spline feature to control the movement of your camera.

How to do it...

  1. In a new project, create a new camera via the icon in the Command Palette. In the Viewer, go and change back to Default Camera and turn off your created camera. Next, you should switch the view of your scene from Perspective to Top under the Cameras menu in the Viewer. You are now looking directly over your scene, without altering the perspective of your created camera.
  2. Under the Primitives tab in the Command Palette, pick three different primitives and scatter them in three random places in your scene so that your objects create a triangle. You can use the zoom feature if you can't see all your objects. Click-and-drag them to different spots in 3D space using the Move Tool so we can move our camera around each of them in space. The exact position of each is not important, just as long as they are spread out from one another.
  3. Click on the Splines icon in the Command Palette and select the Bezier option. You can now click to add points and drag your mouse to extend the bezier curves; the further you drag the mouse, the smoother the curve will be. This line will represent your camera's movement, so draw the spline such that it passes in front of all three of your objects. Make sure you don't get too close to your three primitives; else they will not fill the frame tastefully.
  4. Because we switched to work in the Top view in Default Camera, our points will only move in the X and Z dimensions. You can't move the points higher and lower, so you must switch between camera views in order to adjust the height (Y position) of the points on your spline. Using the Left and Right camera views will allow you to adjust the height, but not the length in the X dimension, and the Front and Back views will allow you to adjust the height and the length, but not the depth. As noted before, try out different camera views using Default Camera so you can see your scene in these useful perspectives. Adjust the Y position of your points in the Left or Right view so the spline now has a few peaks and valleys.
  5. Now, switch back your view to your created camera and turn off Default Camera. Highlight it in the Object Manager and slide a little over to the Tags menu. Then, under the Cinema 4D Tags submenu, select Align to Spline. A tag like this places a small icon next to the selected object in the Object Manager, where you can select it and open up the tag-specific options.
  6. Take your spline in the Object Manager and drag it into the Spline Path field in the Attribute Manager. Once inside, the camera snaps into place at one end of your spline. You have now tied the camera's position to the path you drew for it to travel.
  7. Adjust the values in the percentage slider labeled Position in the Tag properties. You will see that your camera is moving to different points on your spline. The tag works by setting the end points of your spline as 0% for the start and 100% for the end, and in everything between. The camera moves between the start and end points, thereby traveling along the spline when keyframed.
  8. To complete the movement, set a keyframe at the start of your timeline with the Position value at 0%, move to the end of the timeline and set the value to 100%, and then set a keyframe. Play back your animation to see your camera move along the spline you drew.

How it works...

Instead of keyframing the position and rotation of the actual camera, we can control how our camera moves by manipulating just the shape of the spline. You can set as many keyframes as you need to move your camera through the completion of your path, and simply sliding them along the timeline allows you to speed up or slow down your camera move.

There's more...

Tweak the spline to get your camera move just right. You can keep moving the points along the spline, or you can use the Move Tool to select the entire spline and move it around that way. Get your camera to pass in front of all the objects in your scene and have them fill the frame nicely. You can also adjust the rotation properties in the Coordinates tab for the camera in the Attribute Manager.

Not just for cameras

The Align to Spline tag can be used on any object, in case you want to control the path that an object or a light moves along.

The Tangential checkbox

You are going to leave the Tangential option unchecked in the Align to Spline tab. This will align the camera's movements tangentially along the spline, depending on which axis you pick in the Axis drop-down menu at the bottom. This is more useful when you are aligning objects to a spline, as you may want time to face a specific direction throughout the movement, but it's not very practical for cameras.

If you would compare the last recipe involving moving cameras with the Align to Spline tag to moving an actual physical camera with your hands or on a Steadicam, then this recipe shows you how to place your camera firmly on a tripod and walk away from it.

Once we get a camera positioned where we want, we don't want to have to worry about bumping the scroll wheel on your mouse or accidentally switching camera views and losing your nice scene composition. This can happen by accident and frustrate you in the midst of a deadline, and it can be easily prevented.

How to do it…

  1. Start by adding a Cube primitive to your scene from the Command Palette. Then, click once on the Camera icon in the Command Palette to add a camera to your scene. Switch to it in the Viewer under the Cameras menu and the Use Camera submenu, making sure that we are no longer on Default Camera.
  2. Let's say this is the perfect angle and you don't want to lose this shot. Highlight the camera in the Object Manager and then click on Tags, followed by the Cinema 4D Tags and Protection tag. A small orange and black "no sign" appears to the right of your camera in the Object Manager. This shows that the Protection tag is active.
  3. Nothing happens: your camera is frozen in place and your shot is preserved. Click on the Protection tag in the Object Manager to load it into the Attribute Manager and you'll see plenty of options for the tag, which is all new in release 13. You have the ability to pick which parameters the tag protects. Uncheck the boxes for the X, Y, and Z values under the P group (P for position). Now, try moving your camera. You will be able to move the camera's position, but if you try rotating it, it remains locked.

How it works…

The Protection tag is a useful feature that helps preserve your camera shots by making sure you don't adjust the viewer accidently and ruin your composition. When you are working with multiple cameras, sometimes you can lose your place and forget which one is active and you inadvertently move it and regret the move you made.

There's more…

This feature has been highlighted because many of the recipes in this article feature the tag. I set up many projects to have specific camera angles so you can follow along with the same images in the article, so be aware of the tags and don't get frustrated if you can't change the look in the Viewer.

Protection for all

The Protection tag can be used on objects too; in case you need to make sure they don't get accidentally nudged or moved. You can still edit an object's properties, and not just the position, rotation, or scale.

Undo view

If you do mess up with your camera view, there's always a way to get it back. In the Viewer under the View menu, there's an Undo View command, which will revert your view to how it was before you just moved it. This is a convenient fix, but the Protection tag is the ultimate way to prevent any issues with altering your camera's perspective.

