Understanding TCP/IP


Understanding TCP/IP
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  • Essential reference to what's really going on at the network level
  • Covers  Telnet, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, ESMTP, IMAP4, POP3, NNTP, and LDAP
  • IP4 and IP6

Book Details

Language : English
Paperback : 480 pages [ 235mm x 191mm ]
Release Date : May 2006
ISBN : 190481171X
ISBN 13 : 9781904811718
Author(s) : Alena Kabelová, Libor Dostálek
Topics and Technologies : All Books, Networking and Servers, Networking & Telephony



Table of Contents

Preface
Chapter 1: Introduction to Network Protocols
Chapter 2: Network Monitoring Tools
Chapter 3: Physical Layer
Chapter 4: Link Layer
Chapter 5: Internet Protocol
Chapter 6: IP Address
Chapter 7: Routing
Chapter 8: IP Version 6
Chapter 9: Transmission Control Protocol
Chapter 10: User Datagram Protocol
Chapter 11: Domain Name System
Chapter 12: Telnet
Chapter 13: File Transfer Protocol
Chapter 14: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Chapter 15: Email
Chapter 16: Forums
Chapter 17: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Appendix A: CISCO Routers
Index
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Network Protocols
    • 1.1 ISO OSI
      • 1.1.1 Physical Layer
      • 1.1.2 Data Link Layer
      • 1.1.3 Network Layer
      • 1.1.4 Transport Layer
      • 1.1.5 Session Layer
      • 1.1.6 Presentation Layer
      • 1.1.7 Application Layer
    • 1.2 TCP/IP
      • 1.2.1 Internet Protocol
      • 1.2.2 TCP and UDP
      • 1.2.3 Application Protocols
    • 1.3 Methods of Information Transmission
      • 1.3.1 Synchronous Transmission
      • 1.3.2 Packet Transmission
      • 1.3.3 Asynchronous Transmission
    • 1.4 Virtual Circuit
  • Chapter 2: Network Monitoring Tools
    • 2.1 Packet Drivers
    • 2.2 MS Network Monitor
      • 2.2.1 Frame Capturing
      • 2.2.2 Viewing Captured Frames
      • 2.2.3 Filters for Displaying Captured Frames
    • 2.3 Ethereal
    • 2.4 Homework
  • Chapter 3: Physical Layer
    • 3.1 Serial Line
      • 3.1.1 Serial and Parallel Data Transport
      • 3.1.2 Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Signals
      • 3.1.3 Synchronous and Asynchronous Transport
      • 3.1.4 V.24, V.35, and X.21 Protocols
      • 3.1.5 Null Modem
    • 3.2 Modems
      • 3.2.1 Dial-Up Connection
      • 3.2.2 Leased Lines
      • 3.2.3 Automatic Modem
        • 3.2.3.1 AT Commands
      • 3.2.4 Synchronous Transmission
      • 3.2.5 Baseband, Voice Band, and ADSL
      • 3.2.6 Transmission Rate
        • 3.2.6.1 The V.90 Recommendation
      • 3.2.7 Data Compression
      • 3.2.8 Error Detection
    • 3.3 Digital Circuits
      • 3.3.1 ISDN
        • 3.3.1.1 Basic Rate
        • 3.3.1.2 Higher Layer Protocols and Signalization
      • 3.3.2 E and T Lines
    • 3.4 LAN
      • 3.4.1 Structured Cables
        • 3.4.1.1 Copper Distribution
        • 3.4.1.2 Optical Fibers
      • 3.4.2 Ethernet (10 Mbps)
        • 3.4.2.1 AUI
        • 3.4.2.2 BNC
        • 3.4.2.3 Twisted-Pair
      • 3.4.3 Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps)
      • 3.4.4 Gigabyte Ethernet (1 Gbps)
  • Chapter 4: Link Layer
    • 4.1 Serial Line Internet Protocol
    • 4.2 Compressed SLIP
