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Mastering Apple Aperture

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Master the art of enhancing, organizing, exporting, and printing your photos using Apple Aperture with this book and ebook

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by Thomas Fitzgerald | September 2013 | Web Graphics & Video

In this article, by Thomas Fitzgerald author of the book Mastering Apple Aperture, we will put that theory into practice, and take a look at several real world examples of how you can use Aperture, both creatively and to solve problems. The goal is to help you think outside the box and you may actually be surprised at just how much you can achieve within the software without having to jump over to another application, such as Photoshop.

In this article, we will look at the following examples of using Aperture:

  • Recovering and controlling clipped highlights

  • Fixing blown out skies

  • Removing objects from a scene

  • Fixing dust spots on multiple images

  • Fixing chromatic aberration

  • Fixing purple highlight fringes

  • Creating fake duotones

  • Fix a scanned negatives

Controlling clipped highlights

The problem of clipped highlights is a very common issue that a photographer will often have to deal with. Digital cameras only have limited dynamic range, so clipping becomes an issue, especially with high-contrast scenes. However, if you shoot RAW, then your camera will often record more highlighted information than is visible in the image. You may already be familiar with recovering highlights by using the recovery slider in Aperture, but there are actually a couple of other ways that you can bring this information back into range.

The three main methods of controlling lost highlights in Aperture are:

  • Using the recovery slider

  • Using curves

  • Using shadows and highlights

For many cases, using the recovery slider will be good enough, but the recovery slider has its limitations. Sometimes it still leaves your highlights looking too bright, or it doesn't give you the look you wish to achieve. The other two methods mentioned give you more control over the process of recovery. If you use a Curves adjustment, you can control the way the highlight rolls off, and you can reduce the artificial look that clipped highlights can give your image, even if technically the highlight is still clipped. A highlights & shadows adjustment is also useful because it has a different look, as compared to the one that you get when using the recovery slider. It works in a slightly different way, and includes more of the brighter tones of your image when making its calculations. The highlights and shadows adjustment has the added advantage of being able to be brushed in.

So, how do you know which one to use? Consider taking a three-stepped approach. If the first step doesn't work, move on to the second, and so on. Eventually, it will become second nature, and you'll know which way will be the best by just looking at the photograph.

Step 1

Use the recovery slider. Drag the slider up until any clipped areas of the image start to reappear. Only drag the slider until the clipped areas have been recovered, and then stop. You may find that if your highlights are completely clipped, you may need to drag the slider all the way to the right, as per the following screenshot:

For most clipped highlight issues, this will probably be enough. If you want to see what's going on, add a Curves adjustment and set the Range field to the Extended range. You don't have to make any adjustments at this point, but the histogram in the Curves adjustment will now show you how much image data is being clipped, and how much data that you can actually recover.

Real world example

In the following screenshot, the highlights on the right-hand edge of the plant pot have been completely blown out:

If we zoom in, you will be able to see the problem in more detail.

As you can see, all the image information has been lost from the intricate edge of this cast iron plant pot. Luckily this image had been shot in RAW, and the highlights are easily recovered.

In this case, all that was necessary was the use of the recovery slider. It was dragged upward until it reached a value of around 1.1, and this brought most of the detail back into the visible range.

As you can see from the preceding image, the detail has been recovered nicely and there are no more clipped highlights. The following screenshot is the finished image after the use of the recovery slider:

Step 2

If the recovery slider brought the highlights back into range, but still they are too bright, then try the Highlights & Shadows adjustment. This will allow you to bring the highlights down even further. If you find that it is affecting the rest of your image, you can use brushes to limit the highlight adjustment to just the area you want to recover.

You may find that with the Highlight and Shadows adjustment, if you drag the sliders too far the image will start to look flat and washed out. In this case, using the mid-contrast slider can add some contrast back into the image. You should use the mid-contrast slider carefully though, as too much can create an unnatural image with too much contrast.

Step 3

If the previous steps haven't addressed the problem to your satisfaction, or if the highlight areas are still clipped, you can add a roll off to your Curves adjustment. The following is a quick refresher on what to do:

  1. Add a Curves adjustment, if you haven't already added one.

  2. From the pop-up range menu at the bottom of the Curves adjustment, set the range to Extended.

  3. Drag the white point of the Curves slider till it encompasses all the image information.

  4. Create a roll off on the right-hand side of the curve, so it looks something like the following screenshot:

If you're comfortable with curves, you can skip directly to step 3 and just use a Curves adjustment, but for better results, you should combine the preceding differing methods to best suit your image.