You can always keyframe

If you keyframe the position of your camera, it will automatically jump back to the keyframe values, even if you change the view. Because you have specifically told Cinema 4D when you want your camera with these keyframes, it will always revert to this spot until you set the new keyframes and tell it otherwise. Also, you have to keyframe all the position and rotation values too for this to work, because a change to a value that is not keyframed will not revert to any specific value, so be careful.

Using target cameras

In Cinema 4D, you have the option to have your camera target a specific object in your scene, and it always remains fixed on it regardless of how the camera moves. Because we are designing objects with three dimensions, it makes sense that we learn and develop camera movements that can display our objects from every angle. This recipe demonstrates how we can easily create a camera that can rotate around an object and display the object from any angle we choose throughout the entire movement.

How to do it...

Be sure to check out the first recipe Keyframing cameras, because it builds upon that technique. Then, open the Target_Camera.c4d file from the C4D Content Pack to use with this recipe.

  1. We'll be recreating the famous shot from the movie, The Matrix, where time slows to a crawl and the camera completely circles around Neo as he dodges some bullets, remaining fixed on him the entire time. Instead of creating a regular camera, hold down the Camera icon in the Command Palette and select the second option for Target Camera. Select your Target Camera by switching to it from Default Camera in the Viewer. By default, Target Camera behaves just like a regular camera, but that will change in a few steps. When you create Target Camera, you actually create three things: a regular camera, a tag that turns it into a target camera, and a Null Object named Camera.Target.1 as a default object for it to focus on. Delete the Camera.Target.1 object from the Object Manager, as we won't be using it.
  2. Now, we need to create the circular path for our camera to travel around. This is a perfect use for our Align to Spline tag, so highlight your camera in the Object Manager, click on the Tags menu, go under Cinema 4D Tags, and select the Align to Spline tag.
  3. The camera is going to take a circular path around the subject, so we obviously need a Circle spline to outline this path. Click and hold down on the Splines icon in the Command Palette and select the Circle spline option. The spline is good, except that it has the wrong orientation by default, and we need to adjust the Plane value. Under the Object tab, in the Attribute Manager for the Circle spline, change the Plane value from XY to XZ. This will align the spline with the proper orientation towards our figure. Adjust the Radius to 1200 cm so it is a much larger circle, and our figure will fit into the shot.
  4. Next, you need to select the Align to Spline tag on your camera in the Object Manager, and then drag the Circle spline into the Spline Path field. Your camera is now aligned to your spline, but it's not really locked in on anything in particular.
  5. Our camera is aligned to our spline, but we won't be animating the Align to Spline tag. The Position value in the Align to Spline tag only goes from 0% to 100%. This doesn't do us any good if we want to move in the opposite direction or perhaps make more than one rotation. Going from 0% to 100% allows for only one clockwise rotation. We are going to animate the actual Circle spline instead so that we can have control over the direction and amount of loops our camera travels.
  6. Select your Circle spline and look under the Coordinates tab in the Attribute Manager . Set a keyframe for the R.H value at the beginning of your timeline. 360 degrees represents one full revolution, so move to the very end of your timeline and change the rotation value to 360 and set a keyframe. Play your animation and you will see that the camera circles around one time. But, the problem is our camera isn't focused on our subject.
  7. Click on the Target tag, which is the little target crosshairs in the Object Manager on your camera. In the Attribute Manager under the Object tab, you'll find the empty Target Object field, where you can simply drag The One from the Object Manager into the field and watch as your camera instantly locks onto the target and follows it throughout the length of the animation. You may now unplug yourself from the Matrix.

How it works...

The target cameras allow you to fix the position and rotation of your camera to an object in your scene. This way, whenever you move the camera, it will remain focused on the object you specified. It can work separately from the Align to Spline tag, but the combination of the two tags helps us create the exact camera move we were looking for.

There's more...

Experiment with changing the coordinates of your Circle spline to get some more interesting camera rotations. Try animating the Y position value of the Circle spline, and you can move between a bird's eye and a worm's eye view of your figure, while focusing on the center of it. Try adjusting the R.P value and you can get an interesting tilt to go with your rotation instead of it being flat.

Pans and tilts

Using a target camera and animating the Null Object is a good way to simulate pans and tilts, instead of animating the actual camera. Just specify a Null Object to be your Target Object, and the camera will stay in one spot and follow the target object if you animate the null position from left to right or from up and down. Think of it as a camera on a tripod, and it's following whatever you are aiming it at.

Adding the target manually

If you create a camera and decide later that you want it to be a target camera, just look for it under the Cinema 4D Tags menu and add it manually; it will work the same way.

Linear keyframes for loops

To get a proper looping animation, you'll need to have keyframes with linear interpolation features. Click on the actual keyframe in the Animation toolbar at the first frame when you have the Circle spline selected in the Object Manager, and change the Interpolation value from Spline to Linear in the Attribute Manager.

Adjusting focal lengths

In Cinema 4D release 13, the camera settings were overhauled and we now have new features that give us better control like we see in actual cameras. The next two recipes deal with these features, though this one shows how to adjust the focal length of your cameras in order to compress or exaggerate depth. Just like in actual photography, picking the right focal length and lens is crucial to getting the right look for your image.

Getting ready

Use the Focal_Lengths.c4d project with this recipe so you can follow along.

How to do it...