    • 4.3 High-Level Data Link Control Protocol
      • 4.3.1 Flag
      • 4.3.2 Address Field
      • 4.3.3 Control Field
        • 4.3.3.1 I-Frame
        • 4.3.3.2 S-Frame
        • 4.3.3.3 U-Frame
      • 4.3.4 Data Field and a Transferred Protocol Type
      • 4.3.5 Checksum
      • 4.3.6 HDLC Protocol Summary
    • 4.4 Point-To-Point Protocol
      • 4.4.1 Dialing a Phone Line
      • 4.4.2 Link Control Protocol
      • 4.4.3 Authentication
        • 4.4.3.1 Password Authentication Protocol
        • 4.4.3.2 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocols
        • 4.4.3.3 Extensible Authentication Protocol
        • 4.4.3.4 Radius Protocol
      • 4.4.4 Call-Back Control Protocol
      • 4.4.5 Other Protocols
        • 4.4.5.1 Multilink Protocol
        • 4.4.5.2 Bandwidth Allocation Protocol and Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
        • 4.4.5.3 Compression Control Protocol
        • 4.4.5.4 Encryption Control Protocol
        • 4.4.5.5 Setting Encryption Keys
      • 4.4.6 Internet Protocol Control Protocol
    • 4.5 Frame Relay
      • 4.5.1 A Frame Relay Protocol Frame
      • 4.5.2 IP Through Frame Relay
      • 4.5.3 Local Management Interface
      • 4.5.4 Frame Relay Configuration on CISCO Routers
      • 4.5.5 Frame Relay Protocol
    • 4.6 Local Area Networks
      • 4.6.1 Ethernet
    • 4.7 Wireless Local Area Network
      • 4.7.1 Typical WLAN Configuration
        • 4.7.1.1 Peer-To-Peer Networks
        • 4.7.1.2 Access Point
        • 4.7.1.3 Roaming (Several Access Points)
        • 4.7.1.4 Backbone Point-to-Point Connection
      • 4.7.2 Antennas
      • 4.7.3 Security of WLAN
        • 4.7.3.1 Service Set ID
        • 4.7.3.2 Wired Equivalent Privacy
        • 4.7.3.3 IEEE 802.1X
    • 4.8 Fixed Wireless Access
      • 4.8.1 The Differences Between FWA and WLAN
      • 4.8.2 The Main Benefits of FWA
  • Chapter 5: Internet Protocol
    • 5.1 IP Datagram
    • 5.2. Internet Control Message Protocol
      • 5.2.1 Echo
      • 5.2.2 Destination Unreachable
      • 5.2.3 Source Quench (Lower Sending Speed)
      • 5.2.4 Redirect
      • 5.2.5 ICMP Router Discovery
      • 5.2.6 Time Exceeded
      • 5.2.7 Subnet Address Mask Request
      • 5.2.8 Time Synchronization
    • 5.3 Fragmentation
    • 5.4 Optional Entries in the IP Header
      • 5.4.1 Record Route
      • 5.4.2 Timestamp
      • 5.4.3 Source Routing
      • 5.4.4 IP Router Alert Option
    • 5.5 ARP and RARP Protocols
      • 5.5.1 ARP Filtering
      • 5.5.2 Proxy ARP
      • 5.5.3 Reverse ARP
    • 5.6 Internet Group Management Protocol
    • 5.7 Multicast and Link Protocol
  • Chapter 6: IP Address
    • 6.1 Network: First Period of History
      • 6.1.1 Special-Use IP Addresses
      • 6.1.2 Network Mask
    • 6.2 Network: Second Period of History
      • 6.2.1 Subnetworks
      • 6.2.2 Super-Networks and Autonomous Systems
    • 6.3 IP Addresses in the Intranet and Special-Use IP Addresses
    • 6.4 Unnumbered Interface
      • 6.4.1 Dynamic Address Assignment
    • 6.5 Address Plan
    • 6.6 Over 254 Interfaces in a LAN
  • Chapter 7: Routing
    • 7.1 Forwarding and Screening
    • 7.2 Routing
      • 7.2.1 Processing
    • 7.3 Handling Routing Tables
      • 7.3.1 List of Contents of a Routing Table in a Command Prompt