Real world example

In the following screenshot (of yours truly), the photo was taken under poor lighting conditions, and there is a badly blown out highlight on the forehead:

Before we fix the highlights, however, the first thing that we need to do is to fix the overall white balance, which is quite poor. In this case, the easiest way to fix this problem is to use the Aperture's clever skin tone white-balance adjustment.

On the White Balance adjustment brick from the pop-up menu, set the mode to Skin Tone. Now, select the color picker and pick an area of skin tone in the image. This will set the white balance to a more acceptable color. (You can tweak it more if it's not right, but this usually gives satisfactory results.)

The next step is to try and fix the clipped highlight. Let's use the three-step approach that we discussed earlier. We will start by using the recovery slider. In this case, the slider was brought all the way up, but the result wasn't enough and leaves an unsightly highlight, as you can see in the following screenshot:

The next step is to try the Highlight & Shadows adjustment. The highlights slider was brought up to the mid-point, and while this helped, it still didn't fix the overall problem. The highlights are still quite ugly, as you can see in the following screenshot:

Finally, a Curves adjustment was added and a gentle roll off was applied to the highlight portion of the curve. While the burned out highlight isn't completely gone, there is no longer a harsh edge to it. The result is a much better image than the original, with a more natural-looking highlight as shown in the following screenshot:

Finishing touches

To take this image further, the face was brightened using another Curves adjustment, and the curves was brushed in over the facial area. A vignette was also added. Finally, a skin softening brush was used over the harsh shadow on the nose, and over the edges of the halo on the forehead, just to soften it even further. The result is a much better (and now useable) image than the one we started with.

Fixing blown out skies

Another common problem one often encounters with digital images is blown out skies. Sometimes it can be as a result of the image being clipped beyond the dynamic range of the camera, whereas other times the day may simply have been overcast and there is no detail there to begin with. While there are situations when the sky is too bright and you just need to bring the brightness down to better match the rest of the scene, that is easily fixed. But what if there is no detail there to recover in the first place? That scenario is what we are going to look at in the next section. This covers what to do when the sky is completely gone and there's nothing left to recover.

There are options open to you in this case. The first is pretty obvious. Leave it as it is. However, you might have an image that is nicely lit otherwise, but all that's ruining it is a flat washed-out sky. What would add a nice balance to an image in such a scenario is some subtle blue in the sky, even if it's just a small amount. Luckily, this is fairly easy to achieve in Aperture. Perform the following steps:

  1. Try the steps outlined in the previous section to bring clipped highlights back into range. Sometimes simply using the recovery slider will bring clipped skies back into the visible range, depending on the capabilities of your camera. In order for the rest of this trick to work, your highlights must be in the visible range.

  2. If you have already made any enhancements using the Enhance brick and you want to preserve those, add another Enhance brick by choosing Add New Enhance adjustment from the cog pop-up on the side of the interface.

  3. If the Tint controls aren't visible on the Enhance brick, click on the little arrow beside the word Tint to reveal the Tint controls.

  4. Using the right-hand Tint control (the one with the White eyedropper under it), adjust the control until it adds some blue back to the sky.

  5. If this is adding too much blue to other areas of your image, then brush the enhance adjustment in by choosing Brush Enhance In from the cog pop-up menu.

Real world example

In this example, the sky has been completely blown out and has lost most of its color detail. The first thing to try is to see whether any detail can be recovered by using the recovery slider. In this case, some of the sky was recovered, but a lot of it was still burned out. There is simply no more information to recover.

The next step is to use the tint adjustment as outlined in the instructions. This puts some color back in the sky and it looks more natural. A small adjustment of the Highlights & Shadows also helps bring the sky back into the range.

Finishing touches

While the sky has now been recovered, there is still a bit of work to be done. To brighten up the rest of the image, a Curves adjustment was added, and the upper part of the curve was brought up, while the shadows were brought down to add some contrast.

The following is the Curves adjustment that was used:

Finally, to reduce the large lens flare in the center of the image, I added a color adjustment and reduced the saturation and brightness of the various colors in the flare. I then painted the color adjustment in over the flare, and this reduced the impact of it on the image. This is the same technique that can be used for getting rid of color fringing, which will be discussed later in this article.

The following screenshot is the final result:

Removing objects from a scene

One of the myths about photo workflow applications such as Aperture is that they're not good for pixel-level manipulations. People will generally switch over to something such as Photoshop if they need to do more complex operations, such as cloning out an object. However, Aperture's retouch tool is surprisingly powerful. If you need to remove small distracting objects from a scene, then it works really well. The following is an example of a shot that was entirely corrected in Aperture:

It is not really practical to give step-by-step instructions for using the tool because every situation is different, so instead, what follows is a series of tips on how best to use the retouch function:

  • To remove complex objects you will have to switch back and forth between the cloning and healing mode. Don't expect to do everything entirely in one mode or the other.