  1. Start by adding a new camera to the scene and switching to it in the Viewer instead of Default Camera Adjust the camera coordinates so that the X and Y position values and all the rotation values are at 0 set the Z position value at -1500 Now, take this camera and duplicate it by clicking-and-holding the Ctrl or command key and dragging the mouse up or down to make a copy on release. Add a Protection tag to each camera so they don't move, and rename one camera to Short Focal Length and the other to Long Focal Length.
  2. You'll find Focal Length under the Object tab of the camera in the Attribute Manager. The default focal length is pretty average at 36 mm, and you can often leave it at its default and get a good result. But, let's create two different focal lengths for cameras that are in the exact same position and see how drastically it changes the look of your scene in Cinema 4D.
  3. Under the Object tab in the Attribute Manager for the Short Focal Length camera, click on the Focal Length menu and select Wide Angle, which changes the Focal Length value to 25. Then, switch cameras in the Object Manager, so the Long Focal Length camera is active in the Attribute Manager. Switch the Focal Length setting to Tele, which is a very big value of 135.
  4. In order to see both cameras at once, change it to 2 Views Stacked inside the Arrangement options, under the Panel menu in the Viewer. Activate the Short Focal Length camera in one window, and then the Long Focal Length one in the other, under the Cameras menu. Make use of Use Camera in each of the two views:

  5. Keep in mind that these cameras are exactly at the same position, but the images look completely different. The camera with a shorter focal length allows us to see more of the cubes with the text appearing small. Also,  the distortion of the cubes that are closer and towards the edges. The camera with a larger focal length has our shot zoomed in way too tight in our text, and it appears that there are far fewer cubes in the scene.

How it works...

This exercise hopefully showed you that it's important to not only adjust the position of your camera, but the focal length as well. A scene with many objects scattered about may require a camera with a shorter focal length, while a larger focal length will allow you to compress and focus on a particular object.

There's more...

Cinema 4D cameras can mimic real cameras, so check out some photography sites for tips on how to compose your scenes and adjust your cameras. The following site from Envato has tons of helpful tips and tutorials for photography and accompanying software:

http://photo.tutsplus.com/

Matching your camera to footage

Let's say you create an object in Cinema 4D, and you want it to appear as if it is a part of another piece of footage or a still photo. So, you want to use 4D to make something 3D, and then have it mixed into something that is 2D. That just about covers every dimension you can have. This recipe shows you how to prepare a camera setup to match the look of a still photograph, so the elements you design in Cinema 4D will appear like they belong in the footage you'll be making a composition of.

Getting ready

Use the Oak_Alley photograph provided in the C4D Content Pack with this recipe. The image is in 16:9 (aspect ratio) for use in a 1920 x 1080 HD format, so you should change your composition to be in this resolution as well. Go to the Render menu and click on the Render Settings. Under the Output tab, load the preset for HDTV 1080 29.97 under the Film/Video options. Your frame will now have a 16:9 aspect ratio. Whether you use stills or a video, the process laid out in this recipe is the same.

How to do it...

  1. Start by creating a new camera and switching to it instead of the Default Camera mode. Next, you'll need to create a background object that will serve as a back wall for our scene. Look in the Create menu, and then under Environment you'll see Background. Click on it and add this into your scene.
  2. The background object requires a material on it, otherwise it's invisible. So double-click on the empty space in the Material Manager and a new material will be created. Double-click on the material, and in the Color channel, you'll need to load the Oak_Alley.jpg image into the Texture field. Click on the small ellipses bar on the left or the bigger bar in the middle; each one will allow you to cycle through your computer and load the image into the Color channel from the C4D Content Pack.
  3. Now, you have the image loaded into the material. So, drag the material from the Material Manager to the Background object in the Object Manager and release the mouse over it in order to place the material on it. Your Viewer should now be filled with the image, and the background will remain in the same place, regardless of where you move and position the camera.
  4. The goal now is to match the perspective of your Cinema 4D camera to the perspective in which I took this photograph. We need to move the camera into a spot that lines up the floor grid in the Viewer with the ground in the photo. This is the process of matching camera shots in Cinema 4D to real-life photos and footage. By creating and aligning floors, planes, and ceilings with the perspective and edges in our photo, we can make the camera project our 3D objects as if they are in front of the camera, filming our image:

  5. In the camera's Coordinates tab, keep the X position at 0, but move the camera back in the Z position to -2000. Now, place a Sphere object in your scene from the Primitives palette. The sphere will be placed at the origin, and moving the camera closer towards it in the Z dimension will make the object appear closer to the camera.
  6. Next, we need to make adjustments in order to line up the floor plane in our Cinema 4D scene to that of our photograph. These adjustments will be made to our camera's Y position value, as well as to our rotation values. You'll notice a grid that's projected as a floor in the X and Z dimensions. This is ideal for matching our perspective with the ground in our scene. If the grid does not appear in your scene by default, you can activate it in the Viewer window by clicking on the Filter menu and selecting Grid.
  7. The grid should be placed even with the ground in the photo, so that the lines on the grid are parallel with those in the photo, such as the rows of bricks on the sidewalk. Move the camera up higher in the Y position to a value of 92. Next, you can slightly tweak R.H to a very small value of 0.3, and R.P should have a value of 1. This is a good alignment for our scene, which will vary from photo to photo or video to video, but the process remains the same.
  8. The last step to get an even more accurate setup is to adjust your camera settings to match the lens to the actual camera lens. I took this photo with the focal length set to 42 mm. Simply go to the Object tab in the Attribute Manager of your camera and change the value of Focal Length from the default 36 to 42. It's a slight change, but will provide more convincing renders if the photo or video was shot with special lenses, such as a wide angle or telephoto lens.

How it works...

Use the grid to line up as if it was the ground or the floor in your photo or video. It can also represent a ceiling if the footage was taken from a lower angle. Add Plane objects and make them perpendicular to your floor if you need to represent walls. Basically, you are trying to mimic the camera that was used in real life to capture your image, so add the faces of the room or environment where you can match them up with the footage you shot. Getting the coordinates and the camera settings as precise as possible will help you build a more convincing scene.