        • 7.3.1.1 Contents of a Routing Table in UNIX
      • 7.3.2 Routing Table Listing in Windows 2000/XP/2003
      • 7.3.3 Contents of a Routing Table in Cisco Routers
      • 7.3.4 Routing Table Entry Addition and Removal
    • 7.4 Routing Protocols
      • 7.4.1 Routing Vector Protocols
        • 7.4.1.1 RVP Principle
        • 7.4.1.2 RIP and RIP2
      • 7.4.2 Link State Protocols
        • 7.4.2.1 OSPF
      • 7.4.3 IPG and EGP
      • 7.4.4 Aggregation
      • 7.4.5 Redistribution
    • 7.5 Neutral Exchange Point
  • Chapter 8: IP Version 6
    • 8.1 Next Headers of IP Version 6 Datagram
      • 8.1.1 Hop-By-Hop Options
      • 8.1.2 Routing Header
      • 8.1.3 Fragment Header
      • 8.1.4 Authentication Header
      • 8.1.5 Encapsulating Security Payload Header
    • 8.2 ICMP Version 6 Protocol
      • 8.2.1 Address Resolution
      • 8.2.2 Router Discovery
      • 8.2.3 Redirect
    • 8.3. IP Addresses
      • 8.3.1 Types of Address Inscription
      • 8.3.2 Multicasts
      • 8.3.3 Unicasts
    • 8.4 Windows 2003
  • Chapter 9: Transmission Control Protocol
    • 9.1 TCP Segments
    • 9.2 TCP Header Options
    • 9.3 Establishing and Terminating a Connection with TCP
      • 9.3.1 Establishing a Connection
      • 9.3.2 Terminating a Connection
      • 9.3.3 Aborting a Connection
    • 9.4 Determining the Connection State
    • 9.5 Response Delay Techniques
    • 9.6 Window Technique
    • 9.7 Network Congestion
      • 9.7.1 Slow Start
      • 9.7.2 Congestion Avoidance
      • 9.7.3 Segment Loss
    • 9.8 The Window Scale Factor
  • Chapter 11: Domain Name System
    • 11.1 Domains and Subdomains
    • 11.2 Name Syntax
    • 11.3 Reverse Domains
    • 11.4 Resource Records
    • 11.5 DNS Protocol
    • 11.6 DNS Query
      • 11.6.1 DNS Query Packet Format
      • 11.6.2 DNS Query Packet Header
      • 11.6.3 Question Section
      • 11.6.4 The Answer Section, Authoritative Servers, and Additional Information
  • Chapter 12: Telnet
    • 12.1 The NVT Protocol
    • 12.2 Telnet Protocol Commands
      • 12.2.1 Signal for Synchronization
      • 12.2.2 The Telnet Command Line
      • 12.2.3 Communication Modes
    • 12.3 Example of Windows NT Client Communication
    • 12.4 Example of UNIX Client Communication
  • Chapter 13: File Transfer Protocol
    • 13.1 Architecture
    • 13.2 Active Mode of FTP Protocol Communication
    • 13.3 Passive Mode of FTP Protocol Communication
    • 13.4 FTP Commands
    • 13.5 Proxy
    • 13.6 Return Codes
    • 13.7 Abnormal Termination of Data Transfer
    • 13.8 Anonymous FTP
  • Chapter 14: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
    • 14.1 Client-Server
    • 14.2 Proxy
    • 14.3 Gateway
    • 14.4 Tunnel
    • 14.5 More Intermediate Nodes
    • 14.6 Uniform Resource Identifier
      • 14.6.1 The http Scheme
      • 14.6.2 The ftp Scheme
      • 14.6.3 The mailto Scheme
      • 14.6.4 The nntp Scheme
      • 14.6.5 The telnet Scheme
      • 14.6.6 The file Scheme
      • 14.6.7 The pop Scheme
    • 14.7 Relative URI
    • 14.8 The HTTP Request
      • 14.8.1 The GET Method
      • 14.8.2 The POST Method
      • 14.8.3 The HEAD Method
      • 14.8.4 The TRACE Method
      • 14.8.5 The OPTIONS Method
    • 14.9 The HTTP Response