  • To remove long lines, such as the telegraph wires in the preceding example, start with the healing tool. Use this till you get close to the edge of an object in the scene you want to keep. Then switch to the cloning tool to fix the areas close to the kept object.

  • The healing tool can go a bit haywire near the edges of the frame, or the edges of another object, so it's often best to use the clone tool near the edges.

  • Remember when using the clone tool that you need to keep changing your clone source so as to avoid leaving repetitive patterns in the cloned area. To change your source area, hold down the option key, and click on the image in the area that you want to clone from.

  • Sometimes doing a few smaller strokes works better than one long, big stroke.

  • You can only have one retouch adjustment, but each stroke is stored separately within it. You can delete individual strokes, but only in the reverse order in which they were created. You can't delete the first stroke, and keep the following ones if for example, you have 10 other strokes.

It is worth taking the time to experiment with the retouch tool. Once you get the hang of this feature, you will save yourself a lot of time by not having to jump to another piece of software to do basic (or even advanced) cloning and healing.

Fixing dust spots on multiple images

A common use for the retouch tool is for removing sensor dust spots on an image. If your camera's sensor has become dirty, which is surprisingly common, you may find spots of dust creeping onto your images. These are typically found when shooting at higher f-stops (narrower apertures), such as f/11 or higher, and they manifest as round dark blobs. Dust spots are usually most visible in the bright areas of solid color, such as skies.

The big problem with dust spots is that once your sensor has dust on it, it will record that dust in the same place in every image. Luckily Aperture's tools makes it pretty easy to remove those dust spots, and once you've removed them from one image, it's pretty simple to remove them from all your images. To remove dust spots on multiple images, perform the following steps:

  1. Start by locating the image in your batch where the dust spots are most visible.

  2.  

    Zoom in to 1:1 view (100 percent zoom), and press X on your keyboard to activate the retouch tool.

  3.  

    Switch the retouch tool to healing mode and decrease the size of your brush till it is just bigger than the dust spot. Make sure there is some softness on the brush.

  4. Click once over the spot to get rid of it. You should try to click on it rather than paint when it comes to dust spots, as you want the least amount of area retouched as possible.

  5. Scan through your image when viewing at 1:1, and repeat the preceding process until you have removed all the dust spots

  6. Close the retouch tool's HUD to drop the tool. Zoom back out.

  7. Select the lift tool from the Aperture interface (it's at the bottom of the main window).

  8. In the lift and stamp HUD, delete everything except the Retouch adjustment in the Adjustments submenu. To do this, select all the items except the retouch entry, and press the delete (or backspace) key.

  9. Select another image or group of images in your batch, and press the Stamp Selected Images button on the Lift and Stamp HUD.

Your retouched settings will be copied to all your images, and because the dust spots don't move between shots, the dust should be removed on all your images.

Mastering Apple Aperture Master the art of enhancing, organizing, exporting, and printing your photos using Apple Aperture with this book and ebook
Published: August 2013
eBook Price: £18.99
Book Price: £30.99
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Tips for fixing chromatic aberration

Chromatic aberration is one of the most common image problems, and also one of the easiest to fix. Aperture has a special tool for fixing chromatic aberration, coincidentally called Chromatic Aberration.

Using it is actually fairly straightforward, so you may be wondering why it is featured here, but there are actually a few tricks that can make it a bit easier to work with when working on multiple images. What follows is a selection of tip and tricks for using the chromatic aberration tool:

  • Always zoom in to 1:1 when fixing chromatic aberration, as you can't see the results properly when zoomed out.

  • Chromatic aberration is always worst at the edges of the frame. When zooming in to adjust for it, always pan to the edge of the frame. A corner is even better.

  • Red/Cyan is more common, so always start with that first. This will more often than not remove the chromatic aberration from the shot.

  • Chromatic aberration varies depending on the lens, the aperture, and if it's a zoom lens, the focal length. Because of this, there's no point in trying to save this as a preset. However, if you regularly use the same lens and it is a prime (or you shoot at the same focal length), then you can use presets to build up a collection of quick fixes for chromatic aberration.