There's more...

This example used a still photograph, which could also be a video shot on a tripod. The point is the camera is not moving and the perspective is not changing. Matching a camera in Cinema 4D to a moving camera is much trickier. You'll need to learn more about 3D camera tracking in order to get your objects to match up with a camera that changes position and angles on your footage. SynthEyes is a software application capable of handling 3D camera tracking, and it can be used in conjunction with Cinema 4D and other programs.

Don't render the background

When you render your scene with your objects matched up to your camera, you don't actually want the background to be rendered with it. You'd much rather composite your render on the top of the original image in a program, such as Photoshop or After Effects. Once you are ready to render, go to the Basic tab of the Background object in the Attribute Manager or just use the traffic light to change Visible in the Render setting to Off, and then render your scene with an alpha channel so you can composite it elsewhere.

The Physical tab

Each camera in Cinema 4D now comes with the new Physical tab in the Attribute Manager in release 13. These features streamline the previously clunky process and make your cameras behave like real cameras in 3D projects. Within the Physical tab, we can control all the features to help create a realistic depth of field, motion blur, and more with our cameras. This recipe shows you how to adjust all the settings in order to get more than ever before out of your cameras in Cinema 4D.

Getting ready

Open the Card_Table.c4d file and use it while you work through this recipe.

How to do it...

  1. Check out the setup we have here. It's a camera close-up of a card table, and when you play the animation, a pair of cards slides in front of the camera. The camera is set to the Portrait setting, giving it a focal length of 80 mm for a more shallow focus. Switch your camera over to the Physical tab in the Attribute Manager and you'll notice the options are mostly grayed out. Click on the checkbox for Movie Camera, and then open the Render Settings window from the Command Palette or via the Render menu under Edit Render Settings. You'll see the drop-down menu in the top-left corner, which is used for setting our renderer to Standard.

    However, we need to switch that to Physical in order to take advantage of all the new features in our camera. Also, check the boxes for Depth of Field and Motion Blur. Lastly, change the Sampling Quality value from Low to Medium.

  2. Let's start by getting our depth of field up and running. The setting we'll want to adjust is F-Stop in our Physical tab. The F-Stop on real cameras adjusts the aperture, or how much light is let into the camera. The smaller the F-Stop is, the smaller the depth of field will be, which will result in a selective focus that can draw attention to certain objects of the scene. Lower the F-Stop value to f/2.8, then switch to the Object tab, and take a look at the ways we can define where our focal plane is.
  3. The Focus Distance value is a set distance you want to define for the focal plane width, so you can tell the camera at what distance to focus on and also about all the objects that will be out of focus in the front and behind. Or, you can drag-and-drop an object into the Focus Object field, and it will automatically adjust and focus on that object. Drag the Deck of Cards group from the Object Manager and drag it into the Focus Object field. You then do a render preview by hitting Ctrl or command + R. Depending on how fast your computer is, you'll get a rendered sample of your scene in a few seconds. The deck of cards at the back should be the objects in focus, while the dealt cards and the chips should be blurred out:

  4. I'd rather have the dealt cards in focus, with the other objects slightly out of focus. Remove the Deck of Cards group from the Target Object field by clicking on the small arrow on the right-hand side of the field and then clicking on Clear. Switch to the Default Camera mode in the Viewer from inside the Cameras menu under Use Camera. Rotate the active camera around so you can see the cone of your other camera. Make sure the playhead in the Animation toolbar is on a frame towards the end, where the cards are dealt, and are sitting in their final position. Now, let's adjust the Focus Distance value manually to a value of 200. You'll see the end of the plane jump. Move over on top of the two dealt cards. If you switch back to your main camera and do a render preview with Ctrl or command + R, you'll see the two dealt cards and the $1 chips that are with them are in focus, and the deck and $5 chips are out of focus because they lie further away from the focal plane we assigned:

  5. Now, let's figure out how to apply motion blur to our animation. Move to frame 55 while the Jack of Spades is in motion. Because we checked on the Movie Camera box, our motion blur is controlled via the Shutter Angle setting. Movie cameras have two shutters that rotate and capture images. The shutter angle is the gap between the two shutters, and the larger the angle, the more motion blur gets captured. However, increasing it will also cause the shutter to become overexposed, because more light will be entering, so make sure the Exposure checkbox is deactivated to eliminate this issue. The Shutter Angle value is set to 180 and that will give us a solid motion blur. We don't need to increase it to notice the result. If you do a render preview, it won't matter. This is because the motion blur is not displayed in the Viewer. We'll need to render to Picture Viewer instead, which can be activated by pressing Shift + R . The Picture Viewer will pop the open angle; you'll get a frame with your motion blur on the playing card as it slides across the table:

How it works...

We were able to get realistic camera effects, such as the depth of field and motion blur, by using the Physical settings in our camera and in the Render Settings too. By enabling these features, we were able to get a nice, shallow focus by adjusting the F-Stop value and positioning the focal plane on our two dealt cards. We activated motion blur in Render Settings and had control over it via our Shutter Angle value. Our final image contains both these effects and results in a more interesting-looking image.

There's more...

These new features are great, and are head and shoulders better than the methods used in the previous versions of Cinema 4D to add depth of field and motion blur. But, they will increase your render times for certain, and all these effects can be added in a finishing program such as After Effects.

More effects

There are a few other effects you are able to add via the Physical tab, such as vignetting, chromatic aberration, and lens distortion. These can all be added after you render in After Effects as well.

Rack focus

Set a Null Object to be your Target object, and animate its position within the depth of your camera shot. This will simulate a rack focus, where your focal plane will change during a shot and bring different objects into focus over time.