      • 14.9.1 An Overview of Result Codes
    • 14.10 Other Header Fields
      • 14.10.1 Accept Header Field
      • 14.10.2 Client Authentication
      • 14.10.3 Proxy Authentication
      • 14.10.4 Content Header Field
      • 14.10.5 Redirection and Temporary Unavailability of Objects
      • 14.10.6 Cache
      • 14.10.7 Software Information
    • 14.11 Cookie
      • 14.11.1 Set-Cookie and Set-Cookie2 Header Fields
        • 14.11.1.1 Cookie Header Field
  • Chapter 15: Email
    • 15.1 Email Architecture
      • 15.1.1 DNS and Email
    • 15.2 Mail Message Format
      • 15.2.1 Basic Header Fields
    • 15.3 MIME
      • 15.3.1 MIME Header Fields
        • 15.3.1.1 MIME-Version
        • 15.3.1.2 Content-Type
        • 15.3.1.3 Content-Transfer-Encoding
        • 15.3.1.4 Content-Disposition
      • 15.3.2 Standard Encoding Mechanisms
        • 15.3.2.1 Quoted-Printable
        • 15.3.2.2 Base64
      • 15.3.3 Non-ASCII Text in Message Header Fields
      • 15.3.4 Discrete Media Types in Content-Type
        • 15.3.4.1 text
        • 15.3.4.2 application
        • 15.3.4.3 image
        • 15.3.4.4 audio
        • 15.3.4.5 video
        • 15.3.4.6 model
      • 15.3.5 Composite Media Types in Content-Type
        • 15.3.5.1 multipart
        • 15.3.5.2 message
    • 15.4 SMTP
    • 15.5 ESMTP
      • 15.5.1 Message Delivery Receipt
        • 15.5.1.1 Delivery Status Notification
        • 15.5.1.2 The Disposition-Notification-To Header Field
    • 15.6 POP3
    • 15.7 IMAP4
      • 15.7.1 Unauthenticated State
        • 15.7.1.1 LOGIN
        • 15.7.1.2 AUTHENTICATE
      • 15.7.2 Authenticated State
        • 15.7.2.1 CREATE, DELETE, RENAME, and LIST Commands
        • 15.7.2.2 SUBSRCIBE, LSUB, and UNSUBSCRIBE Commands
        • 15.7.2.3 STATUS
        • 15.7.2.4 SELECT and EXAMINE Commands
      • 15.7.3 Open Mailbox
        • 15.7.3.1 COPY
        • 15.7.3.2 SEARCH
        • 15.7.3.3 FETCH
        • 15.7.3.4 STORE
        • 15.7.3.5 EXPUNGE
        • 15.7.3.6 CLOSE
    • 15.8 Mailing Lists
  • Chapter 16: Forums
    • 16.1 Message Format
    • 16.2 NNTP Protocol
      • 16.2.1 End User Communication
      • 16.2.2 Communication Among Servers
      • 16.2.3 Session Termination
  • Chapter 17: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
    • 17.1 Protocol Principle
    • 17.2 Data Model of LDAP Directory
    • 17.3 LDAP Protocol Data Units
      • 17.3.1 The Search Operation
        • 17.3.1.1 Filters
      • 17.3.2 Further Operations with Entries
        • 17.3.2.1 The Add Operation
        • 17.3.2.2 The Modify Operation
        • 17.3.2.3 The Delete Operation
        • 17.3.2.4 The Modify DN Operation
        • 17.3.2.5 The Compare Operation
    • 17.4 Server Programs
    • 17.5 Client Programs
      • 17.5.1 The LDAP Browser
      • 17.5.2 The OpenLDAP Client
      • 17.5.3 ADSIedit
      • 17.5.4 MS Outlook Express and MS Outlook
    • 17.6 Lightweight Directory Interchange Format
  • Appendix A: CISCO Routers
    • A.1 Interface Identification
    • A.2 Cables
    • A.3 Memory
    • A.4 Console
    • A.5 Commands
      • A.5.1 Non-Privileged Mode
      • A.5.2 Privileged mode
    • A.6 Configuration
      • A.6.1 Setting a Password for Privileged Mode
      • A.6.2 Web
      • A.6.3 ConfigMaker
    • A.7 Debugging