  • Remember though, it will only work with images shot using the same aperture. So, you will need to create separate presets for each of the f-stops you generally shoot at, for that specific lens. Your chromatic aberration fix for f/2.8 for example, will be different from the fix for f/8. You could name these presets something along the lines of what follows, so that they are easier to remember and find again later. The following is just an example:

    • 50 mm Lens f/1.8 CA Fix

    • 50 mm Lens f/2.8 CA Fix

    • 50 mm Lens f/8 CA Fix

     

Fixing purple fringing

Purple fringing is another common problem that you will encounter in digital photography. It's caused by the optical design of a lens, and is different from the standard chromatic aberration. Purple fringing is typically found around bright highlights, and can usually be seen around shiny points on metal. It's also common on water highlights, and it is usually worse on less expensive or poorer quality lenses. It still does present itself on expensive and high-end glass, however. Aperture does have a tool for fixing this problem called the Halo Reduction brush, but it's not very good. There is, however, another relatively simple way to fix purple fringing using some of the other tools in Aperture. The following steps explain what to do:

  1. With an image that is experiencing the color fringing problem, the first thing to do is zoom in to 1:1 so you can get a better look at what's happening. You may need to make some fine adjustments, so zooming in is essential to see the problem in detail. Once you have zoomed in, pan to an area where the artifacts are most visible.

  2. Add a Color adjustment to your adjustment stack. If you are already using a Color adjustment on your image, add another.

  3. If the Color adjustment is in compact view, switch to expanded view by pressing the Expanded View button, which is the first button of the group of three, which are located on the top right-hand corner of the Color adjustment brick (see the following screenshot).

  4. Start by dragging down the Saturation slider on the purple section of the color slider. Drag it all the way to zero.

  5. You may also need to reduce the red slider. Keep an eye on the image while you are making adjustments. You want to do the minimum amount of correcting necessary to remove the artifacts. Once the fringing is gone, you can stop.

  6. If the problem is on bright water highlights, you may also need to reduce the Saturation slider of the blue and the cyan areas. You will need to judge this by using eyes only, and through trial and error. You will be able to see when you have done enough.

  7. Once you have finished adjusting the sliders in the Color adjustment brick, and the fringing is gone, zoom back out to double check that you haven't missed anything. The big problem with this technique is that you would have affected the color significantly in the rest of the image. Don't worry about this for now though, as we'll fix that in the next step.

  8. To ensure that only the area with the fringing is treated with this effect, add a brush to the Color adjustment brick by choosing Brush Color in from the cog pop-up menu in the Color adjustment brick.

  9. Brush over the areas where the fringing is a problem with a soft-edged brush. This should now get rid of the fringing without affecting the rest of the image.

This technique should give you a much more pleasing result than the Halo Reduction brush, because the Halo Reduction brush is preset to only remove certain colors. Personally, I often find that it also alters the surrounding color too much and it doesn't create a realistic or natural result. By using a brushed color adjustment you have much more control over the result.

Real world example

In the preceding image there is a substantial amount of color fringing in the waterfall. If you zoom in, you can see the problem in more detail.

As you can see in the preceding screenshot, the fringing is a major issue. Luckily, it is easy to fix. Using the settings in the previous section, a Color adjustment brick was added and this was then brushed in over the waterfall area.

The result is the following image, free of the color-fringing problem:

Finishing touches

To finish the image and make it a little more interesting, there was some warmth added, as well as some contrast, using a Curves adjustment. A slight vignette was also added to bring the focus of the image into the waterfall. The following image is the final result:

Creating fake duotones

One of the features notably lacking from Aperture's toolset is a duotone adjustment. A duotone is a halftone printing process made using two inks, usually black and another color. In the digital darkroom, a similar effect is created by tinting the shadows with one color and the highlights with another. While not technically a duotone, this is often a creative choice for photographers looking to create a stylized image. Many applications have a tool specifically for this technique included, but unfortunately Aperture doesn't. You can create sepia images easily enough, but there's no faux duotone effect included in the default toolset. Luckily, you can achieve similar results fairly easily by combining a few different adjustments as shown in the following steps:

  1. In the Enhance adjustment, set the Saturation slider of your image to zero.

  2. Add a second Enhance adjustment, by choosing Add New Enhance Adjustment from the cog pop-up menu.

  3. Expand the Tint controls if they are hidden.

  4. Use the shadow tint control to add color to the shadows. You can control the intensity by how far you move the control away from the center of the color wheel.

  5. Use the highlight color control to tint the highlights and add color to the lighter part of the image. Depending on the tonality of the image, you may need to adjust the Gray color wheel too.