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Creating a handheld-style camera

The cameras we've created so far have all been controlled by keyframes, aligned to splines, or have had specific values assigned to them. This recipe takes us in a different direction and creates a camera with randomly-controlled movements. We're going to use this technique to simulate a boxer's point of view from his/her corner, or better yet, a boxer who is headed into the twelfth round and is in a world of hurt.

Getting ready

Use the Boxing_Ring.c4d file in the C4D Content Pack that was provided for this recipe.

How to do it...

  1. Start your scene with a new camera and name it Boxer POV, switch to it from the Default Camera mode, and set the camera's position and rotation values to be in the red corner facing the blue corner in the Coordinates tab for the camera in the Attribute Manager. These values work for our setup: position X at 110 cm, Y at 100 cm, Z at -110 cm, R.H at 45 degrees, and R. P at -10 :

  2. To simulate the look of a boxer's point of view who is seeing stars, we're going to need a lot of constant movements in all directions. Rather than tediously keyframing a complex camera movement like we did before, we're going to let Cinema 4D do the work for us.
  3. Select your camera in the Object Manager, go to the Tags menu, and under Cinema 4D Tags, select the Vibrate tag. This tag will cause whatever object it is applied to, to shake randomly to the specifications you give for the position, rotation, and scale.
  4. We want our Vibrate tag to randomize just the position and rotation values of our camera. The moment you click on the checkboxes next to Enable Position and Enable Rotation, the camera will jump and move to a new spot in the Viewer. If you scrub through the timeline, you'll see that our camera is now shaking back and forth, but it doesn't give us a great look for our stunned boxer, so we're going to have to adjust our values.
  5. By enabling the position and rotation values on our Vibrate tag, we now have control over their frequency and amplitude. By entering the right values, we can make it look like our boxer has taken a few shots; whether punches or alcohol, either one works in this case.
  6. The first thing you notice is that the frequency is too high; our boxer is shaking his head way too fast. Reduce the Frequency values for both position and rotation from 2 to 0.5, so it's now moving four times slower. Click on Play in your timeline and you'll see this is a much more realistic movement.
  7. Right now, our boxer is only shaking from side-to-side; that's because our amplitude values only have data in the X position and the rotation H values. The three values are not labeled that way, but correspond to the same order you would see in the Coordinates tab ( X, Y, Z and H, P, B ). Of the position values, the X dimension should remain the most dominant, as his head is likely to move strongly from side-to-side rather than up and down ( Y dimension) or forward and back ( Z dimension). Add a value of 10 to both the Y and Z values for our position amplitude, so that there's a slight movement in all directions. Now, from our boxer's point of view, it looks like he is wobbling in all directions, but the side-to-side movement in the X dimension remains the most noticeable and dominant trait.
  8. The rotation amplitude values are where we make our boxer really look out of it. The default value in H is good at 30, which pivots his head from side-to-side, and shows off more of the ring making it appear like he can't focus on what's right in front of him. The P rotation value can be increased up to about 15, which simulates him tilting his head up or down. The B value is the fun one; it gives a Dutch angle effect, which acts as a sideways tilt and makes it seem like his neck can't support his head. Use a value of 20 here and play back your animation. Then, give some much needed words of encouragement to your fighter before the bell rings.

How it works...

The Vibrate tag randomizes the position and rotation values of our camera at our determined magnitude ( Amplitude ) and rate ( Frequency ). This gives the effect that our boxer is on the ropes without using any keyframes, which is the key thing for an animation taking all day or 10 minutes.

There's more...

There is a valuable set of tools out there for Cinema 4D called CSTools by Chris Smith that have some similar prebuilt cameras which can help you create a similar handheld look. Check out his CS_DocuCam and CS_ActionCam files, which use XPresso to create a more complex camera setup, complete with a control panel to adjust the camera movements.

Visit http://circlesofdelusion.blogspot.com/ to download CSTools for free from Chris' site.

Got some good vibrations

The Vibrate tag works on anything, not just cameras, so you can just apply it to any object and watch it move and shake.

Keyframe your values so that they can change over time

What if you want your camera movement to start slow and finish fast? Easy, you just need a couple of keyframes in the right spot. If you set the Frequency and Amplitude values to 0, your animation will not vibrate. So, set a keyframe at the beginning of your timeline when the values are at zero, and go to the end and increase your values to the values you desire; also set a keyframe. You have now animated the frequency and amplitude, so your vibration will start out really slow and ramp up to the maximum value by the end.

Keyframes first

The Vibrate tag has a glitch if you add keyframes to the object value after the tag has been applied. I recommend drawing a path for your handheld-style camera and using the Align to Path technique to control the path and rate at which you want your camera to move. Then, just apply the Vibrate tag to the spline instead of the camera so that not only does your camera travel along your path, but the path itself bounces and is randomized instead of the camera.

Random Seed equals infinite possibilities

The Vibrate tag has a Random Seed value, which is common throughout a lot of different properties and objects found in Cinema 4D. Random Seed is a number that replicates the exact pattern every time the same values are entered and applied to the same object. Simply change the Random Seed value and you change the pattern in which your object moves. It will follow the same constraints set by the amplitude and frequency, but change the randomness and give you a similar yet different movement.

Setting up stereoscopic cameras

There's been a steady increase in the amount of 3D media developed in recent years, and Cinema 4D has responded by creating stereoscopic cameras in release 13. This new feature allows you to generate stereoscopic content right in your Cinema 4D projects, and you can instantly see the 3D projection in action. This recipe introduces the new features and shows you how to turn your 3D scenes into actual 3D designs.

Getting ready

Use the 3D_Glasses.c4d file in the C4D Content Pack with this recipe. If you have a really basic pair of anaglyph glasses like the ones the model is wearing, try them out with this recipe.