Alena Kabelová

Alena Kabelová was born in 1964 in Budweis, Europe. She graduated in ICT at the Economical University in Prague. She worked together with Libor Dostálek as a hostmaster. She is mostly involved in development and schooling of software. At present, she works as a senior project manager at the PVT and focuses mainly on electronic banking. Her experiences as the hostmaster of an important European ISP are applied in this publication.


Libor Dostálek

Libor Dostálek was born in 1957 in Prague, Europe. He graduated in mathematics at the Charles University in Prague. Since last 20 years he has been involved in ICT architecture and security. His experiences as the IT architect and the hostmaster of one of the first European Internet Service Providers have been used while writing this publication. Later he became an IT architect of one of the first home banking applications fully based on the PKI architecture, and also an IT architect of one of the first GSM banking applications (mobile banking). As a head consultant, he designed the architecture of several European public certification service providers (certification authorities) and also many e-commerce and e-banking applications. The public knows him either as an author of many publications about TCP/IP and security or as a teacher. He taught at various schools as well as held various commercial courses. At present, he lectures on Cryptology at the Charles University in Prague. Nowadays, he is an employee of Siemens.

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Submit Errata

Please let us know if you have found any errors not listed on this list by completing our errata submission form. Our editors will check them and add them to this list. Thank you.


Errata

- 3 submitted: last submission 18 Feb 2014

Errata type: typo | Page number: 15

Change PIP3 to POP3

 

Errata type: Others | Page number: 145 | Errata date: 31-5-2013

 

The diagram mentions the offset as 1500, 3000 though it should mention it in  
units of 8 bytes i.e. 187, 375. 

From RFC 791:

Fragment Offset:  13 bits

This field indicates where in the datagram this fragment belongs. The  
fragment offset is measured in units of 8 octets (64 bits).  The first  
fragment has offset zero.

 

 

Errata type: Typo | Page numbers: 31, 142
S/MINE 

should be:

S/MIME

Sample chapters

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What you will learn from this book

This book covers all the basic as well as advanced uses of TCP/IP

  • Chapter 1 is a general introduction to networking concepts the understanding of which is required for reading the book. The chapter introduces the Open System Interconnection (OSI) networking framework, which defines seven layers for implementing network protocols, and the simpler TCP/IP model. It also explains the three different data transmission methods: synchronous, asynchronous, and packet.
  • Chapter two focuses on tools that can be used to monitor data transfers on the network. Three tools are covered: MS Network Monitor and Ethereal.
  • Chapter 3 discusses the first of the seven layers of the OSI model: the physical layer. Serial lines, modems, digital circuits, and other hardware devices are covered. The chapter also explains how the choice of the physical layer depends on the choice of the link protocol, with emphasis on Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabyte.
  • Chapter 4 explains the link layer, focusing on the following link protocols: Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), Compressed SLIP (CSLIP), High-level Data Link Control (HDLC), Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Frame Relay, and Ethernet.
  • Chapter 5 talks about the Internet Protocol (IP). It covers IP datagram, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP (RARP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).
  • Chapter 6 covers IP addresses in IP version 4. The various classes of IP addresses, reserved IP addresses, net masks, subnetworks, and super networks.
  • Chapter 7 covers IP routing and IP forwarding, including handling routing tables; routing protocols, such as Routing Vector Protocols (RVP) and Link State Protocols (LSP); and Neutral Exchange Point (NIX).
  • Chapter 8 focused on IP version 6, which enlarges the IP address size from 4 to 16 bytes and introduces some changes to the IP datagram.
  • Chapter 9 covers the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the protocol that transfers data between applications on different computers.
  • Chapter 10 presents the simpler alternative to TCP, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
  • Chapter 11 covers the Domain Name System (DNS), which translates IP addresses into domain names and vice versa.
  • Chapter 12-17 covers a number of application protocols, namely Telnet, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, ESMTP, IMAP4, POP3, NNTP, and LDAP.
  • Appendix A covers working with CISCO routers.  since CISCO is considered the dominant company in this area.

In Detail

This book covers in detail the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model and the TCP/IP protocols that operate that different layers. Its coverage includes various application protocols. The authors explain in an easy-to-read style networking concepts and protocols, with examples that make the book a practical guide in addition to its coverage of theory.

The TCP/IP protocol stack is the foundation of the internet and, more generally, network communication. Operating at various physical and logical layers, these protocols are the language that allow computers to communicate with each other.  While most IT professionals don’t work at the protocol level regularly, there are times when a clear understanding of what’s going at the network level can be invaluable. This is the book to give that grounding  and to act as a definitive reference when needed.

Approach

Who this book is for

This book is suitable for the novice and experienced system administrators, programmers, and anyone who would like to learn how to work with the TCP/IP protocol suite. It can be read even by those who have little background in networking

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