That's pretty much all there is to it. If you find that the intensity of the duotone effect is not strong enough, add a third Enhance adjustment brick. You can then use the Saturation slider to increase the saturation of the duotone colors.

Mastering Apple Aperture Master the art of enhancing, organizing, exporting, and printing your photos using Apple Aperture with this book and ebook
Published: August 2013
eBook Price: £18.99
Book Price: £30.99
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Fixing scanned negatives

Despite the fact that we live in the digital age, many people still use film. The popularity of Holga Cameras, in particular, has led to a renewed interest to store and catalogue images from film. Also, there are plenty of people who have old film negatives (and slides) lying around with which they want to do something.

If you want to sort and catalogue your positives and negatives in Aperture, the first step is to get them scanned and imported. There are a couple of options for doing this. You can have a lab do them for you, which is the easiest option. If you have a film scanner, you can scan them yourself. The third method that some people use, while not ideal, is to use a digital camera and either a macro lens on a light box, or a special holder designed for mounting slides on the end of a lens. If you are using a macro lens and a light box, you need to use some kind of stand to hold your camera steady, and at right angles to the light box.

There are also special holders that you can get which allow you to put the negatives or positives on the end of a lens and capture them using your DSLR. This isn't the best way to capture negatives, but some people use this method if they don't have access to a scanner.

Lomography, the people who make the popular Holga range of cameras, have a clever adaptor to turn your smartphone into a film scanner. You can find out about it at their website http://shop.lomography.com/accessories/smartphone-scanner.

While it won't give you professional quality results, if you're shooting a film with one of their plastic cameras, quality is probably not a major concern.

If you are using your own scanner, you will probably not need to do anything special in Aperture because most scanners have a built-in negative option in their software, which will give you a correct result when scanning a negative. However, if by some chance your scanner doesn't have this option, or you are using the digital camera method, then you will need to invert the image so it becomes positive again. Your photo will also need some color correction to compensate for the inherent orange color of negatives. Luckily though, once you have this figured out, it will be pretty much the same for every negative you use so you can save your setup as a preset. Because Aperture doesn't have an invert tool, you need to use curves to invert an image.

The following are the steps for creating the necessary adjustments to use negatives in Aperture:

  1. Import your scanned images into Aperture, or if you've used a digital camera, import the images from your memory card.

  2. Select an image to work on as the starting point. You can later apply the same effect to all the images.

  3. Add a Curves adjustment and invert the curve, so that the left-hand (black point) side starts high, and the right-hand side (white point) ends low. The curve should look like the following screenshot:

  4. Your image should now be looking a bit more normal, although the colors will still look unnatural.

  5. Add a second Curves adjustment. This is one occasion when using the eyedroppers will help. Select the black point eyedropper and click on an area of the image that should be black.

  6. Select the white point eyedropper and click on an area that should be white.

  7. Finally, select the gray point eyedropper and click on an area that should be neutral toned.

  8. You should now have a reasonably accurate image, but you will probably need to continue to tweak the colors, using both the curves and Aperture's other tools, until you get them right.

  9. Finally, you should save your adjustments as a preset. You can now apply this preset to the rest of the images that you have scanned in.

Once you have saved a preset, you should be able to use this as a starting point for every time you want to use negatives in your project again.

If you are adjusting the exposure of your images after you have applied this negative effect, remember that because your Curves adjustment is inverting the image, anything you do in the Exposure adjustment brick will have the opposite effect. So, if you increase the Exposure slider, it will actually darken your image.

Summary

In this article, we built on the theory to tackle some common real world problems that you may encounter when working with digital images. We looked at the range of tasks you can actually accomplish within aperture, and hopefully you will now have a better understanding of not just how to fix these issues, but how Aperture's advance features can be put to practical use.

In this article, everything was without having to go outside the software to achieve the desired results. Sometimes though, you may find that Aperture simply doesn't have the toolset to accomplish what you want it to, and you need to look outside the software. Aperture has a robust plugin architecture, and there are several ways to pair it with third-party applications too. We will cover all this in the next article.

Resources for Article :


Further resources on this subject:


About the Author :


Thomas Fitzgerald

Thomas Fitzgerald has been trained in animation and graphic designing, and from there he became a motion graphics artist working in television and film, but he always pursued his love for photography. His work with the visual medium of motion pictures encouraged his skills as a photographer and his cross-disciplined approach led him to his passion for photography today. Currently, Thomas is a freelance motion graphics artist and animator, as well as a fine art photographer and a prolific blogger. He has been using Aperture since the very first version came out, and writes and produces a popular blog about Aperture, http://theapertureblog.com.

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