How to do it...

  1. Our scene is already set up; all we need to do to get stereoscopic images is to go up to the Camera palette in the Command Palette, click-and-hold on the icon, and grab the Stereo Camera option to get started. Now, switch to this new camera under the Cameras menu in the Viewer; you can find it under the Use Camera submenu. Nothing will change because we need to adjust our Viewer to activate stereoscopic effects. In the Viewer, under the Options menu, toggle on the Stereoscopic switch towards the top of the menu; your composition should change right away. Our Viewer is showing us an anaglyph image by default.
  2. Select the camera in the Object Manager and switch over to the Coordinates tab in the Attribute Manager. Set the camera to be positioned at 0 in the X position, 150 in the Y position, and -600 in the Z position. Eliminate all rotation values as well so that all the three settings read 0. Now, switch over to the Stereoscopic tab, whose settings control how your stereoscopic image is captured.
  3. Just look over a few important settings. The Eye Separation setting should almost always be kept at a small value like the default 6.5 cm. It represents how far apart the average pair of eyes is from each other, so it's best to leave that alone. The Show All Cameras checkbox is handy, when enabled, and we can see both the left and right-hand cameras in the Viewer when looking at our setup from another camera. It will also help by showing the Zero Parallax, Near Plane, and Far Plane objects in the Viewer as well.
  4. Now, switch from your stereoscopic camera to the Default Camera mode in the Viewer. Position Default Camera so that you can see the cones projecting from your stereoscopic camera rig. With the Stereoscopic tab loaded in the Attribute Manager, change the Zero Parallax from 1000 to 600. You'll notice the middle plane in your cone jump right up against the figure holding the 3D letters. Zero Parallax is set to be even with the projection, meaning that it's the screen which you are viewing the 3D image. Objects in front of this plane will appear to pop out in front of your screen with the right glasses, and the objects behind the plane will appear further back in your screen. Objects that are even with the plane will appear to have the same depth as the screen. Change the Auto Plane settings from Manual to 90, which represents a safe default setting for our eyes to observe our stereoscopic image. Our plane is set so our figure object will appear in front of the screen coming towards the audience.
  5. In order to see our final stereoscopic image, we'll need to activate the Stereoscopic options in the Render Settings dialog. Click on the icon of the orange film slate with the gear in the Command Palette to open Render Settings. Click on the checkbox for Stereoscopic and check out the settings available. The Calculate Stereoscopic Images menu allows you to render multiple individual channels for your image, so you can create more sophisticated renders outside of Cinema 4D. We want ours to remain on Merged Stereoscopic Image. The Mode setting is put to Anaglyph, which renders a red and cyan image for each eye and works with the basic 3D glasses I mentioned earlier. Additional Parallax can increase the stereoscopic effect if you enter a higher value here, but it's usually fine by default.
  6. If you hit the icon directly to the left of Render Settings, you'll render your image to the Picture Viewer and you'll have a sample frame of your stereoscopic image. The figure that's holding the 3D text appears to pop off the screen when viewed with simple anaglyph glasses:

How it works...

The new stereoscopic camera in Cinema 4D release 13 allows you to create stereoscopic renders that appear to pop off your screen. When activated in our camera and Viewer settings, we are able to preview our stereoscopic scene and make adjustments to the camera rig that captures 3D objects in 3D. We adjusted the Zero Parallax plane to make our figure holding the 3D letters pop towards us when viewed with anaglyph glasses.

There's more...

There are many more sophisticated setups possible when using the stereoscopic cameras in Cinema 4D. You can optimize the 3D animation for more specific and sophisticated glasses, and adjust your camera to mimic more creative setups. This is a brand new feature in Cinema 4D and is valuable to learn as its use becomes more popular in TV and film.

Configuring the Viewer

If you go under the Options menu in the Viewer and select Configure, you'll find a Stereoscopic tab that contains the same kind of options available in the Render Settings dialog. Adjust these to get a different look inside the Viewer.

Camera calibration

Camera calibration allows us to put 3D objects into real world images. The Camera Calibration tag allows Cinema 4D to work out the camera angle and focal length used in a picture and match it within the program. That way we can realistically place our own objects into the scene.

For example, in this scene I used the Camera Calibration tag to place some abstract 3D objects in the scene:

How to do it...

Firstly, create a new camera by clicking on the camera icon or select it from the menu.

  1. Now, right-click on Camera in the Object Manager and the Camera Calibrator tag from Cinema 4D tags. You can now see all the settings for the camera calibrator in the attributes window.
  2. Firstly, we want an image to calibrate. Click on the dots at the end of the Image field and then browse to room.jpg in the content pack. You should see the image in the perspective Viewer.
  3. We help calibrating the image by selecting the perspective lines from within the image. These allow Cinema to work out the vanishing points and then from there, the camera angle and focal length values are known.
  4. Now, switch over to the Calibration tag and click on Add Line. We need to align the line with one of the horizontal lines in the picture. So, drag one end of the line to a horizontal edge and then the other, so that it's nicely mirroring the angle of the line. Now, click on the line until it turns red. You'll see in the Attribute Manager that the line is now representing the X axis. Continue doing this for all the clear horizontal lines you can see. Four or five should be enough.
  5. Let's do the same for the vertical lines. Add another line and align it to any clear vertical edges. Now, Shift + click on it until it turns green. This tells the program that it's an edge parallel to the y axis. Keep adding until you have three or four.
  6. Let's add in the z axis lines. Just follow the same process but now choose the edges that move away from the camera. Make sure to Shift + click on them until they turn blue.
  7. Now, all that we have to do is drop in a pin at Add Pin. This will be the center of our world grid. Drop it into the corner of the room. All the camera calibration fields should now be green or yellow indicating that they have been solved:

  8. Now, let's click on Create Background Object. This will do just what it says but the background object will have our room image applied to it. Now, you can simply add any object and it will appear in the correct perspective within the shot. Try adding a cube, for example. You'll notice that as you move it around it appears to move within the scene.

How it works...

Camera calibration works by analyzing a 2D image (usually a photograph) and then trying to deduce various characteristics of the camera through this information. These characteristics include the focal length, orientation, and position of the camera. This is pretty clever stuff but the more information we can give the calibrator the better. That's why it really helps to know the measurements of various items visible in the shot.

There's more...

The Camera Calibration tag is very useful in some situations but it is designed for still imagery rather than for moving images. You could use it for filmed footage but you'd have to make sure that the camera doesn't move at all. If you do want to track shot footage, then you can use programs like PF Track, Bijou, or SynthEyes but these are fully-fledged 3D tracking programs. If you don't have the budget for that, then I recommend trying out The Foundry's Camera Tracker plugin for After Effects. It's much cheaper than other programs mentioned and will work pretty well for most users. It has also got a free trial period, so give it a go!

Limitations

Camera calibration works best for images with lots of straight and parallel lines such as buildings or room interiors. You will find it much harder if there are no straight lines, for example, an image of some trees in a field. You can try and estimate where the lines would be, but obviously the results will not be so accurate.

You should try and avoid any images with lens distortion or that which use fish-eye lenses or tilt shift lenses.

Tips to help calibrate better

You can make your calibration much more accurate if you know the measurements of some of the objects in your scene. For example, if you know the length of the sideboard to be 125 cm, then you can enter that value into the Known Length field in the Attributes/Calibrate field as you add a line to it.

If you want to make it look as if the elements you've added are really in the scene, then you'll need to try and duplicate the lighting. Try and match how the room is lit and use shadow catchers to increase the realism of your scene.

You can also create the basic geometry of your scene and use the Create Camera Mapping Tag to project the image onto that geometry. Simply drag your newly created tag onto your geometry. You can then move your camera around and create your own realistic camera moves within the scene. This is a more advanced technique but if you feel confident with what we've covered so far, you may want to begin exploring it.

Using the Motion Camera tag

Motion Camera is a powerful new tag which can help you simulate real world camera movements. It can help simulate all those things which make a camera look realistic which are sometimes lacking when you animate a CG camera. It actually creates a virtual camera person and can give them attributes like footsteps, headroll, and even overshoot the focus!

The Motion Camera tag can either follow a spline or can be used on top of an existing camera. We're going to be mainly looking at the spline based application of this tag but once you understand that, you can easily apply it to the existing camera moves that you've created.

How to do it...

In this recipe, we're going to have a quick look at the main parameters of the tag, and try and get a feel of how it works. We'll then move on to the next recipe to try it out in the field!

Go to Create | Camera | Motion Camera. This will set up a basic motion camera scene for you:

You can see that we have a spline along which our camera will move a camera, a camera person, and a camera target. If you look at the Animation settings in the Attribute Manager for the Motion Camera tag, you'll see that Cinema has already entered the objects into the correct fields. If you look through Motion Camera (Viewport Menu | Camera | Use Camera | Motion Camera) and click on Play, you'll see that the camera is moving naturally and gently.

  1. If you adjust the slider Camera Position, you'll notice our camera rig moving along the spline. Simply set a keyframe at frame 0, move the time along to 75 frames, set Camera Position slider to 100, and then set another keyframe. Click on the little target icon beside the camera and you will see that the camera is now moving and that we're focusing on the target. So far so good!
  2. We can control the basic alignment, rotation, and positioning of the set up in the Rig tab of the Attribute Manager. It's fairly straightforward to adjust the height and the parallax (or offset) of the camera. You can also adjust the rotation of the camera.
  3. Now, let's add in some banking to make our move more dynamic! Check the Enable box in Automatic Banking and set it to 5. When you play the animation, the camera tilts realistically with the motion.
  4. We can also create a new target for our camera by dropping in a new null object at Create | Object | Null. Move it reasonably close to the original target object and then select the Motion Camera tag and then the Animation tab. Drop the new null object into the Target A2 field.
  5. You will notice that a new option has become available now. This is the Target Pos A1 <-> A2 slider which enables us to choose how much we look at each target. You can enter targets into the B1 and B2 fields also and then mix them all up.
  6. Switch to the Motion tab of Motion Camera in the Attribute Manager. Now, increase the Footsteps Intensity value to 80% and click on Play again. You'll see that our camera now jiggles up and down in an attempt to simulate our camera person's footsteps.
  7. It doesn't quite feel right just yet. So, turn the Frequency value down to 0.4. You can also play with the scale to affect how much the camera moves on each step.
  8. You can, of course, add some values to the Head Rotation and Camera Rotation sliders. These add some random movement into the various parts of the camera rig.

How it works...

The Motion Camera tag works by taking a normal camera and then adding lots of secondary movement to it. These movements are meant to simulate the kind of behaviors you'd see if you used some real hand-held footage. A lot of these secondary movements are things you could keyframe by hand, but it would take a really long time to do so. With the tag, you can make amends quickly and cleanly.

Simulating a chase scene

In this recipe, we're going to animate a camera that zooms through a series of buildings chasing a red cone. Don't worry, it'll make sense when we open up the scene. We're going to get some really nice fluid, flowing, and dynamic movement which feels really organic and hand-held.

We're going to add some motion camera dynamics to a pre-existing camera move. Open Chase.c4d from the content pack.

How to do it...

Click on Play and watch the scene from the top viewport. You'll see that the camera (runCam) follows the linear spline through the buildings. Now, we want to make this more dynamic and natural, like someone is running through the buildings.

  1. Add a new camera and name it Motion Camera. Now, add the Motion Camera tag. This can be found by right-clicking on the camera or going to the Tags menu in the Object Manager. Select the Motion Camera tag from Motion Camera.
  2. Drag the runCam into the Base link field on the Rig tab of Motion Camera in the Attribute Manager. Click on the checkbox for Override Rig Dimensions. What we're doing here is using our original camera as a base, and allowing it to use some of the motion camera functionality.
  3. Switch to the Dynamics tab and set Damp Rot to 80%. Now, when you play the animation back, you'll see that rotation at the corners has been smoothed out. You can switch the mode to Spring if you want to create some whip and bounce in the movement. Simply add some Inertia Rot to the slider.
  4. Again add in 80% of Intensity into the Footsteps slider in the Motion tab and set the Frequency to 0.1.
  5. You can also add a little banking by using the Automatic Banking parameter in the Animation tab. Set it to 0.3 and set the Dampen value to 9% :

This setup should give you quite a pleasing and natural camera move based on a very simple animation setup.

There's more...

There's a lot to play with in the motion camera. You can mix between splines and target objects, and even activate the chase function which is a lot of fun and can be very useful. But, it's best just to have a play and see what works for you.

Getting to grips with the Camera Morph tag

The Camera Morph tag allows you to seamlessly transit between two or more cameras. Its power lies in the ability to set up multiple cameras, with exactly the framing you want, and then simply morph between them. It can be a lot less fiddly than doing it by keyframing or attaching your camera to a spline. You can even morph between moving cameras or cameras using the Motion Camera tag.

Getting ready...

In this recipe, we're going to have a quick look at using the Camera Morph tag and just get a feel of how it works. It's quite a simple tag but it's definitely worth having a look at this simple recipe to understand the basic principles. Open Camera.Morph.c4d from the content pack.

How to do it...

  1. You'll see there are two cameras set up in the scene: one is animated and the other is stationary. Now, create a third camera and apply the Camera Morph tag to it. (Go to the Tags menu in the Object Manager. Select Motion Camera tag from Camera Morph

  2. Now, drop FirstCam into the Camera 1 link field and SecondCam into the Camera 2 link field.
  3. Animate the Blend slider to be 0% at frame 0 and 100% at frame 75, and look through your newly created camera. You'll see it morphs seamlessly between the two cameras.

How it works...

You should see that the Camera Morph tag simply interpolates between your two selected cameras. It is much the same as setting two sets of keyframes for the position and rotation of the camera, so why use it you may ask? Well, it's simply because it's a nice workflow. You can keep your two key positions up in your scene the whole time. You can then look through your cameras and tweak them easily without having to set more keyframes. Basically, it's nice and clean!

There's more...

You can also decide which elements from your original cameras you want the morph camera to inherit. You do this in the Morph Tracks tab. Simply tick which attributes you want to take from your set up cameras. If you want to control your Focal Length value independently through keyframes, then simply uncheck it.

Complex camera moving with the Multi Morph tag

The Multi Morph option allows us to use more than two cameras to define our motion. Set up as many cameras as you like and drop them into the List link field. Your morph camera will blend through each position. The Multi Morph option is a natural extension of the Camera Morph tag.

You can tweak how the camera interpolates between each camera with the Interpolation dropdown menu.

How to do it...

  1. Drop in another two cameras into the scene we created in the previous recipe.
  2. Put the cameras in some interesting positions and get nice shots lined up by looking through them.
  3. Now, switch the Source Mode in your Camera tag to Multi Morph. This will open up a list field for you to drop your cameras into.
  4. Then, drop all the cameras you want to use into the list field. Make sure that you put them in the order you want them to run through them.
  5. You'll see that these new cameras have been incorporated into the camera move! It's a pretty neat way of creating complex camera moves.
  6. You can tweak the way the cameras move by adjusting the Interpolation field to one of the three presets.

How it works...

The Multi Morph option works much the same way as the Simple Morph option. It simply interpolates through the various cameras we drop into the List field.

There's more...

You may notice a little tickbox named Stabilize. Well if you tick this, it will make your camera align its own up vector with Y. This can be useful, but by ticking this box it also allows you to drop another object into the Stabilize Object field. With this, you can now control the Banking rotation of your camera with another object. Simply drop a null (or whatever you want) into this field and keyframe the Banking (B) rotation of the object during the duration of your animation. You'll notice that you get a nice Z roll or banking movement with your camera.

Summary

In this article, we learned about camera in Cinema 4D which ultimately controls how people will see and interpret the final image, target cameras, and calibration of cameras.

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About the Author :


Michael Szabo

Michael Szabo is a freelance motion graphics artist in Miami, FL who probably doesn’t go a day without opening Cinema 4D and using it for both business and for fun. As a kid, he was always curious about moving images and his no-budget home movies inspired him to learn design applications, such as Final Cut Pro, Motion, Photoshop, After Effects, and Cinema 4D on his own, because they just weren’t going to magically start teaching themselves to him. He has always been interested in learning new techniques and has always tried to design something better than he did the day before. You can find him at http://www.bigmikedesign.com and on Twitter at @bigmikedesign.

Simon Russell

Simon Russell is a freelance animation director based in London. Originally from Bath in south-west England, he moved to London to study Moving Image Design at Ravensbourne college. He has worked for a number of companies before going it alone in 2010. Since then he has worked with commercial clients such as Nike, Land Rover, and EA as well as making his own shorts, plugins, and tutorials. When he's not doing that (which is pretty much most of the time) he likes running and making his cats chase lasers! You can find him online at simonrussell.blogspot.com or @simonfarussell.

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